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Paolo Tonella – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • APOGEN: automatic page object generator for web testing
    Software Quality Journal, 2017
    Co-Authors: Andrea Stocco, Maurizio Leotta, Filippo Ricca, Paolo Tonella

    Abstract:

    Modern web applications are characterized by ultra-rapid development cycles, and web testers tend to pay scant attention to the quality of their automated end-to-end test suites. Indeed, these quickly become hard to maintain, as the application under test evolves. As a result, end-to-end automated test suites are abandoned, despite their great potential for catching regressions. The use of the Page Object pattern has proven to be very effective in end-to-end web testing. Page objects are façade classes abstracting the internals of web pages into high-level business functions that can be invoked by the test cases. By decoupling test code from web page details, web test cases are more readable and maintainable. However, the manual development of such page objects requires substantial coding effort, which is paid off only later, during software evolution. In this paper, we describe a novel approach for the automatic generation of page objects for web applications. Our approach is implemented in the tool Apogen , which automatically derives a testing model by reverse engineering the target web application. It combines clustering and static analysis to identify meaningful page abstractions that are automatically turned into Java page objects for Selenium WebDriver. Our evaluation on an open-source web application shows that our approach is highly promising: Automatically generated page object methods cover most of the application functionalities and result in readable and meaningful code, which can be very useful to support the creation of more maintainable web test suites.

  • Robula+: an algorithm for generating robust XPath locators for web testing
    Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 2016
    Co-Authors: Maurizio Leotta, Andrea Stocco, Filippo Ricca, Paolo Tonella

    Abstract:

    Automated test scripts are used with success in many web development projects, so as to automatically verify key functionalities of the web application under test, reveal possible regressions and run a large number of tests in short time. However, the adoption of automated web testing brings advantages but also novel problems, among which the test code fragility problem. During the evolution of the web application, existing test code may easily break and testers have to correct it. In the context of automated DOM-based web testing, one of the major costs for evolving the test code is the manual effort necessary to repair broken web page element locators – lines of source code identifying the web elements e.g. form fields and buttons to interact with.

  • ICWE – Visual vs. DOM-Based Web Locators: An Empirical Study
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2014
    Co-Authors: Maurizio Leotta, Filippo Ricca, Diego Clerissi, Paolo Tonella

    Abstract:

    Automation in Web testing has been successfully supported by DOM-based tools that allow testers to program the interactions of their test cases with the Web application under test. More recently a new generation of visual tools has been proposed where a test case interacts with the Web application by recognising the images of the widgets that can be actioned upon and by asserting the expected visual appearance of the result.

Ana C. R. Paiva – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • test case generation based on mutations over user execution traces
    Software Quality Journal, 2020
    Co-Authors: Ana C. R. Paiva, André Restivo, Sérgio Almeida

    Abstract:

    Automatic test case generation is usually based on models of the software under test. However, those models may not exist or may be outdated and so, the test case generation must resort to other artifacts. In a software maintenance context, test cases must adapt to software changes and should be improved continuously to test adequately the new versions of the software. Mutation testing is a fault-based testing technique that evaluates the quality of the tests by applying simple changes to the source code and checking afterwards if the tests are able to detects those changes. This paper presents a web testing approach in which test cases are generated from user execution traces as a way to deal with the absence of models. In addition, it applies mutation operators over those test cases to enrich the test suite. The mutation operators were designed so as to mimic possible real failures. The additional tests are analyzed, and those that generate different outcomes are kept because they exercise additional behavior of the web application under test. At the end, the overall approach is illustrated and validated in a case study.

