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Arenite

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Joanne M. Santini – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • characterization of a two component signal transduction system that controls arsenite oxidation in the chemolithoautotroph nt 26
    Fems Microbiology Letters, 2010
    Co-Authors: Sunita Sardiwal, Thomas H Osborne, Joanne M. Santini, Snezana Djordjevic

    Abstract:

    NT-26 is a chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidizer. Understanding the mechanisms of arsenite signalling, tolerance and oxidation by NT-26 will have significant implications for its use in bioremediation and arsenite sensing. We have identified the histidine kinase (AroS) and the cognate response regulator (AroR) involved in the arsenite-dependent transcriptional regulation of the arsenite oxidase aroBA operon. AroS contains a single periplasmic sensory domain that is linked through transmembrane helices to the HAMP domain that transmits the signal to the kinase core of the protein. AroR belongs to a family of AAA+ transcription regulators that interact with DNA through a helix-turn-helix domain. The presence of the AAA+ domain as well as the RNA polymerase σ54-interaction sequence motif suggests that this protein regulates transcription through interaction with RNA polymerase in a σ54-dependent fashion. The kinase core of AroS and the receiver domain of AroR were heterologously expressed and purified and their autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation activities were confirmed. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified the phosphorylation sites on both proteins. Mutational analysis in NT-26 confirmed that both proteins are essential for arsenite oxidation and the AroS mutant affected growth with arsenite, also implicating it in the regulation of arsenite tolerance. Lastly, arsenite sensing does not appear to involve thiol chemistry.

  • Microbial oxidation of arsenite in a subarctic environment: diversity of arsenite oxidase genes and identification of a psychrotolerant arsenite oxidiser.
    BMC Microbiology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Thomas H Osborne, Heather E. Jamieson, Karen A. Hudson-edwards, D. Kirk Nordstrom, Stephen R. Walker, Seamus A. Ward, Joanne M. Santini

    Abstract:

    Background: Arsenic is toxic to most living cells. The two soluble inorganic forms of arsenic are arsenite (+3) and arsenate (+5), with arsenite the more toxic. Prokaryotic metabolism of arsenic has been reported in both thermal and moderate environments and has been shown to be involved in the redox cycling of arsenic. No arsenic metabolism (either dissimilatory arsenate reduction or arsenite oxidation) has ever been reported in cold environments (i.e. < 10°C). Results: Our study site is located 512 kilometres south of the Arctic Circle in the Northwest Territories, Canada in an inactive gold mine which contains mine waste water in excess of 50 mM arsenic. Several thousand tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust are stored in underground chambers and microbial biofilms grow on the chamber walls below seepage points rich in arsenite-containing solutions. We compared the arsenite oxidisers in two subsamples (which differed in arsenite concentration) collected from one biofilm. ‘Species’ (sequence) richness did not differ between subsamples, but the relative importance of the three identifiable clades did. An arsenite-oxidising bacterium (designated GM1) was isolated, and was shown to oxidise arsenite in the early exponential growth phase and to grow at a broad range of temperatures (4-25°C). Its arsenite oxidase was constitutively expressed and functioned over a broad temperature range. Conclusions: The diversity of arsenite oxidisers does not significantly differ from two subsamples of a microbial biofilm that vary in arsenite concentrations. GM1 is the first psychrotolerant arsenite oxidiser to be isolated with the ability to grow below 10°C. This ability to grow at low temperatures could be harnessed for arsenic bioremediation in moderate to cold climates.

  • Arsenite oxidation by the heterotroph Hydrogenophaga sp. str. NT-14: the arsenite oxidase and its physiological electron acceptor.
    Biochimica et biophysica acta, 2004
    Co-Authors: Rachel N Vanden Hoven, Joanne M. Santini

    Abstract:

    Heterotrophic arsenite oxidation by Hydrogenophaga sp. str. NT-14 is coupled to the reduction of oxygen and appears to yield energy for growth. Purification and partial characterization of the arsenite oxidase revealed that it (1). contains two heterologous subunits, AroA (86 kDa) and AroB (16 kDa), (2). has a native molecular mass of 306 kDa suggesting an alpha(3)beta(3) configuration, and (3). contains molybdenum and iron as cofactors. Although the Hydrogenophaga sp. str. NT-14 arsenite oxidase shares similarities to the arsenite oxidases purified from NT-26 and Alcaligenes faecalis, it differs with respect to activity and overall conformation. A c-551-type cytochrome was purified from Hydrogenophaga sp. str. NT-14 and appears to be the physiological electron acceptor for the arsenite oxidase. The cytochrome can also accept electrons from the purified NT-26 arsenite oxidase. A hypothetical electron transport chain for heterotrophic arsenite oxidation is proposed.

