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Wendeli J. Stark – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Porous, Water-Resistant Multifilament Yarn Spun from Gelatin.
    Biomacromolecules, 2015
    Co-Authors: Philipp
    R. Stoessel, Urs Krebs, Rudolf Hufenus, Robe N. Grass, Marcel Halbeisen, Martin Zeltner, Wendeli J. Stark

    Abstract:

    Sustainability, renewability, and biodegradability of polymeric material constantly gain in importance. A plausible approach is the recycling of agricultural waste proteins such as keratin, wheat gluten, casein or gelatin. The latter is abundantly available from Animal Byproducts and may well serve as building block for novel polymeric products. In this work, a procedure for the dry-wet spinning of multifilament gelatin yarns was developed. The process stands out as precipitated gelatin from a ternary mixture (gelatin/solvent/nonsolvent) was spun into porous filaments. About 1000 filaments were twisted into 2-ply yarns with good tenacity (4.7 cN tex(-1)). The gelatin yarns, per se susceptible to water, were cross-linked by different polyfunctional epoxides and examined in terms of free lysyl amino groups and swelling degree in water. Ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether exhibited the highest cross-linking efficiency. Further post-treatments with gaseous formaldehyde and wool grease (lanolin) rendered the gelatin yarns water-resistant, allowing for multiple swelling cycles in water or in detergent solution. However, the swelling caused a decrease in filament porosity from ∼30% to just below 10%. To demonstrate the applicability of gelatin yarn in a consumer good, a gelatin glove with good thermal insulation capacity was fabricated.

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  • Porous, Water-Resistant Multifilament Yarn Spun from
    Gelatin
    , 2015
    Co-Authors: Philipp
    R. Stoessel, Urs Krebs, Rudolf Hufenus, Marcel Halbeise, Marti Zeltne, Robe N. Grass, Wendeli J. Stark

    Abstract:

    Sustainability, renewability, and
    biodegradability of polymeric
    material constantly gain in importance. A plausible approach is the
    recycling of agricultural waste proteins such as keratin, wheat gluten,
    casein or gelatin. The latter is abundantly available from Animal
    Byproducts and may well serve as building block for novel polymeric
    products. In this work, a procedure for the dry-wet spinning of multifilament
    gelatin yarns was developed. The process stands out as precipitated
    gelatin from a ternary mixture (gelatin/solvent/nonsolvent) was spun
    into porous filaments. About 1000 filaments were twisted into 2-ply
    yarns with good tenacity (4.7 cN tex–1). The
    gelatin yarns, per se susceptible to water,
    were cross-linked by different polyfunctional epoxides and examined
    in terms of free lysyl amino groups and swelling degree in water.
    Ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether exhibited the highest cross-linking
    efficiency. Further post-treatments with gaseous formaldehyde and
    wool grease (lanolin) rendered the gelatin yarns water-resistant,
    allowing for multiple swelling cycles in water or in detergent solution.
    However, the swelling caused a decrease in filament porosity from ∼30%
    to just below 10%. To demonstrate the applicability of gelatin yarn
    in a consumer good, a gelatin glove with good thermal insulation capacity
    was fabricated

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Stéphane Barbati – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Conversion of the refractory ammonia and acetic acid in catalytic wet air oxidation of Animal Byproducts.
    Journal of environmental sciences (China), 2011
    Co-Authors: Virginie Fontanier, Sofiane Zalouk, Stéphane Barbati

    Abstract:

    Abstract Wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of slaughtered Animal Byproducts (ABPs) were investigated. Two step experiment was carried out consisting of a non-catalysed WAO run followed by a CWAO run at 170–275°C, 20 MPa, and reaction time 180 min. The WAO (1st step) of sample (5 g/L total organic carbon (TOC)) yielded (82.0 ± 4)% TOC removal and (78.4 ± 13.2)% conversion of the initial organic-N into NH 4 + -N. Four metal catalysts (Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru) supported over alumina have been tested in catalytic WAO (2nd step) at elevated pH to enhance ammonia conversion and organic matter removal, particularly acetic acid. It was found that the catalysts Ru, Pt, and Rh had significant effects on the TOC removal (95.1%, 99.5% and 96.7%, respectively) and on the abatement of ammonia (93.4%, 96.7% and 96.3%, respectively) with high nitrogen selectivity. The catalyst Pd was found to have the less activity while Pt had the best performance. The X-Ray diffraction analysis showed that the support of catalyst was not stable under the experimental conditions since it reacted with phosphate present in solution. Nitrite and nitrate ions were monitored during the oxidation reaction and it was concluded that CWAO of ammonia in real waste treatment framework was in good agreement with the results obtained from the literature for ideal solutions of ammonia.

