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Mortimer Mishkin – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • monkey s short term Auditory Memory nearly abolished by combined removal of the rostral superior temporal gyrus and rhinal cortices
    Brain Research, 2016
    Co-Authors: Jonathan B. Fritz, Mortimer Mishkin, Megan Malloy, Richard C. Saunders

    Abstract:

    While monkeys easily acquire the rules for performing visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample, a method for testing recognition Memory, they have extraordinary difficulty acquiring a similar rule in audition. Another striking difference between the modalities is that whereas bilateral ablation of the rhinal cortex (RhC) leads to profound impairment in visual and tactile recognition, the same lesion has no detectable effect on Auditory recognition Memory (Fritz et al., 2005). In our previous study, a mild impairment in Auditory Memory was obtained following bilateral ablation of the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the RhC, and an equally mild effect was observed after bilateral ablation of the Auditory cortical areas in the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG). In order to test the hypothesis that each of these mild impairments was due to partial disconnection of acoustic input to a common target (e.g., the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), in the current study we examined the effects of a more complete Auditory disconnection of this common target by combining the removals of both the rSTG and the MTL. We found that the combined lesion led to forgetting thresholds (performance at 75% accuracy) that fell precipitously from the normal retention duration of ~30 to 40s to a duration of ~1 to 2s, thus nearly abolishing Auditory recognition Memory, and leaving behind only a residual echoic Memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working Memory.

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  • Monkey׳s short-term Auditory Memory nearly abolished by combined removal of the rostral superior temporal gyrus and rhinal cortices.
    Brain research, 2015
    Co-Authors: Jonathan B. Fritz, Mortimer Mishkin, Megan Malloy, Richard C. Saunders

    Abstract:

    While monkeys easily acquire the rules for performing visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample, a method for testing recognition Memory, they have extraordinary difficulty acquiring a similar rule in audition. Another striking difference between the modalities is that whereas bilateral ablation of the rhinal cortex (RhC) leads to profound impairment in visual and tactile recognition, the same lesion has no detectable effect on Auditory recognition Memory (Fritz et al., 2005). In our previous study, a mild impairment in Auditory Memory was obtained following bilateral ablation of the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the RhC, and an equally mild effect was observed after bilateral ablation of the Auditory cortical areas in the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG). In order to test the hypothesis that each of these mild impairments was due to partial disconnection of acoustic input to a common target (e.g., the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), in the current study we examined the effects of a more complete Auditory disconnection of this common target by combining the removals of both the rSTG and the MTL. We found that the combined lesion led to forgetting thresholds (performance at 75% accuracy) that fell precipitously from the normal retention duration of ~30 to 40s to a duration of ~1 to 2s, thus nearly abolishing Auditory recognition Memory, and leaving behind only a residual echoic Memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working Memory.

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  • anatomical pathways for Auditory Memory ii information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex
    Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2015
    Co-Authors: M Munozlopez, Ricardo Insausti, Alicia Mohedanomoriano, Mortimer Mishkin, R C Saunders

    Abstract:

    Auditory recognition Memory in non-human primates differs from recognition Memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition Memory lasting 10–20 min. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for Auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30–40 s. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual Memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys’ Auditory Memory performance. The anatomical pathways for Auditory Memory may differ from those in vision. Long-term visual recognition Memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC). We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for Auditory processing, or that poor Auditory recognition Memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an Auditory pathway for recognition Memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG), and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY) and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 mW) tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from Auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex (EC), and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor Auditory Memory of rhesus monkeys.

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Richard C. Saunders – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • monkey s short term Auditory Memory nearly abolished by combined removal of the rostral superior temporal gyrus and rhinal cortices
    Brain Research, 2016
    Co-Authors: Jonathan B. Fritz, Mortimer Mishkin, Megan Malloy, Richard C. Saunders

    Abstract:

    While monkeys easily acquire the rules for performing visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample, a method for testing recognition Memory, they have extraordinary difficulty acquiring a similar rule in audition. Another striking difference between the modalities is that whereas bilateral ablation of the rhinal cortex (RhC) leads to profound impairment in visual and tactile recognition, the same lesion has no detectable effect on Auditory recognition Memory (Fritz et al., 2005). In our previous study, a mild impairment in Auditory Memory was obtained following bilateral ablation of the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the RhC, and an equally mild effect was observed after bilateral ablation of the Auditory cortical areas in the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG). In order to test the hypothesis that each of these mild impairments was due to partial disconnection of acoustic input to a common target (e.g., the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), in the current study we examined the effects of a more complete Auditory disconnection of this common target by combining the removals of both the rSTG and the MTL. We found that the combined lesion led to forgetting thresholds (performance at 75% accuracy) that fell precipitously from the normal retention duration of ~30 to 40s to a duration of ~1 to 2s, thus nearly abolishing Auditory recognition Memory, and leaving behind only a residual echoic Memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working Memory.

    Free Register to Access Article

  • Monkey׳s short-term Auditory Memory nearly abolished by combined removal of the rostral superior temporal gyrus and rhinal cortices.
    Brain research, 2015
    Co-Authors: Jonathan B. Fritz, Mortimer Mishkin, Megan Malloy, Richard C. Saunders

    Abstract:

    While monkeys easily acquire the rules for performing visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample, a method for testing recognition Memory, they have extraordinary difficulty acquiring a similar rule in audition. Another striking difference between the modalities is that whereas bilateral ablation of the rhinal cortex (RhC) leads to profound impairment in visual and tactile recognition, the same lesion has no detectable effect on Auditory recognition Memory (Fritz et al., 2005). In our previous study, a mild impairment in Auditory Memory was obtained following bilateral ablation of the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the RhC, and an equally mild effect was observed after bilateral ablation of the Auditory cortical areas in the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG). In order to test the hypothesis that each of these mild impairments was due to partial disconnection of acoustic input to a common target (e.g., the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), in the current study we examined the effects of a more complete Auditory disconnection of this common target by combining the removals of both the rSTG and the MTL. We found that the combined lesion led to forgetting thresholds (performance at 75% accuracy) that fell precipitously from the normal retention duration of ~30 to 40s to a duration of ~1 to 2s, thus nearly abolishing Auditory recognition Memory, and leaving behind only a residual echoic Memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working Memory.

    Free Register to Access Article

M Munozlopez – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • anatomical pathways for Auditory Memory ii information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex
    Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2015
    Co-Authors: M Munozlopez, Ricardo Insausti, Alicia Mohedanomoriano, Mortimer Mishkin, R C Saunders

    Abstract:

    Auditory recognition Memory in non-human primates differs from recognition Memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition Memory lasting 10–20 min. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for Auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30–40 s. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual Memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys’ Auditory Memory performance. The anatomical pathways for Auditory Memory may differ from those in vision. Long-term visual recognition Memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC). We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for Auditory processing, or that poor Auditory recognition Memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an Auditory pathway for recognition Memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG), and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY) and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 mW) tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from Auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex (EC), and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor Auditory Memory of rhesus monkeys.

    Free Register to Access Article