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Gary Voelker – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • dispersal vicariance and clocks historical biogeography and speciation in a cosmopolitan passerine genus Anthus motacillidae
    Evolution, 1999
    Co-Authors: Gary Voelker

    Abstract:

    Dispersal and vicariant hypotheses have for decades been at odds with each other, notwithstanding the fact that both are well-established natural processes with important histories in biogeographic analyses. Despite their importance, neither dispersal nor vicariant methodologies are problem-free. The now widely used molecular techniques for generating phylogenies have provided a mechanism by which both dispersal- and vicariance-driven speciation can be better tested via the application of molecular clocks; unfortunately, substantial problems can also exist in the employment of those clocks. To begin to assess the relative roles of dispersal and vicariance in the establishment of avifaunas, especially intercontinental avifaunas, I applied a test for clocklike behavior in molecular data, as well as a program that infers ancestral areas and dispersal events, to a phylogeny of a speciose, cosmopolitan avian genus (Anthus; Motacillidae). Daughter-lineages above just 25 of 40 nodes in the Anthus phylogeny are evolving in a clocklike manner and are thus dateable by a molecular clock. Dating the applicable nodes suggests that Anthus arose nearly 7 million yr ago, probably in eastern Asia, and that between 6 and 5 million yr ago, Anthus species were present in Africa, the Palearctic, and North and South America. Speciation rates have been high throughout the Pliocene and quite low during the Pleistocene; further evidence that the Pleistocene may have had little effect in generating modern species. Intercontinental movements since 5 million yr ago have been few and largely restricted to interchange between Eurasia and Africa. Species swarms on North America, Africa, and Eurasia (but not South America or Australia) are the product of multiple invasions, rather than being solely the result of within-continent speciation. Dispersal has clearly played an important role in the distribution of this group.

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  • Molecular evolutionary relationships in the avian genus Anthus (Pipits: Motacillidae).
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 1999
    Co-Authors: Gary Voelker

    Abstract:

    Nucleotide sequences for 1035 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were used to determine the molecular evolutionary relationships of species in the cosmopolitan avian genus Anthus. Phylogenetic analysis of these mtDNA sequences supported four major clades within the genus: (1) the small-bodied African pipits, (2) a largely Palearctic clade, (3) a largely South American clade, and (4) an African-Eurasian-Australian clade. Anthus hellmayri, A. correndera, and A. rubescens are shown to be paraphyletic. The possibility of paraphyly within A. similis is instead inferred to be the discovery of a new species and supported by reference to the museum voucher specimen. Sequence divergence suggests a Pliocene/Miocene origin for the genus. Although Anthus cytochrome b is found not to be behaving in a clocklike fashion across all taxa, speciation during the Pleistocene epoch can be reasonably inferred for the 66% of sister pairs that are diverging in a clocklike manner. Base compositions at each codon position are similar to those found across a growing number of avian lineages. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis is compared to previous hypotheses of Anthus relationships, all of which deal with relationships of a particular species or a particular species complex; roughly half of these previous hypotheses are supported.

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  • Dispersal, vicariance, and clocks : Historical biogeography and speciation in a cosmopolitan passerine genus (Anthus : Motacillidae)
    Evolution, 1999
    Co-Authors: Gary Voelker

    Abstract:

    Dispersal and vicariant hypotheses have for decades been at odds with each other, notwithstanding the fact that both are well-established natural processes with important histories in biogeographic analyses. Despite their importance, neither dispersal nor vicariant methodologies are problem-free. The now widely used molecular techniques for generating phylogenies have provided a mechanism by which both dispersal- and vicariance-driven speciation can be better tested via the application of molecular clocks; unfortunately, substantial problems can also exist in the employment of those clocks. To begin to assess the relative roles of dispersal and vicariance in the establishment of avifaunas, especially intercontinental avifaunas, I applied a test for clocklike behavior in molecular data, as well as a program that infers ancestral areas and dispersal events, to a phylogeny of a speciose, cosmopolitan avian genus (Anthus; Motacillidae). Daughter-lineages above just 25 of 40 nodes in the Anthus phylogeny are evolving in a clocklike manner and are thus dateable by a molecular clock. Dating the applicable nodes suggests that Anthus arose nearly 7 million yr ago, probably in eastern Asia, and that between 6 and 5 million yr ago, Anthus species were present in Africa, the Palearctic, and North and South America. Speciation rates have been high throughout the Pliocene and quite low during the Pleistocene; further evidence that the Pleistocene may have had little effect in generating modern species. Intercontinental movements since 5 million yr ago have been few and largely restricted to interchange between Eurasia and Africa. Species swarms on North America, Africa, and Eurasia (but not South America or Australia) are the product of multiple invasions, rather than being solely the result of within-continent speciation. Dispersal has clearly played an important role in the distribution of this group.

