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Arabian Plate

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Iyad Al Gharib – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • volcano tectonic evolution of the northern part of the Arabian Plate in the light of new k ar ages and remote sensing harrat ash shaam volcanic province syria
    Tectonophysics, 2012
    Co-Authors: Mohamad Amer Al Kwatli, Pierre Yves Gillot, Hermann Zeyen, Anthony Hildenbrand, Iyad Al Gharib

    Abstract:

    Abstract The Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic province (HASV) is the largest volcanic field in the Arabian Plate. It developed during the Cenozoic close to the southern part of Dead Sea fault system and has been linked to the tectonic evolution of the Red Sea rifting since the early Oligocene. The HASV is an ideal environment to study volcanism adjacent to a strike–slip fault (the Dead Sea fault system) and constrain the development of regional deformation along such lithospheric structures. We here present a morpho-structural analysis based on digital elevation data coupled with remote sensing observations and new K–Ar ages on fresh separated groundmass which allow us to propose a new volcano-tectonic model of the HASV. From Landsat7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM +) and SRTM data, we recognize more than 350 monogenetic volcanic cones grouped in three main clusters. Topographical variations between these clusters are interpreted as reflecting different volcanic phases. The new ages measured here range between 7.13 ± 0.10 Ma and 0.056 ± 0.009 Ma. Together with previous geochronological data, they reveal two main periods of volcanic activity. The first period lasted from late Oligocene up to early-middle Miocene (26–16 Ma), and the second period has been active since 13 Ma, indicating a gap of volcanic activity between ~ 16 and ~ 13 Ma. The volcano-tectonic evolution model suggests two different extensional styles, “en-echelon” rifting during the first period, and counterclockwise rotation during the second one. Alternative to the Afar plume hypothesis, a thinned lithosphere underneath the HASV as supported by geophysical modeling, can explain magma genesis in the northern part of the Arabian Plate.

  • Volcano-tectonic evolution of the northern part of the Arabian Plate in the light of new K–Ar ages and remote sensing: Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic province (Syria)
    Tectonophysics, 2012
    Co-Authors: Mohamad Amer Al Kwatli, Pierre Yves Gillot, Hermann Zeyen, Anthony Hildenbrand, Iyad Al Gharib

    Abstract:

    Abstract The Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic province (HASV) is the largest volcanic field in the Arabian Plate. It developed during the Cenozoic close to the southern part of Dead Sea fault system and has been linked to the tectonic evolution of the Red Sea rifting since the early Oligocene. The HASV is an ideal environment to study volcanism adjacent to a strike–slip fault (the Dead Sea fault system) and constrain the development of regional deformation along such lithospheric structures. We here present a morpho-structural analysis based on digital elevation data coupled with remote sensing observations and new K–Ar ages on fresh separated groundmass which allow us to propose a new volcano-tectonic model of the HASV. From Landsat7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM +) and SRTM data, we recognize more than 350 monogenetic volcanic cones grouped in three main clusters. Topographical variations between these clusters are interpreted as reflecting different volcanic phases. The new ages measured here range between 7.13 ± 0.10 Ma and 0.056 ± 0.009 Ma. Together with previous geochronological data, they reveal two main periods of volcanic activity. The first period lasted from late Oligocene up to early-middle Miocene (26–16 Ma), and the second period has been active since 13 Ma, indicating a gap of volcanic activity between ~ 16 and ~ 13 Ma. The volcano-tectonic evolution model suggests two different extensional styles, “en-echelon” rifting during the first period, and counterclockwise rotation during the second one. Alternative to the Afar plume hypothesis, a thinned lithosphere underneath the HASV as supported by geophysical modeling, can explain magma genesis in the northern part of the Arabian Plate.

G Steinitz – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • new k ar ages of basalts from the harrat ash shaam volcanic field in jordan implications for the span and duration of the upper mantle upwelling beneath the western Arabian Plate
    Geology, 2001
    Co-Authors: Shimon Ilani, Yehudit Harlavan, Khalid Tarawneh, I Rabba, Ram Weinberger, Khalil M Ibrahim, Sergiu Peltz, G Steinitz

    Abstract:

    The volcanism in the western Arabian Plate extends from the Red Sea through the Harrat Ash Shaam system to western Syria, as far north as the Bitlis suture in the Taurides. The Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic system in Jordan consists of northwest-trending dikes and a volcanic field that together encompass a width of 220 km. In terms of width, direction, and age of the main volcanic phases, the system is similar to the Red Sea dike belt. About 130 new K-Ar age determinations show that the ages of the Harrat Ash Shaam system (dikes and flows) range from Oligocene to Quaternary. However, there is a distinct gap in the ages between ∼22 and 13 Ma. This gap coincides with an apparent decrease in volcanism in the Red Sea region from around 20 to 12 Ma. We interpret this 9 m.y. gap as a quiescent period interrupting the volcanic activity in the region and suggest that from ∼22 to 13 Ma, tectonic activity in the Arabian Plate was mainly restricted to the Red Sea region. A renewal of volcanism along the western margins of the Arabian Plate at 13 Ma was very likely associated with the sinistral movement along the north-trending Dead Sea transform. This renewal of volcanism and tectonic activity may reflect the emergence of upper-mantle upwelling beneath the western Arabian Plate at that time.