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  • Wet Air Oxidation of Meat-and-Bone Meal and Raw Animal Byproducts
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2008
    Co-Authors: Stéphane Barbati, Virginie Fontanier, Maurice Ambrosio

    Abstract:

    The oxidation of meat-and-bone meal (MBM) and two different raw Animal Byproducts (before and after rendering) has been studied by wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), which represents an alternative way of Animal byproduct disposal. The degradation of organic compounds was monitored by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis following the subcritical conditions (230−280 °C, 9.9−18.6 MPa), which has led to the degradation of up to 90% of the initial total organic carbon (TOC) and reached 99% within the presence of platinum as a catalyst for the oxidation of a raw non-defatted sample. The oxidation of organic compounds has been studied as a function of pressure and temperature and showed that the TOC removal increased at higher temperature and higher pressure favoring the mass transfer of oxygen and organic compound into the liquid phase. The Byproducts of the oxidation were identified; acetic acid was the main refractory organic compounds representing approximately 50% of the fi…

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Philipp
R. Stoessel – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Porous, Water-Resistant Multifilament Yarn Spun from Gelatin.
    Biomacromolecules, 2015
    Co-Authors: Philipp
    R. Stoessel, Urs Krebs, Rudolf Hufenus, Robe N. Grass, Marcel Halbeisen, Martin Zeltner, Wendeli J. Stark

    Abstract:

    Sustainability, renewability, and biodegradability of polymeric material constantly gain in importance. A plausible approach is the recycling of agricultural waste proteins such as keratin, wheat gluten, casein or gelatin. The latter is abundantly available from Animal Byproducts and may well serve as building block for novel polymeric products. In this work, a procedure for the dry-wet spinning of multifilament gelatin yarns was developed. The process stands out as precipitated gelatin from a ternary mixture (gelatin/solvent/nonsolvent) was spun into porous filaments. About 1000 filaments were twisted into 2-ply yarns with good tenacity (4.7 cN tex(-1)). The gelatin yarns, per se susceptible to water, were cross-linked by different polyfunctional epoxides and examined in terms of free lysyl amino groups and swelling degree in water. Ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether exhibited the highest cross-linking efficiency. Further post-treatments with gaseous formaldehyde and wool grease (lanolin) rendered the gelatin yarns water-resistant, allowing for multiple swelling cycles in water or in detergent solution. However, the swelling caused a decrease in filament porosity from ∼30% to just below 10%. To demonstrate the applicability of gelatin yarn in a consumer good, a gelatin glove with good thermal insulation capacity was fabricated.

    Free Register to Access Article

  • Porous, Water-Resistant Multifilament Yarn Spun from
    Gelatin
    , 2015
    Co-Authors: Philipp
    R. Stoessel, Urs Krebs, Rudolf Hufenus, Marcel Halbeise, Marti Zeltne, Robe N. Grass, Wendeli J. Stark

    Abstract:

    Sustainability, renewability, and
    biodegradability of polymeric
    material constantly gain in importance. A plausible approach is the
    recycling of agricultural waste proteins such as keratin, wheat gluten,
    casein or gelatin. The latter is abundantly available from Animal
    Byproducts and may well serve as building block for novel polymeric
    products. In this work, a procedure for the dry-wet spinning of multifilament
    gelatin yarns was developed. The process stands out as precipitated
    gelatin from a ternary mixture (gelatin/solvent/nonsolvent) was spun
    into porous filaments. About 1000 filaments were twisted into 2-ply
    yarns with good tenacity (4.7 cN tex–1). The
    gelatin yarns, per se susceptible to water,
    were cross-linked by different polyfunctional epoxides and examined
    in terms of free lysyl amino groups and swelling degree in water.
    Ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether exhibited the highest cross-linking
    efficiency. Further post-treatments with gaseous formaldehyde and
    wool grease (lanolin) rendered the gelatin yarns water-resistant,
    allowing for multiple swelling cycles in water or in detergent solution.
    However, the swelling caused a decrease in filament porosity from ∼30%
    to just below 10%. To demonstrate the applicability of gelatin yarn
    in a consumer good, a gelatin glove with good thermal insulation capacity
    was fabricated

    Free Register to Access Article