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Animal Fibers

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Xungai Wang – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Identification of Animal Fibers with Wavelet Texture Analysis
    , 2010
    Co-Authors: Junmin Zhang, Stuart Palmer, Xungai Wang

    Abstract:

    This paper presents the use of the wavelet transform to extract fiber surface texture features for classifying cashmere and superfine merino wool Fibers. Extracting features from brightness variations caused by the cuticular scale height, shape and interval provides an effective way for characterizing different Animal Fibers and subsequently classifying them. This may enable the development of a completely automated and objective system for Animal fiber identification. Cashmere is an expensive and rare Animal fiber used to produce soft and luxurious apparel. As cashmere processing capacity outstrips available supplies of cashmere, some cashmere processors use superfine merino wool (19 µm and finer) to blend with cashmere. Cashmere wool blends provide the high quality worsted (twisted and spun from long staple Fibers) suiting fabric (1) and produces a lower cost product while exploiting the positive market perceptions associated with the luxury cashmere content. Labeling textiles to indicate their composition in such blends is required from both technical and marketing perspectives.

  • A Comparative Study on the Felting Propensity of Animal Fibers
    Textile Research Journal, 2007
    Co-Authors: Xin Liu, Xungai Wang

    Abstract:

    The felting propensity of different Animal Fibers, particularly alpaca and wool, has been examined. The Aachen felting test method was employed. 1 g of each type of fiber was soaked in 50 ml of wetting solution and agitated in a dyeing machine to make felt balls. The diameter of each ball was measured in nine directions and the ball density was calculated in g/cm3; the higher the density value of the ball, the higher the feltability of the Fibers. The effects of fiber diameter and fiber length on the felting propensity of these Fibers were investigated. The results show that the alpaca Fibers felt to a higher degree than wool Fibers, and short and fine cashmere Fibers have lower felting propensity than wool Fibers at a similar diameter range. There is a higher tendency of felting for bleached and dyed alpaca Fibers than for untreated Fibers. Fiber length has a remarkable influence on the propensity of fiber felting. Cotton and nylon Fibers were also tested for felting propensity to verify the mechanism responsible for the different fiber felting behavior.

  • Diameter variations of irregular Fibers under different tensions
    Fibers and Polymers, 2007
    Co-Authors: Chuanming Deng, Lijing Wang, Xungai Wang

    Abstract:

    The cross-section area of Animal Fibers varies along the fiber length, and this geometrical irregularity has a major impact on the mechanical properties of those Fibers. In practice Fibers are often subjected to tensile stresses during processing and application, which may change fiber cross-section area. It is thus necessary to examine geometrical irregularity of Fibers under tension. In this study, scoured Animal Fibers were subjected to different tensile loading using a Single Fiber Analyzer (SIFAN) instrument. The 3D images of the fiber specimens were first constructed, and then along-fiber diameter irregularities of the specimens were analyzed for different levels of tensile loading. The changes in effective fineness of the fiber specimens were also discussed. The results indicate that for the wool Fibers examined, there is considerable discrepancy in the fiber diameter results obtained from the commonly used single scan along fiber length and that from multiple scans at different rotational angles, and that the diameter variation along fiber length increases as fiber tension increases. The results also show that when diameter reduction treatments are applied to wool by stretching, the reduced average fiber diameter is associated with an increase in both within-fiber and between-fiber diameter variations. So in terms of effective fineness, the change is much smaller than the difference between the average diameters of the parent and treated wool. These results have significant implications for improving the accuracy of fiber diameter measurement and evaluation.

Alexander B. Morgan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • flammability characteristics of Animal Fibers single breed wools alpaca wool and llama wool blends
    Fibers, 2019
    Co-Authors: Mary L. Galaska, Larry D. Sqrow, Douglas J Wolf, Alexander B. Morgan

    Abstract:

    Animal protein-based Fibers used in textiles often are assumed to have uniform properties independent of source, and yet are different when considering texture, structure, and color. Differences between Fibers from Animal species have been studied in regard to general flammability behavior, but differences between Fibers from breeds of the same species have not been studied. Fibers from two sheep breeds (Jacob, CVM/Romeldale) and two camelids (Alpaca, Llama) were studied for flammability effects on fabrics hand knit from yarns made from these different Fibers. A total of five different yarns were studied: 100% Jacob, 100% CVM/Romeldale, 100% Alpaca, 50% Llama/Merino wool, and 50% Alpaca/Merino wool. Flammability was studied with cone calorimeter, microcombustion calorimeter, and vertical flame spread techniques. The results from this limited study demonstrate that there are differences between Fibers from different breeds and differences between species, but the differences cannot be easily explained on the basis of inherent heat release or chemistry of the fiber. Sometimes yarn density and the tightness of the knit have more of an effect on self-extinguishment in vertical flame spread tests than does fiber heat release/chemistry. Pure Alpaca fiber, however, displays self-extinguishing behavior and low heat release when subjected to combustion conditions. This may be related to the amount of sulfur in its chemical structure, and its ability to be spun into a yarn which yields a tighter hand-knit density.