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José Antonio – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Salida de campo a la Cuesta de la Maruquesa y Mucientes (Valladolid) el 22 de febrero de 1953
    , 2009
    Co-Authors: Valverde Gómez, José Antonio

    Abstract:

    Salidas de campo simultáneas del autor a la Cuesta de la Maruquesa, en Valladolid capital, y de un colaborador anónimo a Mucientes (Valladolid), el 22 de febrero de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Alauda arvensis (Alondra común), Anthus pratensis (Bisbita común), Carduelis chloris (Verderón común, llamado Chloris chloris por el autor), Fringilla coelebs (Pinzón vulgar), Fringilla montifringilla (Pinzón real), Phylloscopus collybita (Mosquitero común) y Serinus serinus (Verdecillo).Simoultaneous field trips of the author to the Cuesta de la Maruquesa, in the city of Valladolid, and of an anonymous contributor to Mucientes (Valladolid), the 22nd of February of 1953, of which there were noted observations about the following birds: Alauda arvensis (Eurasian Skylark), Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit), Carduelis chloris (European Greenfinch, refered as Chloris chloris by the author), Fringilla coelebs (Chaffinch), Fringilla montifringilla (Brambling), Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff) and Serinus serinus (European Serin)

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  • Salida de campo desde El Habanero a Zaratán (Valladolid) el 17 de enero de 1953
    , 2009
    Co-Authors: Valverde Gómez, José Antonio

    Abstract:

    Salida de campo desde El Habanero a Zaratán (Valladolid), con ida por el valle que da a La Flecha y vuelta por Caño Morante, durante la mañana del 17 de enero de 1953, en la que se realizaron taxiados de las especies de aves presentes por hábitats. Así, se observaron las siguientes aves: Alauda arvensis (Alondra común), Alontra (seguramente, la Alondra común, Alauda arvensis), Anthus sp. (Bisbita), Anthus spinoletta (Bisbita alpino), Carduelis cannabina (Pardillo común, llamada Colorín y Acanthis cannabina por el autor), Carduelis chloris (Verderón común, llamado Chloris chloris por el autor), Carduelis sp. (seguramente, el Jilguero, C.carduelis), Corvus corone (Corneja negra), Corvus frugilegus (Graja), Emberiza cia (Escribano montesino), Emberiza cirlus (Escribano soteño), Galerida sp. (Cogujada), Falco tinnunculus (Cernícalo vulgar), Fringilla coelebs (Pinzón vulgar), Fringilla montifringilla (Pinzón real), Melanocorypha calandra (Calandria), Miliaria calandra (Triguero, llamada Emberiza calandra por el autor), Motacilla alba (Lavandera blanca), Parus major (Carbonero común, también conocido como Chapin), Passer montanus (Gorrión molinero), Perdiz (Alectoris sp. o Perdix sp.), Petronia petronia (Gorrión chillón, también llamada Jiria), Phylloscopus collybita (Mosquitero común), Pica pica (Urraca, llamada “marica” y “picarza” por el autor), Picus viridis (Pito real), Pluvialis apricaria (Chorlito Dorado Europeo, llamado Charadrius apricarius por el autor), Serinus serinus (Verdecillo), Sturnus unicolor (Estornino negro), Turdus merula (Mirlo común), Turdus pilaris (Zorzal real) y Vanellus vanellus (Avefría europea).Field trip from El Habanero to Zaratán (Valladolid), going by the valley that ends at La Flecha and coming back by the Caño Morante, during the morning of the 17th of January fo 1953, in which census of the present birds species were carried out by habitats. Thus, the following birds were observed: Alauda arvensis (Eurasian Skylark), Anthus sp. (Pipit), Anthus spinoletta (Water Pipit), Carduelis cannabina (Eurasian Linnet, refered as Acanthis cannabina by the author), Carduelis chloris (European Greenfinch, refered as Chloris chloris by the author), Carduelis sp. (probably, the European Goldfinch, C.carduelis), Corvus corone (Carrion Crow), Corvus frugilegus (Rook), Emberiza cia (Rock Bunting), Emberiza cirlus (Cirl Bunting), Falco tinnunculus (Common Kestrel), Fringilla coelebs (Chaffinch), Fringilla montifringilla (Brambling), Galerida sp. (Lark), Melanocorypha calandra (Calandria Lark), Miliaria calandra (Corn Bunting, refered as Emberiza calandra by the author), Motacilla alba (White Wagtail), Partridge (Alectoris sp. or Perdix sp.), Parus major (Great Tit), Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow), Petronia petronia (Rock Sparrow), Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff), Pica pica (Black-billed Magpie), Picus viridis (Eurasian Green Woodpecker), Pluvialis apricaria (Eurasian Golden Plover, refered as Charadrius apricarius by the author), Serinus serinus (European Serin), Sturnus unicolor (Spotless Starling), Skylark (probably, the Eurasian Skylark, Alauda arvensis), Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird), Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare) and Vanellus vanellus (Northern Lapwing)

