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Antiaggregation Pheromones

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Dezene P W Huber – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle dendroctonus ponderosae coleoptera curculionidae
    PeerJ, 2014
    Co-Authors: Erin L Clark, Caitlin Pitt, Allan L Carroll, Staffan B Lindgren, Dezene P W Huber

    Abstract:

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and Antiaggregation Pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in this new host.

Deepa S. Pureswaran – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Fitness consequences of pheromone production and host selection strategies in a tree-killing bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)
    Oecologia, 2006
    Co-Authors: Deepa S. Pureswaran, Brian T. Sullivan, Matthew P. Ayres

    Abstract:

    Timing of arrival at a resource often determines an individual’s reproductive success. Tree-killing bark beetles can reproduce in healthy trees by attacking in adequate numbers to overcome host defences that could otherwise be lethal. This process is mediated by aggregation and Antiaggregation Pheromones. Beetles that arrive early in such a “mass attack” must contend with undiminished tree defences, and produce enough Pheromones to attract more beetles, but have a head start on gallery construction and egg-laying. Beetles that arrive late may be impeded by competition and diminishing availability of phloem, but should experience fewer costs associated with pheromone production and battling tree defences. We investigated relationships between timing of arrival, body size, pheromone production and fitness in the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis . In field experiments, we captured beetles that arrived early (pioneers) and late on slash pine trees, Pinus elliottii , and measured pheromone amounts in their hindguts. We marked gallery entrances of beetles as they landed on a tree and measured their reproductive success after the attack terminated. We found no difference in body size or pheromone amounts between early and late arrivers. Most beetles arrived at the middle of the attack sequence, and excavated longer galleries per day than early arrivers. The number of offspring produced per day by beetles that established galleries midway through mass attack was higher than those that arrived early or very late in the sequence. Our results suggest that beetles do not exhibit adaptive phenotypic plasticity in pre-landing pheromone production, depending on the extent of previous colonisation of a host. Rather, it appears that stabilising selection favours beetles that attack in the middle of the sequence, and contributes to attack synchrony. Synchronous attack on trees is essential before population booms characteristic of tree-killing bark beetles can occur in nature.

  • Is Bigger Better? Size and Pheromone Production in the Mountain Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)
    Journal of Insect Behavior, 2003
    Co-Authors: Deepa S. Pureswaran, John H. Borden

    Abstract:

    Reproductive success in the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is determined by the production of aggregation and Antiaggregation Pheromones, as well as body size. In a laboratory experiment with beetles that emerged from naturally attacked hosts, there was no relationship between body size and the production of aggregation Pheromones in either sex. In contrast, there were significant relationships between body size and the production of Antiaggregation Pheromones in males that were paired with females. Pheromone amounts decreased in paired females and Antiaggregation Pheromones correspondingly increased in paired males, suggesting that after pairing, males take over the role of pheromone production. Although males could potentially select large females by evaluating gallery size, and females could select large males on the basis of their strength in stridulation or physical courtship, we propose that mate choice occurs primarily by olfaction. Small individuals that produce large amounts of pheromone during initial attack could “sabotage” mate choice based on size-related criteria. This hypothesis is consistent with a lack of evidence for size assortative mating in 92 pairs of beetles. The production of antiaggregants by large male D. ponderosae after pairing with females appears to be an important factor in intraspecific resource partitioning, population regulation, and reproductive success.

Erin L Clark – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle dendroctonus ponderosae coleoptera curculionidae
    PeerJ, 2014
    Co-Authors: Erin L Clark, Caitlin Pitt, Allan L Carroll, Staffan B Lindgren, Dezene P W Huber

    Abstract:

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and Antiaggregation Pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in this new host.