Animal Waste - Explore the Science & Experts | ideXlab

Scan Science and Technology

Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies

Animal Waste

The Experts below are selected from a list of 309 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Animal Waste – Free Register to Access Experts & Abstracts

Muthanna H Aldahhan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • anaerobic digestion of Animal Waste Waste strength versus impact of mixing
    Bioresource Technology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Khursheed Karim, Thomas K Klasson, Rebecca Hoffmann, Muthanna H Aldahhan
    Abstract:

    We studied the effect of mode of mixing (biogas recirculation, impeller mixing, and slurry recirculation) and Waste strength on the performance of laboratory scale digesters. The digesters were fed with 5% and 10% manure slurry, at a constant energy supply per unit volume (8 W/m3). The experiments were conducted in eight laboratory scale digesters, each having a working volume of 3.73 L, at a controlled temperature of 35+/-2 degrees C. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) was kept constant at 16.2 days, resulting in a total solids (TS) loading rate of 3.08 g/Ld and 6.2 g/Ld for 5% and 10% manure slurry feeds, respectively. Results showed that the unmixed and mixed digesters performed quite similarly when fed with 5% manure slurry and produced biogas at a rate of 0.84-0.94 L/Ld with a methane yield of 0.26-0.31 L CH4/g volatile solids (VS) loaded. This was possibly because of the low solids concentration in the case of 5% manure slurry, where mixing created by the naturally produced gas might be sufficient to provide adequate mixing. However, the effect of mixing and the mode of mixing became prominent in the case of the digesters fed with thicker manure slurry (10%). Digesters fed with 10% manure slurry and mixed by slurry recirculation, impeller, and biogas recirculation produced approximately 29%, 22% and 15% more biogas than unmixed digester, respectively. Deposition of solids inside the digesters was not observed in the case of 5% manure slurry, but it became significant in the case of 10% manure slurry. Therefore, mixing issue becomes more critical with thicker manure slurry.

  • anaerobic digestion of Animal Waste effect of mixing
    Bioresource Technology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Khursheed Karim, Thomas K Klasson, Rebecca Hoffmann, Sadie R Drescher, David W Depaoli, Muthanna H Aldahhan
    Abstract:

    Six laboratory scale biogas mixed anaerobic digesters were operated to study the effect of biogas recycling rates and draft tube height on their performance. The digesters produced methane at 0.40-0.45 L per liter of digester volume per day. A higher methane production rate was observed in unmixed digesters, while increased biogas circulation rate reduced methane production. However, different draft tube heights caused no difference in the methane production rate. Air infiltration (up to 15% oxygen in the biogas) was observed in the digesters mixed by biogas recirculation. Slight air permeability of tubing or leakage on the vacuum side of the air pump may have caused the observed air infiltration. The similar performance of the mixed and unmixed digesters might be the result of the low solids concentration (50 g dry solids per liter of slurry) in the fed Animal slurry, which could be sufficiently mixed by the naturally produced biogas.

  • anaerobic digestion of Animal Waste effect of mode of mixing
    Water Research, 2005
    Co-Authors: Khursheed Karim, Thomas K Klasson, Rebecca Hoffmann, Muthanna H Aldahhan
    Abstract:

    Abstract Laboratory-scale digesters were operated to study the effect of mixing (via biogas recirculation, impeller mixing, and slurry recirculation) on biogas production. Three sets of experiments were performed using cow manure slurry feed with either 50, 100, or 150 g/L total solids (TS) concentrations (referred in the text as 5%, 10%, and 15% manure slurry). The experiments were conducted at a controlled temperature of 35 °C and a hydraulic retention time of 16.2 days, resulting in TS loadings of 3.1, 6.2, and 9.3 g/L d for 5%, 10%, and 15% manure slurry feeds, respectively. Results showed that the unmixed and mixed digesters performed quite similarly when fed with 5% manure slurry and produced biogas at a rate of 0.84–0.94 L/L d. The methane yield was found to be 0.26–0.28 L CH 4 /g volatile solids loaded. However, the effect of mixing and the mode of mixing became important when the digesters were fed thick manure slurry feeds (10% and 15%). Digesters fed with 10% and 15% manure slurry and equipped with external mixing produced about 10–30% more biogas than the unmixed digester. While the mixed digesters produced more biogas than unmixed digesters, digester mixing during start-up was not beneficial, as it resulted in lower pH, performance instability and prolonged start-up time. Mixing using biogas recirculation system was found not to be effective in the case of 15% manure slurry feed under the experimental conditions studied.