Mohamad Amer Al Kwatli – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • morpho structural analysis of harrat al sham volcanic field Arabian Plate syria jordan and saudi arabia methodology and application
    Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 2015
    Co-Authors: Mohamad Amer Al Kwatli, A Hildenbrand, Pierre Gillot, Jean Claude Lefevre

    Abstract:

    We present here a digital methodology aimed at identifying the morphometry of monogenic volcanic cones including edifice height, slope angle, and volume. We recognize more than 800 monogenic volcanic cones from the Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic province (HASV, northern Arabian Plate) to the north of the Arabian Plate by using Landsat7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus and digital elevation models (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, SRTM data). Our results show that the volcanic cones fall into six clusters, each one having a NW-SE orientation parallel to the Red Sea rifting. The density of the cones is most likely controlled by fissure distribution and a possible rotation in the HASV lithospheric block, rather than by the age of the volcanic activity. Interaction with crustal lithologies also plays a negligible role during magma migration. However, the morphology of the monogenic volcanic cones appears to be significantly modified by erosion processes, and both the height and slope of the various cones thus can be used to estimate their relative ages. From such morphological criteria, HASV monogenetic volcanoes in Jordan and Saudi Arabia are older than those in the Golan Heights and the Jabal Al Arab Mountain in Syria, thus, supporting the hypothesis of a northward migration of the recent explosive activity. Our new data, together with the available sediment thickness data, give rise to a new volcano-tectonic interpretation. We show that variations in the cumulative volume of monogenic volcanic cones in several zones of the study area can be related with the sediment thickness (basement depth), and therefore, we propose that the sediment thickness most likely affects the properties of magma before eruption. The reactivation of a deep previous fault perhaps also explains the higher volume of monogenic volcanic cones, focused along a well-defined alignment. This study, thus, gives insight into the relations between sediment thickness, the volcanism, and tectonics. Our results based on new digital treatment of remote sensing data are in overall good agreement with the volcano-tectonic evolution of HASV. This allows us to recommend this methodology as a potential tool to study volcanic cones of other inaccessible regions, either on Earth or other terrestrial planets.

  • volcano tectonic evolution of the northern part of the Arabian Plate in the light of new k ar ages and remote sensing harrat ash shaam volcanic province syria
    Tectonophysics, 2012
    Co-Authors: Mohamad Amer Al Kwatli, Pierre Yves Gillot, Hermann Zeyen, Anthony Hildenbrand, Iyad Al Gharib

    Abstract:

    Abstract The Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic province (HASV) is the largest volcanic field in the Arabian Plate. It developed during the Cenozoic close to the southern part of Dead Sea fault system and has been linked to the tectonic evolution of the Red Sea rifting since the early Oligocene. The HASV is an ideal environment to study volcanism adjacent to a strike–slip fault (the Dead Sea fault system) and constrain the development of regional deformation along such lithospheric structures. We here present a morpho-structural analysis based on digital elevation data coupled with remote sensing observations and new K–Ar ages on fresh separated groundmass which allow us to propose a new volcano-tectonic model of the HASV. From Landsat7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM +) and SRTM data, we recognize more than 350 monogenetic volcanic cones grouped in three main clusters. Topographical variations between these clusters are interpreted as reflecting different volcanic phases. The new ages measured here range between 7.13 ± 0.10 Ma and 0.056 ± 0.009 Ma. Together with previous geochronological data, they reveal two main periods of volcanic activity. The first period lasted from late Oligocene up to early-middle Miocene (26–16 Ma), and the second period has been active since 13 Ma, indicating a gap of volcanic activity between ~ 16 and ~ 13 Ma. The volcano-tectonic evolution model suggests two different extensional styles, “en-echelon” rifting during the first period, and counterclockwise rotation during the second one. Alternative to the Afar plume hypothesis, a thinned lithosphere underneath the HASV as supported by geophysical modeling, can explain magma genesis in the northern part of the Arabian Plate.

  • Volcano-tectonic evolution of the northern part of the Arabian Plate in the light of new K–Ar ages and remote sensing: Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic province (Syria)
    Tectonophysics, 2012
    Co-Authors: Mohamad Amer Al Kwatli, Pierre Yves Gillot, Hermann Zeyen, Anthony Hildenbrand, Iyad Al Gharib

    Abstract:

    Abstract The Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic province (HASV) is the largest volcanic field in the Arabian Plate. It developed during the Cenozoic close to the southern part of Dead Sea fault system and has been linked to the tectonic evolution of the Red Sea rifting since the early Oligocene. The HASV is an ideal environment to study volcanism adjacent to a strike–slip fault (the Dead Sea fault system) and constrain the development of regional deformation along such lithospheric structures. We here present a morpho-structural analysis based on digital elevation data coupled with remote sensing observations and new K–Ar ages on fresh separated groundmass which allow us to propose a new volcano-tectonic model of the HASV. From Landsat7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM +) and SRTM data, we recognize more than 350 monogenetic volcanic cones grouped in three main clusters. Topographical variations between these clusters are interpreted as reflecting different volcanic phases. The new ages measured here range between 7.13 ± 0.10 Ma and 0.056 ± 0.009 Ma. Together with previous geochronological data, they reveal two main periods of volcanic activity. The first period lasted from late Oligocene up to early-middle Miocene (26–16 Ma), and the second period has been active since 13 Ma, indicating a gap of volcanic activity between ~ 16 and ~ 13 Ma. The volcano-tectonic evolution model suggests two different extensional styles, “en-echelon” rifting during the first period, and counterclockwise rotation during the second one. Alternative to the Afar plume hypothesis, a thinned lithosphere underneath the HASV as supported by geophysical modeling, can explain magma genesis in the northern part of the Arabian Plate.