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  • Salida de campo a la Cuesta de la Maruquesa (Valladolid) el 11 de enero de 1953 y estadísticas de taxiados
    , 2009
    Co-Authors: Valverde Gómez, José Antonio

    Abstract:

    Salida de campo a la Cuesta de la Maruquesa, en Valladolid capital, el 11 de enero de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Alauda arvensis (Alondra común), Carduelis cannabina (Pardillo común, llamada Colorín y Acanthis cannabina por el autor), Anthus pratensis (Bisbita común), Anthus sp. (Bisbita), Anthus spinoletta (Bisbita alpino), Carduelis chloris (Verderón común, llamado Chloris chloris por el autor), Carduelis sp. (probablemente, el Jilguero, C.carduelis), Carduelis spinus (Lúgano, llamado Acanthis spinus por el autor), Certhia sp. (Agateador, también conocido como Chapin), “Chorla” (probablemente se refiere a la Ganga ortega, Pterocles orientalis), Columba domestica (Paloma doméstica), Columba livia (Paloma bravía), Columba oenas (Paloma zurita), Corvus corone (Corneja negra), Cyanistes caeruleus (Herrerillo común, llamado Parus coeruleus por el autor), Emberiza cia (Escribano montesino), Emberiza cirlus (Escribano soteño), Erithacus rubecula (Petirrojo), Falco columbarius (Esmerejón, llamado F.aesalon por el autor), Fringilla coelebs (Pinzón vulgar), Fringilla montifringilla (Pinzón real), Galerida sp. (Cogujada), Lophophanes cristatus (Herrerillo capuchino, llamado Parus cristarus por el autor), Melanocorypha calandra (Calandria), Miliaria calandra (Triguero, llamada Emberiza calandra por el autor), Motacilla alba (Lavandera blanca), Motacilla cinerea (Lavandera cascadeña), Motacilla flava (Lavandera boyera), Parus major (Carbonero común, también conocido como Chapin), Passer montanus (Gorrión molinero), Perdiz (Alectoris sp. o Perdix sp.), Pica pica (Urraca, llamada “marica” y “picarza” por el autor), Picus viridis (Pito real), Saxicola torquata (Tarabilla común), Serinus serinus (Verdecillo), Turdus merula (Mirlo común), Turdus pilaris (Zorzal real), Turdus viscivorus (Zorzal charlo). Se incluyen dos pequeñas ilustraciones a bolígrafo. Además, se incluyen descripciones de las asociaciones intraespecíficas y del hábitat, datos del taxiado de las especies presentes y el índice de la proporción de aves invernantes con respecto a las sedentarias.Field trip to the Cuesta de la Maruquesa, in the city of Valladolid, the 11th of January of 1953, of which there were noted observations about the following birds: Alauda arvensis (Eurasian Skylark), Anthus campestris (Tawny Pipit), Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit), Anthus spinoletta (Water Pipit), Carduelis cannabina (Eurasian Linnet, refered as Acanthis cannabina by the author), Carduelis chloris (European Greenfinch, refered as Chloris chloris by the author), Carduelis sp. (possibly, the European Goldfinch, C.carduelis), Carduelis spinus (Eurasian Siskin, referres as acanthis spinus by the author), Certhia sp. (Tree-creeper), “Chorla” (possibly, the Black-bellied Sandgrouse, Pterocles orientalis), Columba livia (Rock Pigeon), Columba oenas (Stock Pigeon), Columba palumbus (Common Wood-pigeon), Corvus corone (Carrion Crow), Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit, refered as Parus coeruleus by the author), Emberiza cia (Rock Bunting), Emberiza cirlus (Cirl Bunting), Erithacus rubecula (European Robin), Falco columbarius (Merlin, refered as F.aesalon by the author), Fringilla coelebs (Chaffinch), Fringilla montifringilla (Brambling), Galerida sp. (Lark), Lophophanes cristatus (Crested Tit, refered as Parus cristatus by the author), Melanocorypha calandra (Calandria Lark), Miliaria calandra (Corn Bunting, refered as Emberiza calandra by the author), Motacilla alba (White Wagtail), Motacilla cinerea (Grey Wagtail), Motacilla flava (Yellow Wagtail), Partridge (Alectoris sp. or Perdix sp.), Parus major (Great Tit), Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow), Pica pica (Black-billed Magpie), Picus viridis (Eurasian Green Woodpecker), Saxicola torquata (African Stonechat), Serinus serinus (European Serin), Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird), Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare), Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush). Two little pen illustrations are included. Furthermore, desciptions of the interspecific associations of birds, descirption of the habitat, data of a census of the present species and an index of the proportion of winter visitors birds regarding sedentary birds are also inlcuded