Paul B. Tchounwou – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots
    International journal of environmental research and public health, 2005
    Co-Authors: Dagne D. Hill, William E. Owens, Paul B. Tchounwou
    Abstract:

    Animal Waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of Animal Waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of Waste disposal. The disposal of Animal Wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of Animal Waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of Animal Waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate) characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of Animal Waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium. Bacteria numbers present after the simulated rainfall events were above 200/100 ml of sample water. It can be concluded that: 1) non-point source pollution has a significant effect on bacterial and nutrients levels in runoff water and in water resources; 2) land application of Animal Waste for soil fertilization makes a significant contribution to water pollution; 3) the use of tilling can significantly reduce the amount of nutrients available in runoff water.

  • Prevalence of Selected Bacterial Infections Associated with the Use of Animal Waste in Louisiana
    International journal of environmental research and public health, 2005
    Co-Authors: Dagne D. Hill, William E. Owens, Paul B. Tchounwou
    Abstract:

    Human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of Animal Waste. Health concerns could arise from exposure to pathogens and excess nitrogen associated with this form of pollution. The objective was to collect and analyze health data related to selected bacterial infections associated with the use of Animal Waste in Louisiana. An analysis of adverse health effects has been conducted based on the incidence/prevalence rates of campylobacteriosis, E. coli O157:H7 infection, salmonellosis and shigellosis. The number of reported cases increased during the summer months. Analysis of health data showed that reported disease cases of E. coli O157:H7 were highest among Caucasian infants in the 0-4 year old age category and in Caucasian children in the 5-9 year old age category. Fatalities resulting from salmonellosis are low and increases sharply with age. The number of reported cases of shigellosis was found to be higher in African American males and females than in Caucasians. The high rate of identification in the younger population may result from the prompt seeking of medical care, as well as the frequent ordering of stool examination when symptoms become evident among this group of the population. The association with increasing age and fatality due to salmonellosis could be attributed to declining health and weaker immune systems often found in the older population. It is concluded that both Animal Waste and non-point source pollution may have a significant impact on human health.

Fathy Adly Mohamed – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Effect of radiation processing as an integral part of the safe recycling Animal Waste
    Animal Feed Science and Technology, 1999
    Co-Authors: M.diaa El-din H. Farag, Fathy Adly Mohamed
    Abstract:

    Recycling Animal Waste as a feedstuff could have a considerable effect on reducing costs and solving some disposal problems. Although the technology of Animal Waste handling, treatment and disposal is available in many cases it is not adequate to guarantee a pathogen-free end product. However, radiation processing can make an important contribution to solve these problems. Effects of radiation processing, on crude and true protein, amino acid profile, minerals and thiamine content of dried broiler and cow manure, at dose levels of 5, 10 and 25 kGy have been studied. Short-term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of such Animal Waste on growth performance of young chicks. The results suggested that radiation pasteurization of dried manure has a beneficial effect on recycling of such Waste and it permits Waste to be included in Animal diet without nutritional problems.

Yasuo Tanaka – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Nitrogen removal from Animal Waste treatment water by anammox enrichment.
    Bioresource technology, 2006
    Co-Authors: Miyoko Waki, Takaaki Tokutomi, Hiroshi Yokoyama, Yasuo Tanaka
    Abstract:

    Abstract The aim of this work was to examine the applicability of the anaerobic ammoammoniumdoxidation (anammox) process to three kinds of low BOD/N ratio Wastewaters from Animal Waste treatment processes in batch mode. A rapid decrease of NO 2 – and NH 4 + was observed during incubation with Wastewaters from AS and UASB/trickling filter and their corresponding control artificial Wastewaters. This nitrogen removal resulted from the anammox reaction, because the ratio of removed NO 2 – and NH 4 + was close to the theoretical ratio of the anammox reaction. Comparison of the inorganic nitrogen removal rate of the actual Wastewater and that of control artificial Wastewater showed that these two kinds of Wastewater were very suitable for anammox treatment. Incubation with Wastewater from RW did not show a clear anammox reaction; however, diluting it by half enabled the reaction, suggesting the presence of an inhibitory factor. This study showed that the three kinds of Wastewater from Animal Waste treatment processes were suitable for anammox treatment.