  • Mobile GUI testing
    Software Quality Journal, 2018
    Co-Authors: Inês Coimbra Morgado, Ana C. R. Paiva

    Abstract:

    This paper presents a tool (iMPAcT) that automates testing of mobile applications based on the presence of recurring behaviour, UI Patterns. It combines reverse engineering, pattern matching and testing. The reverse engineering process is responsible for crawling the application, i.e. analysing the state of the application and interacting with it by firing events. The pattern matching tries to identify the presence of UI patterns based on a catalogue of patterns. When a UI Pattern from the catalogue is detected, a test strategy is applied (testing). These test strategies are called UI test Patterns. These three phases work in an iterative way: the patterns are identified and tested between firing of events, i.e. the process alternates between exploring the application and testing the UI Patterns. The process is dynamic and fully automatic not requiring any previous knowledge about the application under test. This paper presents the results of an experiment studying the reliability of the results obtained by iMPAcT. The experiment involved 25 applications found on Google Play Store and concludes that iMPAcT is successful in identifying failures in the tested patterns and that the degree of certainty of an identified failure being an actual failure is high.

  • ASE Workshops – testing Approach for Mobile applications through Reverse Engineering of UI Patterns
    2015 30th IEEE ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering Workshop (ASEW), 2015
    Co-Authors: Inês Coimbra Morgado, Ana C. R. Paiva

    Abstract:

    It is increasingly important to assess and ensure the correct behaviour of mobile applications as their importance in everyday life keeps increasing. This paper presents an automatic testing approach combining reverse engineering with testing. The algorithm tries to identify existing User Interface (UI) patterns on a mobile application under test through a reverse engineering process and then tests them using generic test strategies called test Patterns. The overall testing approach was implemented in the iMPAcT (Mobile PAttern testing) tool and is illustrated in a case study performed over some mobile applications as a proof-of-concept.

Andrea Stocco – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • ESEC/SIGSOFT FSE – Vista: web test repair using computer vision
    Proceedings of the 2018 26th ACM Joint Meeting on European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering – , 2018
    Co-Authors: Andrea Stocco, Rahulkrishna Yandrapally, Ali Mesbah

    Abstract:

    Repairing broken web element locators represents the major main- tenance cost of web test cases. To detect possible repairs, testers typically inspect the tests’ interactions with the application under test through the GUI. Existing automated test repair techniques focus instead on the code and ignore visual aspects of the applica- tion. In this demo paper, we give an overview of Vista, a novel test repair technique that leverages computer vision and local crawling to automatically suggest and apply repairs to broken web tests. URL: https://github.com/saltlab/Vista

  • APOGEN: automatic page object generator for web testing
    Software Quality Journal, 2017
    Co-Authors: Andrea Stocco, Maurizio Leotta, Filippo Ricca, Paolo Tonella

    Abstract:

    Modern web applications are characterized by ultra-rapid development cycles, and web testers tend to pay scant attention to the quality of their automated end-to-end test suites. Indeed, these quickly become hard to maintain, as the application under test evolves. As a result, end-to-end automated test suites are abandoned, despite their great potential for catching regressions. The use of the Page Object pattern has proven to be very effective in end-to-end web testing. Page objects are façade classes abstracting the internals of web pages into high-level business functions that can be invoked by the test cases. By decoupling test code from web page details, web test cases are more readable and maintainable. However, the manual development of such page objects requires substantial coding effort, which is paid off only later, during software evolution. In this paper, we describe a novel approach for the automatic generation of page objects for web applications. Our approach is implemented in the tool Apogen , which automatically derives a testing model by reverse engineering the target web application. It combines clustering and static analysis to identify meaningful page abstractions that are automatically turned into Java page objects for Selenium WebDriver. Our evaluation on an open-source web application shows that our approach is highly promising: Automatically generated page object methods cover most of the application functionalities and result in readable and meaningful code, which can be very useful to support the creation of more maintainable web test suites.

  • Robula+: an algorithm for generating robust XPath locators for web testing
    Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 2016
    Co-Authors: Maurizio Leotta, Andrea Stocco, Filippo Ricca, Paolo Tonella

    Abstract:

    Automated test scripts are used with success in many web development projects, so as to automatically verify key functionalities of the web application under test, reveal possible regressions and run a large number of tests in short time. However, the adoption of automated web testing brings advantages but also novel problems, among which the test code fragility problem. During the evolution of the web application, existing test code may easily break and testers have to correct it. In the context of automated DOM-based web testing, one of the major costs for evolving the test code is the manual effort necessary to repair broken web page element locators – lines of source code identifying the web elements e.g. form fields and buttons to interact with.