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Heraldo V. Norambuena – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • From pampa to puna : Biogeography and diversification of a group of Neotropical obligate grassland birds (Anthus: Motacillidae)
    Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 2019
    Co-Authors: Paul Van Els, Heraldo V. Norambuena, Rampal S. Etienne

    Abstract:

    The evolution of Neotropical birds of open landscapes remains largely unstudied. We investigate the diversification and biogeography of a group of Neotropical obligate grassland birds (Anthus: Motacillidae). We use a multilocus phylogeny of 22 taxa of Anthus to test the hypothesis that these birds radiated contemporaneously with the development of grasslands in South America. We employ the R package DDD to analyze the dynamics of Anthus diversification across time in Neotropical grasslands, explicitly testing for shifts in dynamics associated with the Miocene development of grasslands, the putative Pleistocene expansion of arid lowland biomes, and Pleistocene sundering of Andean highland grasslands. A lineage-through-time plot revealed increases in the number of lineages, and DDD detected shifts to a higher clade-level carrying capacity during the late Miocene, indicating an early burst of diversification associated with grassland colonization. However, we could not corroborate the shift using power analysis, probably reflecting the small number of tips in our tree. We found evidence of a divergence at similar to 1 Mya between northern and southern Amazonian populations of Anthus lutescens, countering Haffer’s idea of Pleistocene expansion of open biomes in the Amazon Basin. We used BioGeoBears to investigate ancestral areas and directionality of colonization of Neotropical grasslands. Members of the genus diversified into, out of, and within the Andes, within-Andean diversification being mostly Pleistocene in origin.

