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Ankle Foot Orthosis

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Bo K Foreman – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • contribution of Ankle Foot Orthosis moment in regulating Ankle and knee motions during gait in individuals post stroke
    Clinical Biomechanics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Toshiki Kobayashi, Michael S Orendurff, Madeline L Singer, Bo K Foreman

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background AnkleFoot Orthosis moment resisting plantarflexion has systematic effects on Ankle and knee joint motion in individuals post-stroke. However, it is not known how much AnkleFoot Orthosis moment is generated to regulate their motion. The aim of this study was to quantify the contribution of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis moment to regulate Ankle and knee joint motion during gait in individuals post-stroke. Methods Gait data were collected from 10 individuals post-stroke using a Bertec split-belt instrumented treadmill and a Vicon 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Each participant wore an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis whose moment resisting plantarflexion was adjustable at four levels. AnkleFoot Orthosis moment while walking was calculated under the four levels based on angle-moment relationship of the AnkleFoot Orthosis around the Ankle joint measured by bench testing. The AnkleFoot Orthosis moment and the joint angular position (Ankle and knee) relationship in a gait cycle was plotted to quantify the AnkleFoot Orthosis moment needed to regulate the joint motion. Findings Ankle and knee joint motion were regulated according to the amount of AnkleFoot Orthosis moment during gait. The AnkleFoot Orthosis maintained the Ankle angular position in dorsiflexion and knee angular position in flexion throughout a gait cycle when it generated moment from − 0.029 (0.011) to − 0.062 (0.019) Nm/kg (moment resisting plantarflexion was defined as negative). Interpretations Quantifying the contribution of AnkleFoot Orthosis moment needed to regulate lower limb joints within a specific range of motion could provide valuable criteria to design an AnkleFoot Orthosis for individuals post-stroke.

  • reduction of genu recurvatum through adjustment of plantarflexion resistance of an articulated Ankle Foot Orthosis in individuals post stroke
    Clinical Biomechanics, 2016
    Co-Authors: Toshiki Kobayashi, Michael S Orendurff, Madeline L Singer, Wayne K Daly, Bo K Foreman

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background Genu recurvatum (knee hyperextension) is a common issue for individuals post-stroke. AnkleFoot orthoses are used to improve genu recurvatum, but evidence is limited concerning their effectiveness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changing the plantarflexion resistance of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis on genu recurvatum in patients post-stroke. Methods Gait analysis was performed on 6 individuals post-stroke with genu recurvatum using an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis whose plantarflexion resistance was adjustable at four levels. Gait data were collected using a Bertec split-belt instrumented treadmill in a 3-dimensional motion analysis laboratory. Gait parameters were extracted and plotted for each subject under the four plantarflexion resistance conditions of the AnkleFoot Orthosis. Gait parameters included: a) peak Ankle plantarflexion angle, b) peak Ankle dorsiflexion moment, c) peak knee extension angle and d) peak knee flexion moment. A non-parametric Friedman test was performed followed by a post-hoc Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test for statistical analyses. Findings All the gait parameters demonstrated statistically significant differences among the four resistance conditions of the AFO. Increasing the amount of plantarflexion resistance of the AnkleFoot Orthosis generally reduced genu recurvatum in all subjects. However, individual analyses showed that the responses to the changes in the plantarflexion resistance of the AFO were not necessarily linear, and appear unique to each subject. Interpretations The plantarflexion resistance of an articulated AFO should be adjusted to improve genu recurvatum in patients post-stroke. Future studies should investigate what clinical factors would influence the individual differences.

  • the effect of changing plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated Ankle Foot Orthosis on Ankle and knee joint angles and moments while walking in patients post stroke
    Clinical Biomechanics, 2015
    Co-Authors: Toshiki Kobayashi, Michael S Orendurff, Madeline L Singer, Wayne K Daly, Bo K Foreman

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background The adjustment of plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis is considered important in patients post stroke, but the evidence is still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changing the plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis on Ankle and knee joint angles and moments in patients post stroke. Methods Gait analysis was performed on 10 subjects post stroke under four different plantarflexion resistive moment conditions using a newly designed articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis. Data were recorded using a Bertec split-belt instrumented treadmill in a 3-dimensional motion analysis laboratory. Findings The Ankle and knee sagittal joint angles and moments were significantly affected by the amount of plantarflexion resistive moment of the AnkleFoot Orthosis. Increasing the plantarflexion resistive moment of the AnkleFoot Orthosis induced significant decreases both in the peak Ankle plantarflexion angle (P  Interpretation These results suggest an important link between the kinematic/kinetic parameters of the lower-limb joints and the plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis. A future study should be performed to clarify their relationship further so that the practitioners may be able to use these parameters as objective data to determine an optimal plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis for improved orthotic care in individual patients.