Khursheed Karim – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • anaerobic digestion of Animal Waste Waste strength versus impact of mixing
    Bioresource Technology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Khursheed Karim, Thomas K Klasson, Rebecca Hoffmann, Muthanna H Aldahhan
    Abstract:

    We studied the effect of mode of mixing (biogas recirculation, impeller mixing, and slurry recirculation) and Waste strength on the performance of laboratory scale digesters. The digesters were fed with 5% and 10% manure slurry, at a constant energy supply per unit volume (8 W/m3). The experiments were conducted in eight laboratory scale digesters, each having a working volume of 3.73 L, at a controlled temperature of 35+/-2 degrees C. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) was kept constant at 16.2 days, resulting in a total solids (TS) loading rate of 3.08 g/Ld and 6.2 g/Ld for 5% and 10% manure slurry feeds, respectively. Results showed that the unmixed and mixed digesters performed quite similarly when fed with 5% manure slurry and produced biogas at a rate of 0.84-0.94 L/Ld with a methane yield of 0.26-0.31 L CH4/g volatile solids (VS) loaded. This was possibly because of the low solids concentration in the case of 5% manure slurry, where mixing created by the naturally produced gas might be sufficient to provide adequate mixing. However, the effect of mixing and the mode of mixing became prominent in the case of the digesters fed with thicker manure slurry (10%). Digesters fed with 10% manure slurry and mixed by slurry recirculation, impeller, and biogas recirculation produced approximately 29%, 22% and 15% more biogas than unmixed digester, respectively. Deposition of solids inside the digesters was not observed in the case of 5% manure slurry, but it became significant in the case of 10% manure slurry. Therefore, mixing issue becomes more critical with thicker manure slurry.

  • anaerobic digestion of Animal Waste effect of mixing
    Bioresource Technology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Khursheed Karim, Thomas K Klasson, Rebecca Hoffmann, Sadie R Drescher, David W Depaoli, Muthanna H Aldahhan
    Abstract:

    Six laboratory scale biogas mixed anaerobic digesters were operated to study the effect of biogas recycling rates and draft tube height on their performance. The digesters produced methane at 0.40-0.45 L per liter of digester volume per day. A higher methane production rate was observed in unmixed digesters, while increased biogas circulation rate reduced methane production. However, different draft tube heights caused no difference in the methane production rate. Air infiltration (up to 15% oxygen in the biogas) was observed in the digesters mixed by biogas recirculation. Slight air permeability of tubing or leakage on the vacuum side of the air pump may have caused the observed air infiltration. The similar performance of the mixed and unmixed digesters might be the result of the low solids concentration (50 g dry solids per liter of slurry) in the fed Animal slurry, which could be sufficiently mixed by the naturally produced biogas.

  • anaerobic digestion of Animal Waste effect of mode of mixing
    Water Research, 2005
    Co-Authors: Khursheed Karim, Thomas K Klasson, Rebecca Hoffmann, Muthanna H Aldahhan
    Abstract:

    Abstract Laboratory-scale digesters were operated to study the effect of mixing (via biogas recirculation, impeller mixing, and slurry recirculation) on biogas production. Three sets of experiments were performed using cow manure slurry feed with either 50, 100, or 150 g/L total solids (TS) concentrations (referred in the text as 5%, 10%, and 15% manure slurry). The experiments were conducted at a controlled temperature of 35 °C and a hydraulic retention time of 16.2 days, resulting in TS loadings of 3.1, 6.2, and 9.3 g/L d for 5%, 10%, and 15% manure slurry feeds, respectively. Results showed that the unmixed and mixed digesters performed quite similarly when fed with 5% manure slurry and produced biogas at a rate of 0.84–0.94 L/L d. The methane yield was found to be 0.26–0.28 L CH 4 /g volatile solids loaded. However, the effect of mixing and the mode of mixing became important when the digesters were fed thick manure slurry feeds (10% and 15%). Digesters fed with 10% and 15% manure slurry and equipped with external mixing produced about 10–30% more biogas than the unmixed digester. While the mixed digesters produced more biogas than unmixed digesters, digester mixing during start-up was not beneficial, as it resulted in lower pH, performance instability and prolonged start-up time. Mixing using biogas recirculation system was found not to be effective in the case of 15% manure slurry feed under the experimental conditions studied.