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Battery Room

The Experts below are selected from a list of 63 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

M A Alghoul – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • design and experimental performance of brackish water reverse osmosis desalination unit powered by 2 kw photovoltaic system
    Renewable Energy, 2016
    Co-Authors: M A Alghoul, P Poovanaesvaran, M H Mohammed, Assim Modhafar Fadhil, Ali F Muftah, Mahmud M Alkilani, Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    Abstract:

    Small-scale brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) desalination units are not a major commercial success compared to its large-scale counterpart. Integrating renewable power systems with small-scale units would theoretically aid in their deployment and subsequent commercial success. In fact, RO units are constructed using a modular approach; this would allow them to adapt to a renewable power supply. Small-scale PV-RO would be a promising form of desalination system in remote areas, where BW is more common. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of climatic-design-operation conditions on the performance and durability of a PV-BWRO desalination system. A small-scale unit is designed, constructed, and tested for 6 months. The design was limited to a 2 kWp PV power system, five different membranes, a feed TDS of 2000 mg/l, and a permeate TDS of less than 50 mg/l. Data pertaining to solar radiation and temperature were subsequently analyzed to determine their respective influences on current and future operations of the unit. The results showed that the optimum RO load, membrane type, and design configuration were 600 W, (4″x40″ TW30-4040), and a two-stage configuration, respectively. The PV system was able to supply the load without any significant disturbances; while the RO unit showed stable levels of permeate flow and salinity. Operating the PV-BWRO system for 10 h during the day would produce 5.1 m3 of fresh water at a specific energy of 1.1 kWh/m3. It was confirmed that there are many hours of high temperatures during the operation of the PV module (exceeding 45 °C) and Battery Room conditions (exceeding 35 °C), both of which could negatively affect the power output and Battery autonomy. This negative effect is compounded annually; therefore, optimizing thermal regulation of PV modules and Battery bank Room conditions is essential in maintaining excellent operating temperatures.

B. Le – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Characterization of gas propagation and ventilation in Battery Rooms
    Sixteenth Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances. Proceedings of the Conference (Cat. No.01TH8533), 2001
    Co-Authors: F. Vaccaro, J. Rhoades, J. Timmons, B. Le

    Abstract:

    There has been a proliferation of application-sensitive, normally gas efficient recombining VRLA batteries. In many applications this product is housed in relatively small Rooms with minimal control of ambient temperature or Battery charge current. At less than extreme excesses of these variables the recombination of the hydrogen and oxygen evolving from the Battery becomes inefficient. Under these conditions potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen in air develop and the Battery Room is no longer a safe environment. A thorough understanding of the properties of hydrogen transport and its ventilation is essential to prevent a dangerous buildup of hydrogen. We have tested the parameters necessary to provide efficient hydrogen ventilation and have found the following: a H/sub 2/ diffusion coefficient that is approximately a fifth of the literature value; the vent path length association to the hydrogen concentration in the Battery Room is not one to one, as indicated by the classical diffusion equations; hydrogen ventilation calculations and methods are presented for simple diffusion and forced air convection (fans); and it is experimentally demonstrated that the friction and turbulence of air flow when using fans needs to be determined by direct measurement.

  • Experiments on the ventilation of hydrogen gas from Battery Rooms
    INTELEC. Twenty-Second International Telecommunications Energy Conference (Cat. No.00CH37131), 2000
    Co-Authors: F. Vaccaro, J. Rhoades, J. Timmons, B. Le

    Abstract:

    In recent years, there has been a proliferation of application-sensitive, normally gas efficient recombining VRLA batteries. In many applications, this product is housed in relatively small Rooms with minimal control of ambient temperature or Battery charge current. At less than extreme excesses of these variables, the recombination of the hydrogen and oxygen evolving from the Battery becomes inefficient. Under these conditions potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen in air develop and the Battery Room is no longer a safe environment. A thorough understanding of the properties of hydrogen transport and its ventilation is essential to prevent a dangerous buildup of hydrogen. The authors have tested the parameters necessary to provide efficient hydrogen ventilation and have found the following: a H/sub 2/ diffusion coefficient that is approximately a fifth of the literature value; the vent path length association to the hydrogen concentration in the Battery Room is not one to one, as indicated by the classical diffusion equations; hydrogen ventilation calculations and methods are presented for simple diffusion and forced air convection (fans). It is experimentally demonstrated that the friction and turbulence of air flow when using fans needs to be determined by direct measurement.

Kamaruzzaman Sopian – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • design and experimental performance of brackish water reverse osmosis desalination unit powered by 2 kw photovoltaic system
    Renewable Energy, 2016
    Co-Authors: M A Alghoul, P Poovanaesvaran, M H Mohammed, Assim Modhafar Fadhil, Ali F Muftah, Mahmud M Alkilani, Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    Abstract:

    Small-scale brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) desalination units are not a major commercial success compared to its large-scale counterpart. Integrating renewable power systems with small-scale units would theoretically aid in their deployment and subsequent commercial success. In fact, RO units are constructed using a modular approach; this would allow them to adapt to a renewable power supply. Small-scale PV-RO would be a promising form of desalination system in remote areas, where BW is more common. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of climatic-design-operation conditions on the performance and durability of a PV-BWRO desalination system. A small-scale unit is designed, constructed, and tested for 6 months. The design was limited to a 2 kWp PV power system, five different membranes, a feed TDS of 2000 mg/l, and a permeate TDS of less than 50 mg/l. Data pertaining to solar radiation and temperature were subsequently analyzed to determine their respective influences on current and future operations of the unit. The results showed that the optimum RO load, membrane type, and design configuration were 600 W, (4″x40″ TW30-4040), and a two-stage configuration, respectively. The PV system was able to supply the load without any significant disturbances; while the RO unit showed stable levels of permeate flow and salinity. Operating the PV-BWRO system for 10 h during the day would produce 5.1 m3 of fresh water at a specific energy of 1.1 kWh/m3. It was confirmed that there are many hours of high temperatures during the operation of the PV module (exceeding 45 °C) and Battery Room conditions (exceeding 35 °C), both of which could negatively affect the power output and Battery autonomy. This negative effect is compounded annually; therefore, optimizing thermal regulation of PV modules and Battery bank Room conditions is essential in maintaining excellent operating temperatures.