Toshiki Kobayashi – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • The effects of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis with resistance-adjustable joints on lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics during gait in individuals post-stroke.
    Clinical Biomechanics, 2018
    Co-Authors: Toshiki Kobayashi, Michael S Orendurff, Lucas S. Lincoln, Grace Hunt, Nicholas Lecursi, K. Bo Foreman

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background Resistance is a key mechanical property of an AnkleFoot Orthosis that affects gait in individuals post-stroke. Triple Action® joints allow independent adjustment of plantarflexion resistance and dorsiflexion resistance of an AnkleFoot Orthosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental changes in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion resistance of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis with the Triple Action joints on lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics in individuals post-stroke during gait. Methods Gait analysis was performed on 10 individuals who were post-stroke under eight resistance settings (four plantarflexion and four dorsiflexion resistances) using the articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis. Kinematic and kinetic data of the lower limb joints were recorded while walking using a three-dimensional Vicon motion capture system and a Bertec split-belt instrumented treadmill. Findings Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that adjustment of plantarflexion resistance had significant main effects on the Ankle (P  Interpretation This study demonstrated that the adjustments of resistance in the AnkleFoot Orthosis with the Triple Action joints influenced Ankle and knee kinematics in individuals post-stroke. Further work is necessary to investigate the long-term effects of the articulated AnkleFoot orthoses on their gait.

  • contribution of Ankle Foot Orthosis moment in regulating Ankle and knee motions during gait in individuals post stroke
    Clinical Biomechanics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Toshiki Kobayashi, Michael S Orendurff, Madeline L Singer, Bo K Foreman

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background AnkleFoot Orthosis moment resisting plantarflexion has systematic effects on Ankle and knee joint motion in individuals post-stroke. However, it is not known how much AnkleFoot Orthosis moment is generated to regulate their motion. The aim of this study was to quantify the contribution of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis moment to regulate Ankle and knee joint motion during gait in individuals post-stroke. Methods Gait data were collected from 10 individuals post-stroke using a Bertec split-belt instrumented treadmill and a Vicon 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Each participant wore an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis whose moment resisting plantarflexion was adjustable at four levels. AnkleFoot Orthosis moment while walking was calculated under the four levels based on angle-moment relationship of the AnkleFoot Orthosis around the Ankle joint measured by bench testing. The AnkleFoot Orthosis moment and the joint angular position (Ankle and knee) relationship in a gait cycle was plotted to quantify the AnkleFoot Orthosis moment needed to regulate the joint motion. Findings Ankle and knee joint motion were regulated according to the amount of AnkleFoot Orthosis moment during gait. The AnkleFoot Orthosis maintained the Ankle angular position in dorsiflexion and knee angular position in flexion throughout a gait cycle when it generated moment from − 0.029 (0.011) to − 0.062 (0.019) Nm/kg (moment resisting plantarflexion was defined as negative). Interpretations Quantifying the contribution of AnkleFoot Orthosis moment needed to regulate lower limb joints within a specific range of motion could provide valuable criteria to design an AnkleFoot Orthosis for individuals post-stroke.

  • reduction of genu recurvatum through adjustment of plantarflexion resistance of an articulated Ankle Foot Orthosis in individuals post stroke
    Clinical Biomechanics, 2016
    Co-Authors: Toshiki Kobayashi, Michael S Orendurff, Madeline L Singer, Wayne K Daly, Bo K Foreman

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background Genu recurvatum (knee hyperextension) is a common issue for individuals post-stroke. AnkleFoot orthoses are used to improve genu recurvatum, but evidence is limited concerning their effectiveness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changing the plantarflexion resistance of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis on genu recurvatum in patients post-stroke. Methods Gait analysis was performed on 6 individuals post-stroke with genu recurvatum using an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis whose plantarflexion resistance was adjustable at four levels. Gait data were collected using a Bertec split-belt instrumented treadmill in a 3-dimensional motion analysis laboratory. Gait parameters were extracted and plotted for each subject under the four plantarflexion resistance conditions of the AnkleFoot Orthosis. Gait parameters included: a) peak Ankle plantarflexion angle, b) peak Ankle dorsiflexion moment, c) peak knee extension angle and d) peak knee flexion moment. A non-parametric Friedman test was performed followed by a post-hoc Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test for statistical analyses. Findings All the gait parameters demonstrated statistically significant differences among the four resistance conditions of the AFO. Increasing the amount of plantarflexion resistance of the AnkleFoot Orthosis generally reduced genu recurvatum in all subjects. However, individual analyses showed that the responses to the changes in the plantarflexion resistance of the AFO were not necessarily linear, and appear unique to each subject. Interpretations The plantarflexion resistance of an articulated AFO should be adjusted to improve genu recurvatum in patients post-stroke. Future studies should investigate what clinical factors would influence the individual differences.

