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Artificial Chromosome

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Shiaoching Gong – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • one step bacterial Artificial Chromosome bac modification preparation of plasmids
    CSH Protocols, 2020
    Co-Authors: Nathaniel Heintz, Shiaoching Gong

    Abstract:

    In the one-step approach to bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) modification, two plasmids are introduced into the BAC host cells. The shuttle pLD53.SC2, carrying the EFGP reporter sequence and requiring the π protein to replicate, must be grown in PIR1- or PIR2-competent Escherichia coli Our preference for these vectors is PIR1, because these cells are able to maintain about 250 copies of the donor vector. This small-sized vector is stable in PIR1. The RecA plasmid pSV1.RecA has a temperature-sensitive origin of replication and can be grown in most competent bacteria at 30°C; here we use DH5α competent cells. This protocol describes preparation of the vector DNAs. The shuttle-reporter vector DNA is subsequently digested for introduction of one homology arm (typically the A-box).

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  • one step bacterial Artificial Chromosome bac modification transformation of the bac host with the reca vector
    CSH Protocols, 2020
    Co-Authors: Nathaniel Heintz, Shiaoching Gong

    Abstract:

    This protocol outlines the steps for introducing the RecA plasmid into bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) host cells, and their preparation for subsequent transformation with the reporter plasmid for one-step BAC modification. BAC host cells are rendered chemically competent and transformed with the RecA plasmid, and transformants are selected for tetracycline resistance to ensure the presence of the RecA marker.

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  • one step bacterial Artificial Chromosome bac modification preparation of the a homology arm a box
    CSH Protocols, 2020
    Co-Authors: Nathaniel Heintz, Shiaoching Gong

    Abstract:

    The one-step approach to bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) modification requires that only one homology arm be cloned into the shuttle vector (in the example presented here, we use the “A-box”). The homology arm, which in this case lies upstream of the ATG start codon, is amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using purified BAC DNA as template. The resulting amplification product is then digested with the appropriate restriction endonuclease to render it suitable for cloning into the shuttle vector.

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Fernando Almazan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • rescue of sars cov 2 from a single bacterial Artificial Chromosome
    Mbio, 2020
    Co-Authors: Kevin Chiem, Fernando Almazan, Jungyu Park, Fatai S Oladunni, Roy N Platt, Timothy J C Anderson, Juan Carlos De La Torre, Luis Martinezsobrido

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACT Infectious coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in the city of Wuhan (China) in December 2019, causing a pandemic that has dramatically impacted public health and socioeconomic activities worldwide. A previously unknown coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified as the causative agent of COVID-19. To date, there are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved vaccines or therapeutics available for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or associated COVID-19 disease, which has triggered a large influx of scientific efforts to develop countermeasures to control SARS-CoV-2 spread. To contribute to these efforts, we have developed an infectious cDNA clone of the SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 strain based on the use of a bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC). Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 (rSARS-CoV-2) was readily rescued by transfection of the BAC into Vero E6 cells. Importantly, BAC-derived rSARS-CoV-2 exhibited growth properties and plaque sizes in cultured cells comparable to those of the natural SARS-CoV-2 isolate. Likewise, rSARS-CoV-2 showed levels of replication similar to those of the natural isolate in nasal turbinates and lungs of infected golden Syrian hamsters. This is, to our knowledge, the first BAC-based reverse genetics system for the generation of infectious rSARS-CoV-2 that displays features in vivo similar to those of a natural viral isolate. This SARS-CoV-2 BAC-based reverse genetics will facilitate studies addressing several important questions in the biology of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the identification of antivirals and development of vaccines for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated COVID-19 disease. IMPORTANCE The pandemic coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major threat to global human health. To date, there are no approved prophylactics or therapeutics available for COVID-19. Reverse genetics is a powerful approach to understand factors involved in viral pathogenesis, antiviral screening, and vaccine development. In this study, we describe the feasibility of generating recombinant SARS-CoV-2 (rSARS-CoV-2) by transfection of a single bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC). Importantly, rSARS-CoV-2 possesses the same phenotype as the natural isolate in vitro and in vivo. This is the first description of a BAC-based reverse genetics system for SARS-CoV-2 and the first time that an rSARS-CoV-2 isolate has been shown to be phenotypically identical to a natural isolate in a validated animal model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The BAC-based reverse genetics approach will facilitate the study of SARS-CoV-2 and the development of prophylactics and therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19.

