Anode Surface - Explore the Science & Experts | ideXlab

Scan Science and Technology

Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies

Anode Surface

The Experts below are selected from a list of 32430 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Anode Surface – Free Register to Access Experts & Abstracts

Manabu Tanaka – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • investigation of the influence of buoyancy on gas convection of a horizontal xenon short arc lamp through 3d numerical simulation
    Journal of Physics D, 2020
    Co-Authors: Shiro Maenaka, Shinichi Tashiro, Anthony B. Murphy, K. Fujita, Manabu Tanaka

    Abstract:

    When operating a xenon short arc lamp, tungsten (W) vapour that evaporates from the electrodes is transported by gas convection to blacken the inner bulb wall. Since this reduces the output light intensity and increases the risk of lamp breakage, it is crucial to thoroughly understand the factors that govern gas convection to optimally control it to reduce blackening. Gas convection is complex, especially in horizontal lamps, because it is strongly affected by buoyancy. This study used 3D numerical simulation to investigate buoyancy’s influence on the gas convection of a horizontal xenon short arc lamp, which directly affects the blackening location. Gas convection, especially in the low flow velocity region, was strongly affected by the buoyancy, whose strength was mainly determined by the Anode Surface temperature. The gas convection in turn affected the bulb wall temperature and the W vapour transport and was reflected in the blackening location. This result indicates that the Surface temperature of the Anode, which was determined by the energy balance between the gas and Anode, also affected the blackening location. Therefore, the emissivity of the Anode Surface was an important factor controlling the horizontal lamp’s gas convection.

  • Influence of Electrode Energy Balance on Gas Convective Pattern of a High-Pressure Xenon Short Arc Lamp
    Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 2020
    Co-Authors: Shiro Maenaka, Shinichi Tashiro, Anthony B. Murphy, K. Fujita, Manabu Tanaka

    Abstract:

    The transport of tungsten vapour evaporated from the electrode Surfaces of a high-pressure xenon short-arc lamp, which is dominated by the gas convection in the lamp, determines the location and extent of the blackened area on the inner bulb wall. We have investigated factors affecting the vapour transport and other important phenomena related to the gas convection using a unified numerical model. The influence of the lamp operating parameters and also the thermodynamic and transport properties of the gas is discussed. The predicted lamp characteristics and phenomena agree well with experimental results. The gas velocity in the lamp is strongly affected by the Lorentz force and the gas density, which respectively depend on the current and the filling pressure. The viscosity and density of the gas adjacent to the Anode Surface were found to depend on the Anode energy balance and to affect the resistance of the gas flow, which in turn affects the separation point of the gas flow from the Anode Surface. This indicates that the Anode Surface temperature, which is determined by the energy balance between the gas and the Anode, also affects the blackening location.

  • investigation of the relationship between arc Anode attachment mode and Anode temperature for nickel nanoparticle production by a dc arc discharge
    Journal of Physics D, 2016
    Co-Authors: Manabu Tanaka, Feng Liang, Sooseok Choi, Takayuki Watanabe

    Abstract:

    Multiple and constricted arc-Anode attachment modes were observed in helium arc discharge to prepare nickel nanoparticles. The electron overheating instability resulted in the formation of multiple attachment modes. The effects of hydrogen concentration and shield gas flow rate on the characteristics of nickel nanoparticles were investigated. The evaporation rate of Anode material contributed to forming different arc-Anode attachments. The Surface temperature of the electrode was measured during the arc discharge by two-color pyrometry combined with a high-speed camera which employs appropriate band-pass filters. The relationship between the arc-Anode attachment mode and the temperature behavior of the Anode Surface was investigated by using two synchronized high-speed cameras. The waveform of Anode jet area variation with time follows that of the highest temperature variation of Anode Surface with time. The fluctuation of the highest Anode temperature increased when the arc Anode attachment changed from multiple into constricted mode. The highest temperature fluctuation and stability of the arc contributed to nanoparticle size distribution. Nickel nanoparticles with large productivity and narrow size distribution were obtained when shield gas was employed by controlling the residence time of nanoparticle growth. The formation mechanism of different arc-Anode attachment modes was explained.

Yonatan Horowitz – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • fluoroethylene carbonate induces ordered electrolyte interface on silicon and sapphire Surfaces as revealed by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and x ray reflectivity
    Nano Letters, 2018
    Co-Authors: Yonatan Horowitz, G A Somorjai, Hansgeorg Steinruck, Iwnetim Iwnetu Abate, Yuchi Tsao, Michael F Toney

    Abstract:

    The cyclability of silicon Anodes in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is affected by the reduction of the electrolyte on the Anode Surface to produce a coating layer termed the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). One of the key steps for a major improvement of LIBs is unraveling the SEI’s structure-related diffusion properties as charge and discharge rates of LIBs are diffusion-limited. To this end, we have combined two Surface sensitive techniques, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, and X-ray reflectivity (XRR), to explore the first monolayer and to probe the first several layers of electrolyte, respectively, for solutions consisting of 1 M lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) salt dissolved in ethylene carbonate (EC) or fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and their mixtures (EC/FEC 7:3 and 1:1 wt %) on silicon and sapphire Surfaces. Our results suggest that the addition of FEC to EC solution causes the first monolayer to rearrange itself more perpendicular to the Anode Surface, while subsequent lay…