Michael S Orendurff – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • The effects of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis with resistance-adjustable joints on lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics during gait in individuals post-stroke.
    Clinical Biomechanics, 2018
    Co-Authors: Toshiki Kobayashi, Michael S Orendurff, Lucas S. Lincoln, Grace Hunt, Nicholas Lecursi, K. Bo Foreman

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background Resistance is a key mechanical property of an AnkleFoot Orthosis that affects gait in individuals post-stroke. Triple Action® joints allow independent adjustment of plantarflexion resistance and dorsiflexion resistance of an AnkleFoot Orthosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental changes in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion resistance of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis with the Triple Action joints on lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics in individuals post-stroke during gait. Methods Gait analysis was performed on 10 individuals who were post-stroke under eight resistance settings (four plantarflexion and four dorsiflexion resistances) using the articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis. Kinematic and kinetic data of the lower limb joints were recorded while walking using a three-dimensional Vicon motion capture system and a Bertec split-belt instrumented treadmill. Findings Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that adjustment of plantarflexion resistance had significant main effects on the Ankle (P  Interpretation This study demonstrated that the adjustments of resistance in the AnkleFoot Orthosis with the Triple Action joints influenced Ankle and knee kinematics in individuals post-stroke. Further work is necessary to investigate the long-term effects of the articulated AnkleFoot orthoses on their gait.

  • contribution of Ankle Foot Orthosis moment in regulating Ankle and knee motions during gait in individuals post stroke
    Clinical Biomechanics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Toshiki Kobayashi, Michael S Orendurff, Madeline L Singer, Bo K Foreman

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background AnkleFoot Orthosis moment resisting plantarflexion has systematic effects on Ankle and knee joint motion in individuals post-stroke. However, it is not known how much AnkleFoot Orthosis moment is generated to regulate their motion. The aim of this study was to quantify the contribution of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis moment to regulate Ankle and knee joint motion during gait in individuals post-stroke. Methods Gait data were collected from 10 individuals post-stroke using a Bertec split-belt instrumented treadmill and a Vicon 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Each participant wore an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis whose moment resisting plantarflexion was adjustable at four levels. AnkleFoot Orthosis moment while walking was calculated under the four levels based on angle-moment relationship of the AnkleFoot Orthosis around the Ankle joint measured by bench testing. The AnkleFoot Orthosis moment and the joint angular position (Ankle and knee) relationship in a gait cycle was plotted to quantify the AnkleFoot Orthosis moment needed to regulate the joint motion. Findings Ankle and knee joint motion were regulated according to the amount of AnkleFoot Orthosis moment during gait. The AnkleFoot Orthosis maintained the Ankle angular position in dorsiflexion and knee angular position in flexion throughout a gait cycle when it generated moment from − 0.029 (0.011) to − 0.062 (0.019) Nm/kg (moment resisting plantarflexion was defined as negative). Interpretations Quantifying the contribution of AnkleFoot Orthosis moment needed to regulate lower limb joints within a specific range of motion could provide valuable criteria to design an AnkleFoot Orthosis for individuals post-stroke.

  • reduction of genu recurvatum through adjustment of plantarflexion resistance of an articulated Ankle Foot Orthosis in individuals post stroke
    Clinical Biomechanics, 2016
    Co-Authors: Toshiki Kobayashi, Michael S Orendurff, Madeline L Singer, Wayne K Daly, Bo K Foreman

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background Genu recurvatum (knee hyperextension) is a common issue for individuals post-stroke. AnkleFoot orthoses are used to improve genu recurvatum, but evidence is limited concerning their effectiveness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changing the plantarflexion resistance of an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis on genu recurvatum in patients post-stroke. Methods Gait analysis was performed on 6 individuals post-stroke with genu recurvatum using an articulated AnkleFoot Orthosis whose plantarflexion resistance was adjustable at four levels. Gait data were collected using a Bertec split-belt instrumented treadmill in a 3-dimensional motion analysis laboratory. Gait parameters were extracted and plotted for each subject under the four plantarflexion resistance conditions of the AnkleFoot Orthosis. Gait parameters included: a) peak Ankle plantarflexion angle, b) peak Ankle dorsiflexion moment, c) peak knee extension angle and d) peak knee flexion moment. A non-parametric Friedman test was performed followed by a post-hoc Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test for statistical analyses. Findings All the gait parameters demonstrated statistically significant differences among the four resistance conditions of the AFO. Increasing the amount of plantarflexion resistance of the AnkleFoot Orthosis generally reduced genu recurvatum in all subjects. However, individual analyses showed that the responses to the changes in the plantarflexion resistance of the AFO were not necessarily linear, and appear unique to each subject. Interpretations The plantarflexion resistance of an articulated AFO should be adjusted to improve genu recurvatum in patients post-stroke. Future studies should investigate what clinical factors would influence the individual differences.