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  • rescue of sars cov 2 from a single bacterial Artificial Chromosome
    bioRxiv, 2020
    Co-Authors: Kevin Chiem, Fernando Almazan, Jungyu Park, Fatai S Oladunni, Roy N Platt, Timothy J C Anderson, Juan Carlos De La Torre, Luis Martinezsobrido

    Abstract:

    An infectious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in the city of Wuhan (China) in December 2019, causing a pandemic that has dramatically impacted public health and socioeconomic activities worldwide. A previously unknown coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified as the causative agent of COVID-19. To date, there are no United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved vaccines or therapeutics available for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or associated COVID-19 disease, which has triggered a large influx of scientific efforts to develop countermeasures to control SARS-CoV-2 spread. To contribute to these efforts, we have developed an infectious cDNA clone of the SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 strain based on the use of a bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC). Recombinant (r)SARS-CoV-2 was readily rescued by transfection of the BAC into Vero E6 cells. Importantly, the BAC-derived rSARS-CoV-2 exhibited growth properties and plaque sizes in cultured cells comparable to those of the SARS-CoV-2 natural isolate. Likewise, rSARS-CoV-2 showed similar levels of replication to that of the natural isolate in nasal turbinates and lungs of infected golden Syrian hamsters. This is, to our knowledge, the first BAC based reverse genetics system for the generation of infectious rSARS-CoV-2 that displays similar features in vivo to that of a natural viral isolate. This SARS-CoV-2 BAC-based reverse genetics will facilitate studies addressing several important questions in the biology of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the identification of antivirals and development of vaccines for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated COVID-19 disease.

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  • engineering the largest rna virus genome as an infectious bacterial Artificial Chromosome
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2000
    Co-Authors: Fernando Almazan, Jose M Gonzalez, Zoltan Penzes, Ander Izeta, Enrique Calvo, J Planaduran, Luis Enjuanes

    Abstract:

    The construction of cDNA clones encoding large-size RNA molecules of biological interest, like coronavirus genomes, which are among the largest mature RNA molecules known to biology, has been hampered by the instability of those cDNAs in bacteria. Herein, we show that the application of two strategies, cloning of the cDNAs into a bacterial Artificial Chromosome and nuclear expression of RNAs that are typically produced within the cytoplasm, is useful for the engineering of large RNA molecules. A cDNA encoding an infectious coronavirus RNA genome has been cloned as a bacterial Artificial Chromosome. The rescued coronavirus conserved all of the genetic markers introduced throughout the sequence and showed a standard mRNA pattern and the antigenic characteristics expected for the synthetic virus. The cDNA was transcribed within the nucleus, and the RNA translocated to the cytoplasm. Interestingly, the recovered virus had essentially the same sequence as the original one, and no splicing was observed. The cDNA was derived from an attenuated isolate that replicates exclusively in the respiratory tract of swine. During the engineering of the infectious cDNA, the spike gene of the virus was replaced by the spike gene of an enteric isolate. The synthetic virus replicated abundantly in the enteric tract and was fully virulent, demonstrating that the tropism and virulence of the recovered coronavirus can be modified. This demonstration opens up the possibility of employing this infectious cDNA as a vector for vaccine development in human, porcine, canine, and feline species susceptible to group 1 coronaviruses.

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Maynard V Olson – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • detection and characterization of chimeric yeast Artificial Chromosome clones
    Genomics, 1991
    Co-Authors: Eric D Green, Harold Riethman, James E Dutchik, Maynard V Olson

    Abstract:

    Abstract Methods for the construction of yeast ArtificialChromosome (YAC) clones have been designed to isolate single, large (100–1000 kb) segments of chromosomal DNA. It is apparent from early experience with this cloning system that the major artifact in YAC clones involves the formation of YACs that contain two or more unrelated pieces of DNA. Such “chimeric” YACs are not easily recognized, particularly in libraries constructed from the total DNA of an organism. In some libraries, they have been found to constitute a major fraction of the clones. Here we discuss some of our experiences with chimeric YACs, with particular emphasis on the approaches that we have employed to detect such aberrant clones. In addition, we describe the detailed characterization of one chimeric YAC isolated from a library prepared from total human DNA. The organization of this clone indicates that it formed by in vivo recombination, presumably in yeast, between two Alu sequences located on unrelated segments of human DNA.

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  • systematic screening of yeast Artificial Chromosome libraries by use of the polymerase chain reaction
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1990
    Co-Authors: Eric D Green, Maynard V Olson

    Abstract:

    We have developed an approach for screening ordered arrays of yeast ArtificialChromosome (YAC) clones containing human DNA that is based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This approach is designed to determine the locations of positive clones within a YAC library that is stored as individual clones in 96-well microtiter plates. The high sensitivity and specificity of the PCR allow the detection of target sequences in DNA prepared from pools of 1920 or more YAC clones. The PCR-based screening protocol is performed in two successive stages, which effectively limit the location of a positive clone to four microtiter plates (384 clones). Final localization of each positive clone is accomplished by conventional DNA.DNA hybridization using a single filter containing the YAC clones from the appropriate four microtiter plates. This PCR-based screening strategy has proven highly efficient, allowing the identification and isolation of numerous YAC clones containing specific human genes. The prospects of developing a strategy for screening YAC libraries based completely on PCR assays are discussed, as are the potential applications of this approach to the systematic analysis of the human genome.

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