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  • aportes a la historia natural del bailarin chico o cachirla comun Anthus correndera chilensis
    Ornitologia Neotropical, 2017
    Co-Authors: Heraldo V. Norambuena, Juan Ignacio Areta, Fernando Medrano, Patricio Ortiz, Pedro Victoriano

    Abstract:

    Resumen ∙  El Bailarin Chico Comun o Cachirla Comun ( Anthus correndera chilensis ) es una de las seis subespecies del complejo A. correndera . Presenta una amplia distribucion en Chile y Argentina, pero a pesar de ser un ave frecuente en su habitat, el conocimiento de aspectos basicos de su historia natural es precario. Su distribucion en Chile va desde la region de Atacama hasta Isla Navarino en la region de Magallanes, mientras que en Argentina estaria presente desde Laguna Seca, provincia de Mendoza hasta Tierra del Fuego a lo largo de los Andes, y desde Tierra del Fuego hasta el sur de la Provincia de Rio Negro a lo largo de la costa Atlantica. En base a informacion generada en 10 localidades de Chile y Argentina, presentamos nuevos antecedentes sobre su distribucion, abundancia, biometria, plumaje, canto y reproduccion. A pesar de la gran cantidad de registros disponibles, hay areas de su distribucion en Argentina que requieren ser estudiadas con mayor detalle, pues se desconocen los limites con otras subespecies como correndera y catamarcae con las que podria sobreponerse. El plumaje presento un patron de muda similar a lo reportado para otras especies de Anthus , con una muda formativa, alterna y basica (estrategia alterna compleja). En total registramos un repertorio vocal de dos tipos de cantos: canto territorial y canto posado, y tres tipos de llamadas: de alerta, de reclamo y de solicitud de alimento de pichones. De este repertorio vocal el canto territorial es la vocalizacion mas frecuente y compleja. Abstract ∙ Contributions to the natural history of the Correndera Pipit ( Anthus correndera chilensis ) Anthus correndera chilensis is one of the six subspecies of the Correndera Pipit. It is widely distributed in Chile and Argentina, but despite being common in its habitat, knowledge of essential aspects of its natural history is poor. Its distribution in Chile ranges from the region of Atacama to Isla Navarino in the Magallanes region, while in Argentina it is distributed from Laguna Seca, province of Mendoza to Tierra del Fuego along the Andes, and on a narrow strip along the Atlantic coast between Tierra del Fuego and the south of the Province of Rio Negro. Based on information generated in 10 localities of Chile and Argentina, we present new information on distribution, biometry, vocalizations, breeding, and plumage/molting. Despite the large number of presence records available, there are areas of distribution in Argentina that require exploration. Because the boundaries with other subspecies, such as correndera and catamarcae , are incompletely known, range overlaps are likely. Plumage molt presented a pattern similar to that reported for other Anthus species, with a formative, alternate, and basic molting (alternate complex strategy) patterns. In total we recorded a vocal repertoire of two different song types: territorial and perched; and three call types: alert, complaint, and request of nestlings. Out of these, the most frequent and complex was the territorial song.

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  • A revision of species limits in Neotropical pipits Anthus based on multilocus genetic and vocal data
    Ibis, 2017
    Co-Authors: Paul Van Els, Heraldo V. Norambuena

    Abstract:

    Previous investigations of the systematics of Neotropical pipits Anthus revealed multiple cases of paraphyly. We revise the species limits of this group based on sequence data of mitochondrial (ND2) and nuclear genes (ACOI9, MB, FGB5) from 39 tissue samples of all 22 subspecies-level taxa in the New World Anthus clade, as well as analysis of display song. We found that Anthus lutescens peruvianus is not part of Yellowish Pipit Anthus lutescens genetically or vocally; thus, we elevate peruvianus to species rank (Peruvian Pipit). Anthus lutescens abariensis Chubb (1921a) should be placed in synonymy with A. l. parvus (instead of A. l. lutescens), at least until further morphological or vocal data becomes available. Paramo Pipit A. bogotensis is likewise paraphyletic, with meridae sister to all other bogotensis subspecies and also to Hellmayr’s Pipit A. hellmayri. However, placement of the taxon is based on a relatively short stretch of mitochondrial DNA, and further data are needed. Andean populations of Short-billed Pipit A. furcatus are split as Puna Pipit A. brevirostris, based on genetic and vocal data. South Georgia Pipit A. antarcticus is, at least genetically, part of Correndera Pipit A. correndera, and we recommend considering it a subspecies of Correndera Pipit, in line with the taxonomy of other morphologically distinct but genetically little-differentiated insular bird taxa.

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