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Annealing Furnace

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Andreas Kugi – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Nonlinear model predictive control of the strip temperature in an Annealing Furnace
    Journal of Process Control, 2016
    Co-Authors: Martin Niederer, Stephan Strommer, Andreas Steinboeck, Andreas Kugi

    Abstract:

    Abstract A nonlinear model predictive controller is designed for the strip temperature in a combined direct- and indirect-fired strip Annealing Furnace. Based on a tailored first-principles dynamical model and the estimated current system state, the receding horizon controller selects optimal trajectories for both the fuel supply and the strip velocity so that the strip temperature is controlled to its desired target temperature. The controller additionally maximizes the throughput and minimizes the energy consumption. In the control algorithm, the dynamic optimization problem with equality constraints is numerically solved by using the Gauss–Newton method. The gradient and the approximated Hessian matrix of the objective function are analytically computed using an adjoint-based method. The capabilities of the proposed controller are demonstrated for a validated high-fidelity simulation model of an industrial Annealing Furnace.

  • a simple control oriented model of an indirect fired strip Annealing Furnace
    International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2014
    Co-Authors: Martin Niederer, Stephan Strommer, Andreas Steinboeck, Andreas Kugi

    Abstract:

    Abstract A simple mathematical model of an indirect-fired strip Annealing Furnace for real-time control and optimization purposes is developed. The considered Furnace is part of a hot-dip galvanizing line and is used for continuous heat treatment of steel strips. The heat that is released during the combustion process inside the radiant tubes is calculated by means of steady-state mass and enthalpy balances. For discretizing the heat conduction problem of the radiant tube wall and the Furnace wall, Galerkin’s method is used. Furthermore, simple heat balances are employed to model the temperature evolution of the guiding rolls and the strip. To facilitate an accurate representation of the strip temperature, the strip motion is described by Lagrangian coordinates. Heat transfer by conduction and radiation interconnects the individual dynamic submodels. Measurements from the real plant demonstrate the accuracy of the derived model, which is computationally rather inexpensive and thus suitable for model-based control and optimization.

  • a mathematical model of a direct fired continuous strip Annealing Furnace
    International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2014
    Co-Authors: Stephan Strommer, Martin Niederer, Andreas Steinboeck, Andreas Kugi

    Abstract:

    Abstract A mathematical model of a direct-fired continuous strip Annealing Furnace is developed. The first-principle model uses the heat balance to describe the dynamic behavior of the strip and the rolls. The mass and the enthalpy balance are employed to calculate the mass, the composition, and the temperature of the flue gas. The heat conduction equation of the Furnace wall is discretized by means of the Galerkin method. Furthermore, the convective and radiative heat transfer interconnect all submodels of the Furnace. For the calculation of the radiative heat transfer, the zone method is utilized. Finally, the assembled model is reduced by applying the singular perturbation method. A comparison of simulation results with measurement data from a real plant demonstrates the accuracy of the reduced model. Moreover, due to the moderate computational effort, the model is suitable for real-time applications in control and dynamic optimization.

Stephen W Taylor – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Modelling steel strip heating within an Annealing Furnace
    Pacific Journal of Mathematics for Industry, 2017
    Co-Authors: Stephen W Taylor, Shixiao Wang

    Abstract:

    Annealing Furnaces are used to heat steel in order to change its chemical structure. In this paper we model an electric radiant Furnace. One of the major defects in steel strips processed in such Furnaces is a wave-like pattern near the edges of the strip, apparently due to extra heating near the edges. The aim of the paper is to model this effect and provide a way to calculate the elevated temperatures near the edges. We analyse two processes that are suspected to contribute to uneven heating. The modelling involves an asymptotic analysis of the effect of heat flux at the edges and a detailed analysis of the integral equations associated with radiant heat transfer in the Furnace.

  • development and validation of models for Annealing Furnace control from heat transfer fundamentals
    Computers & Chemical Engineering, 2010
    Co-Authors: N Depree, James Sneyd, Stephen W Taylor, Mark P Taylor, John J J Chen, Shixiao Wang, Moira Oconnor

    Abstract:

    Temperature in a continuous Annealing Furnace is studied by Furnace modelling using two methods. A 3D model is used to investigate the temperature distribution of the steel strip that is being annealed and the Furnace thermocouple probes, and information from the 3D model enables the construction of a highly simplified 1D/2D model, which predicts Furnace and strip temperatures with very good agreement to the 3D model. The simple model has a very short solution time and is suitable for rapid simulation of alternative Furnace operating conditions in order to optimise heat treatment quality, plant throughput and energy consumption.

  • Overheating Steel in an Annealing Furnace
    AIP Conference Proceedings, 2009
    Co-Authors: Stephen W Taylor, S. Wang

    Abstract:

    Annealing Furnaces are used to heat steel in order to change its microstructure and mechanical properties. The steel strips passing through such Furnaces must be heated evenly, otherwise defects in the product may occur. Such defects commonly occur near the edges of the steel.Annealing Furnaces have a high throughput and much thermal inertia so the occurrence of defects can potentially result in a large quantity of wasted product. Thus it is important to have a good mathematical model of this edge heating in order to explain how it occurs and to know what measures to take to avoid it.In this talk, we discuss such a model.

Xiaolong Li – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • monte carlo calculation of view factors between some complex surfaces rectangular plane and parallel cylinder rectangular plane and torus especially cold rolled strip and w shaped radiant tube in continuous Annealing Furnace
    International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 2018
    Co-Authors: Fei He, Li Zhou, Wu Li, Xiaolong Li

    Abstract:

    Abstract View factor plays an important role in evaluation of radiative heat transfer. This paper gives a detailed account of setting up the Monte Carlo calculation models of view factors between some complex surfaces. Main purpose is to calculate view factor between cold-rolled strip and W-shaped radiant tube in continuous Annealing Furnace. Given advantages of Monte Carlo method, it has been used to calculate view factor between the strip and radiant tube. Firstly, the Monte Carlo calculation models for view factor between rectangular plane and parallel cylinder and for view factor between rectangular plane and torus are established and verified, respectively. Then, according to reciprocity and superposition rules of view factors, the Monte Carlo calculation model for view factor between the strip and radiant tube is established by the above models. By comparing with analytical expression, or checking reciprocity after performing the Monte Carlo analysis in each direction between surface pairs, the calculation errors of above Monte Carlo models are analyzed and the results show that the Monte Carlo method is effective and reliable in calculating view factors between some complex surfaces.