Srinivasa D Sarma – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • geology and geochemistry of Arenite quartzwacke from the late archaean sandur schist belt implications for provenance and accretion processes
    Precambrian Research, 2002
    Co-Authors: S M Naqvi, C Manikyamba, Nirmal S Charan, V Balaram, Srinivasa D Sarma

    Abstract:

    Abstract Detailed geological, petrological and geochemical studies have been carried out on an Arenite–quartzwacke suite of rocks constituting a part of the Late Archaean Sandur schist belt in Dharwar craton, southern India for understanding the nature of provenance for these sedimentary rocks. The Arenite–quartzwacke consists of rounded to sub-rounded and angular fragments of monocrystalline–polycrystalline quartz, quartzite and chert embedded in a fine-grained matrix of quartz and sericite. While Arenites are more siliceous (SiO 2 , 80–92 wt.%), the quartzwacke have relatively lower silica content (ca. 69–78 wt.%). The Arenites and quartzwackes have CIA values ranging from 76 to 96 which suggest intense chemical weathering. This is further corroborated by the positive correlation between Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 in both these rock types. The ACNK modeling of Arenites and quartzwackes show evidence for addition of K 2 O during later metasomatic alteration. In the ACNKFM ternary diagram all the samples plot along a mixing line between chlorite and sericite indicating alteration during K-metasomatism and the presence of mafic rocks in the source. The high concentration of HFSE such as Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta and the trace element ratios Th/Sc, La/Sc, Th/U and Ce/Th in the Arenite–quartzwacke indicate a mixed provenance. The rare earth element modeling of quartzwackes considering tonalite, granite and amphibolite end members in the provenance suggests equal proportions of mafic and felsic end members. A composition comprising of 25% tonalite+25% granite+50% amphibolite in the provenance appears to match with the observed range of REE patterns of quartzwackes. The presence of higher proportions of granite in the provenance is evidenced by the large negative Eu anomalies in these sediments. Field evidence and structural discordance suggest that the Arenite–quartzwacke suite is an allochthonous part of the Sandur schist belt.

S M Naqvi – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • geology and geochemistry of Arenite quartzwacke from the late archaean sandur schist belt implications for provenance and accretion processes
    Precambrian Research, 2002
    Co-Authors: S M Naqvi, C Manikyamba, Nirmal S Charan, V Balaram, Srinivasa D Sarma

    Abstract:

    Abstract Detailed geological, petrological and geochemical studies have been carried out on an Arenite–quartzwacke suite of rocks constituting a part of the Late Archaean Sandur schist belt in Dharwar craton, southern India for understanding the nature of provenance for these sedimentary rocks. The Arenite–quartzwacke consists of rounded to sub-rounded and angular fragments of monocrystalline–polycrystalline quartz, quartzite and chert embedded in a fine-grained matrix of quartz and sericite. While Arenites are more siliceous (SiO 2 , 80–92 wt.%), the quartzwacke have relatively lower silica content (ca. 69–78 wt.%). The Arenites and quartzwackes have CIA values ranging from 76 to 96 which suggest intense chemical weathering. This is further corroborated by the positive correlation between Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 in both these rock types. The ACNK modeling of Arenites and quartzwackes show evidence for addition of K 2 O during later metasomatic alteration. In the ACNKFM ternary diagram all the samples plot along a mixing line between chlorite and sericite indicating alteration during K-metasomatism and the presence of mafic rocks in the source. The high concentration of HFSE such as Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta and the trace element ratios Th/Sc, La/Sc, Th/U and Ce/Th in the Arenite–quartzwacke indicate a mixed provenance. The rare earth element modeling of quartzwackes considering tonalite, granite and amphibolite end members in the provenance suggests equal proportions of mafic and felsic end members. A composition comprising of 25% tonalite+25% granite+50% amphibolite in the provenance appears to match with the observed range of REE patterns of quartzwackes. The presence of higher proportions of granite in the provenance is evidenced by the large negative Eu anomalies in these sediments. Field evidence and structural discordance suggest that the Arenite–quartzwacke suite is an allochthonous part of the Sandur schist belt.

  • Geology and geochemistry of Arenite-quartzwacke from the Late Archaean Sandur schist belt—implications for provenance and accretion processes
    Precambrian Research, 2002
    Co-Authors: S M Naqvi, C Manikyamba, V Balaram, S. Nirmal Charan, D. Srinivasa Sarma

    Abstract:

    Abstract Detailed geological, petrological and geochemical studies have been carried out on an Arenite–quartzwacke suite of rocks constituting a part of the Late Archaean Sandur schist belt in Dharwar craton, southern India for understanding the nature of provenance for these sedimentary rocks. The Arenite–quartzwacke consists of rounded to sub-rounded and angular fragments of monocrystalline–polycrystalline quartz, quartzite and chert embedded in a fine-grained matrix of quartz and sericite. While Arenites are more siliceous (SiO 2 , 80–92 wt.%), the quartzwacke have relatively lower silica content (ca. 69–78 wt.%). The Arenites and quartzwackes have CIA values ranging from 76 to 96 which suggest intense chemical weathering. This is further corroborated by the positive correlation between Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 in both these rock types. The ACNK modeling of Arenites and quartzwackes show evidence for addition of K 2 O during later metasomatic alteration. In the ACNKFM ternary diagram all the samples plot along a mixing line between chlorite and sericite indicating alteration during K-metasomatism and the presence of mafic rocks in the source. The high concentration of HFSE such as Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta and the trace element ratios Th/Sc, La/Sc, Th/U and Ce/Th in the Arenite–quartzwacke indicate a mixed provenance. The rare earth element modeling of quartzwackes considering tonalite, granite and amphibolite end members in the provenance suggests equal proportions of mafic and felsic end members. A composition comprising of 25% tonalite+25% granite+50% amphibolite in the provenance appears to match with the observed range of REE patterns of quartzwackes. The presence of higher proportions of granite in the provenance is evidenced by the large negative Eu anomalies in these sediments. Field evidence and structural discordance suggest that the Arenite–quartzwacke suite is an allochthonous part of the Sandur schist belt.