  • fluorinated end groups in electrolytes induce ordered electrolyte Anode interface even at open circuit potential as revealed by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy
    Advanced Energy Materials, 2017
    Co-Authors: Yonatan Horowitz, Gabor A Somorjai, Walter T Ralston, Joyce R Araujo, Eric Kreidler, Christopher J Brooks

    Abstract:

    Fluorine-based additives have a tremendously beneficial effect on the performance of lithium-ion batteries, yet the origin of this phenomenon is unclear. This paper shows that the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the Anode Surface in the first five charge/discharge cycles is affected by the stereochemistry of the electrolyte molecules on the Anode Surface starting at open-circuit potential (OCP). This study shows an Anode-specific model system, the reduction of 1,2-diethoxy ethane with lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, as a salt on an amorphous silicon Anode, and compares the electrochemical response and SEI formation to its fluorinated version, bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy) ethane (BTFEOE), by sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy under reaction conditions. The SFG results suggest that the CF3 end-groups of the linear ether BTFEOE change their adsorption orientation on the a-Si Surface at OCP, leading to a better protective layer. Supporting evidence from ex situ scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling measurements shows that the fluorinated ether, BTFEOE, yields a smooth SEI on the a-Si Surface and enables lithium ions to intercalate deeper into the a-Si bulk.

Anthony B. Murphy – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • investigation of the influence of buoyancy on gas convection of a horizontal xenon short arc lamp through 3d numerical simulation
    Journal of Physics D, 2020
    Co-Authors: Shiro Maenaka, Shinichi Tashiro, Anthony B. Murphy, K. Fujita, Manabu Tanaka

    Abstract:

    When operating a xenon short arc lamp, tungsten (W) vapour that evaporates from the electrodes is transported by gas convection to blacken the inner bulb wall. Since this reduces the output light intensity and increases the risk of lamp breakage, it is crucial to thoroughly understand the factors that govern gas convection to optimally control it to reduce blackening. Gas convection is complex, especially in horizontal lamps, because it is strongly affected by buoyancy. This study used 3D numerical simulation to investigate buoyancy’s influence on the gas convection of a horizontal xenon short arc lamp, which directly affects the blackening location. Gas convection, especially in the low flow velocity region, was strongly affected by the buoyancy, whose strength was mainly determined by the Anode Surface temperature. The gas convection in turn affected the bulb wall temperature and the W vapour transport and was reflected in the blackening location. This result indicates that the Surface temperature of the Anode, which was determined by the energy balance between the gas and Anode, also affected the blackening location. Therefore, the emissivity of the Anode Surface was an important factor controlling the horizontal lamp’s gas convection.

  • Influence of Electrode Energy Balance on Gas Convective Pattern of a High-Pressure Xenon Short Arc Lamp
    Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 2020
    Co-Authors: Shiro Maenaka, Shinichi Tashiro, Anthony B. Murphy, K. Fujita, Manabu Tanaka

    Abstract:

    The transport of tungsten vapour evaporated from the electrode Surfaces of a high-pressure xenon short-arc lamp, which is dominated by the gas convection in the lamp, determines the location and extent of the blackened area on the inner bulb wall. We have investigated factors affecting the vapour transport and other important phenomena related to the gas convection using a unified numerical model. The influence of the lamp operating parameters and also the thermodynamic and transport properties of the gas is discussed. The predicted lamp characteristics and phenomena agree well with experimental results. The gas velocity in the lamp is strongly affected by the Lorentz force and the gas density, which respectively depend on the current and the filling pressure. The viscosity and density of the gas adjacent to the Anode Surface were found to depend on the Anode energy balance and to affect the resistance of the gas flow, which in turn affects the separation point of the gas flow from the Anode Surface. This indicates that the Anode Surface temperature, which is determined by the energy balance between the gas and the Anode, also affects the blackening location.

  • numerical analysis of non equilibrium plasma property in Anode boundary layer of argon gas tungsten arc
    Surface & Coatings Technology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Shinichi Tashiro, Manabu Tanaka, Anthony B. Murphy

    Abstract:

    Although the LTE assumption is effective to evaluate high temperature region in the arc column in Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) which is a kind of a transfer-type plasma torch, it is difficult to apply it to low temperature region such as the fringe of the arc column or an electrical sheath due to decrease of collision frequency. Especially, in order to consider the effect of chemical reaction between the arc plasma and the Surface of the Anode material, non-equilibrium property of the arc plasma should be considered without the LTE assumption, since it is required to understand precise property of the arc plasma close to the Anode Surface. Therefore, we have developed non-equilibrium simulation model of GTA. In this paper, the reliability of the model was confirmed for comparing the simulation result with the experimental result. Furthermore, it was found that the thickness of non-equilibrium region in case of 150 A is approximately 0.3 mm near the Anode Surface and that in case of 50 A exceeds 1 mm.