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F. Habashi – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Fire and the art of metals: a short history of pyrometallurgyMineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 2005Co-Authors: F. HabashiAbstract:
The first documentary evidence for the use of fire to extract a metal was furnished by the wall paintings of the ancient Egyptians showing workers using the blowpipe and bellows to increase the temperature to melt gold in a crucible. Furnaces grew in size and complexity, coke replaced charcoal in the blast furnace, and the Industrial Revolution took place in England that gradually spread world-wide. More metals became known and new techniques were introduced for their extraction. Among these, metallothermic reactions became prominent in the 19th century immediately after the discovery of the electric current and its use to liberate the alkali metals from their salts. Once these metals became available, they were used to produce Aluminium from alumina that resisted all other methods of Attack. Aluminium, now available on a large scale, was used to decompose the most stable compounds and liberate more metals that became the basis of modern civilisation.
Christian Vargel – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Metalloids and halidesCorrosion of Aluminium, 2020Co-Authors: Christian VargelAbstract:
Abstract Carbon, calcium carbide, silicon and boron have no effect on Aluminium. Unlike other common metals, Aluminium does not react with sulphur to yield sulphides as hydrogen sulphide, carbon disulphide and so on. In the absence of humidity, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony have no effect on Aluminium. In the presence of humidity, some elements such as phosphorus, sulphides, fluorine derivatives and chlorine derivatives may decompose into acid, which Attacks Aluminium. In the absence of traces of humidity, liquid or gaseous fluorine, bromine and iodine crystals have no effect on Aluminium. In the presence of humidity, acids can form such as hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid and hydroiodic acid, all of which Attack Aluminium. Perfectly dry gaseous chlorine at room temperature and liquefied chlorine have no effect on Aluminium. In the presence of humidity, hydrochloric acid will form and lead to rapid Attack of Aluminium with localized pitting. With increasing temperature, the risk of a (very) violent reaction strongly increases.