  • Flammability Characteristics of Animal Fibers: Single Breed Wools, Alpaca/Wool, and Llama/Wool Blends
    Fibers, 2019
    Co-Authors: Mary L. Galaska, Larry D. Sqrow, J. Douglas Wolf, Alexander B. Morgan

    Abstract:

    Animal protein-based Fibers used in textiles often are assumed to have uniform properties independent of source, and yet are different when considering texture, structure, and color. Differences between Fibers from Animal species have been studied in regard to general flammability behavior, but differences between Fibers from breeds of the same species have not been studied. Fibers from two sheep breeds (Jacob, CVM/Romeldale) and two camelids (Alpaca, Llama) were studied for flammability effects on fabrics hand knit from yarns made from these different Fibers. A total of five different yarns were studied: 100% Jacob, 100% CVM/Romeldale, 100% Alpaca, 50% Llama/Merino wool, and 50% Alpaca/Merino wool. Flammability was studied with cone calorimeter, microcombustion calorimeter, and vertical flame spread techniques. The results from this limited study demonstrate that there are differences between Fibers from different breeds and differences between species, but the differences cannot be easily explained on the basis of inherent heat release or chemistry of the fiber. Sometimes yarn density and the tightness of the knit have more of an effect on self-extinguishment in vertical flame spread tests than does fiber heat release/chemistry. Pure Alpaca fiber, however, displays self-extinguishing behavior and low heat release when subjected to combustion conditions. This may be related to the amount of sulfur in its chemical structure, and its ability to be spun into a yarn which yields a tighter hand-knit density.

  • Flammability of natural plant and Animal Fibers: a heat release survey
    Fire and Materials, 2016
    Co-Authors: Mary L. Galaska, A. Richard Horrocks, Alexander B. Morgan

    Abstract:

    Summary
    With increased interest in sustainable materials for use in building materials and clothing, there is a renewal in the use of natural Fibers (plant or Animal-based) versus synthetic Fibers in a variety of applications. However, there is not as much information available on the flammability of these natural Fibers especially when they are used in products where purification techniques used in conventional textile processing are not required. The literature to date suggests that all of the Fibers can be grouped into two categories: cellulosic and Animal, with the assumption that regardless of original species, the flammability is similar for Fibers within each category. In this report, we have conducted a survey via microcombustion calorimetry to determine if all cellulose-based and all protein-based Fibers are the same from a heat release perspective. Our findings show that this is not the case, and there are notable differences in fiber types within each genus. Further, how the natural fiber has been treated prior to use can have some dramatic effects on heat release caused by residual impurity content. The results in this paper suggest that there is more to be learned about these natural fiber types in regards to their inherent flammability. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Francesca Dotti – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the use of wool as fiber reinforcement in cement based mortar
    Construction and Building Materials, 2017
    Co-Authors: Alessandro Pasquale Fantilli, Silvio Sicardi, Francesca Dotti

    Abstract:

    Abstract Fiber-reinforced cementitious mortars are widely used in the construction industry. Indeed, the fracture toughness in tension increases with the volume and the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio between length and diameter) of the Fibers, which are generally made with polymeric (e.g., polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, etc.) or inorganic (e.g., glass, carbon, etc.) materials, or with steel. Also vegetal Fibers, such as bamboo and hemp, have been used in the last decades to reinforce mortars. Besides, with the aim of introducing Animal Fibers, the use of wool as fiber-reinforcement is investigated for the first time in the present paper. According to UNI EN 196-1-2006, three point bending tests have been performed on small beams made, respectively, with plain mortar, and mortar reinforced with 1% in volume of wool. To compare the performances with mortars containing vegetal Fibers, also beams reinforced with hemp have been tested. In some tests, wool and hemp are previously treated with atmospheric plasma in order to modify the nano-metric properties of the fiber surface. As a result, both the flexural strength and the ductility increase when wool, treated or not, is added to cementitious mortars. Similarly to hemp, wool does improve the mechanical and ecological performances of the mortars, and creates a link between textile and construction markets.