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Bedding Layer

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Andrea Vallati – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The performance analysis of a new thermal backfill material for underground power cable system
    Applied Thermal Engineering, 2016
    Co-Authors: Paweł Ocłoń, Paul Cisek, Dawid Taler, Marcin Pilarczyk, Marco Bittelli, Eva Kroener, Ravipudi Venkata Rao, Andrea Vallati

    Abstract:

    Lafarge Gruntar™ material is proposed in this paper as a new thermal backfill component, and different mass fractions such as 5%, 10%, and 15% are examined. The thermal properties of the developed backfill are determined by experiments with respect to water content and time. Based on the experimental data it is found that the 15% mass fraction Lafarge Gruntar™ material provides the most favorable thermal conductivity i.e. over 1.00 W/(m K) in the dry state. This paper also presents a thermal performance optimization procedure for the high voltage underground power cable system. The new thermal backfill material is considered to be installed within the cable system to improve its thermal performance. The analyzed system consists of three underground power cables situated in a flat formation (in−line arrangement) in thermal backfill, buried in the native soil. To avoid extensive mechanical loads caused by vibrations, when locating beneath a paved ground (e.g. under road crossings), the cables are situated in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) casing pipes filled with sand−bentonite mixture. The pipes are then placed into a thermal backfill and buried in the native soil. The Installation of thermal backfill material is relatively expensive since in many cases the buried line is installed over many kilometers. Therefore, it is important to determine the optimal dimensions of the cable Bedding Layer to minimize the material and installation costs while keeping efficient heat dissipation from the cables. The momentum-type Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) solver, with a dynamic penalty function, is used to minimize the cable backfill cross-sectional area while not exceeding the allowable temperature of the cable operation. The performed optimization procedure obtains the converged solution. The temperature distribution in soil, cables, and the cable backfill Layer is determined using the Finite Element Method. The Campbell − de Vries thermal conductivity model is employed for the soil surrounding the underground power cable system. An MATLAB code is written for solving the heat conduction equation and to determine the temperature distribution within the underground power cable system. By using the momentum-type Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, it is possible to design the best-found dimensions of the cable Bedding Layer (width and height). Moreover, the dynamic penalty function employed in the optimization procedure has assured the determination of the maximum temperature of cable conductor close to its best-found value.

Paweł Ocłoń – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The performance analysis of a new thermal backfill material for underground power cable system
    Applied Thermal Engineering, 2016
    Co-Authors: Paweł Ocłoń, Paul Cisek, Dawid Taler, Marcin Pilarczyk, Marco Bittelli, Eva Kroener, Ravipudi Venkata Rao, Andrea Vallati

    Abstract:

    Lafarge Gruntar™ material is proposed in this paper as a new thermal backfill component, and different mass fractions such as 5%, 10%, and 15% are examined. The thermal properties of the developed backfill are determined by experiments with respect to water content and time. Based on the experimental data it is found that the 15% mass fraction Lafarge Gruntar™ material provides the most favorable thermal conductivity i.e. over 1.00 W/(m K) in the dry state. This paper also presents a thermal performance optimization procedure for the high voltage underground power cable system. The new thermal backfill material is considered to be installed within the cable system to improve its thermal performance. The analyzed system consists of three underground power cables situated in a flat formation (in−line arrangement) in thermal backfill, buried in the native soil. To avoid extensive mechanical loads caused by vibrations, when locating beneath a paved ground (e.g. under road crossings), the cables are situated in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) casing pipes filled with sand−bentonite mixture. The pipes are then placed into a thermal backfill and buried in the native soil. The Installation of thermal backfill material is relatively expensive since in many cases the buried line is installed over many kilometers. Therefore, it is important to determine the optimal dimensions of the cable Bedding Layer to minimize the material and installation costs while keeping efficient heat dissipation from the cables. The momentum-type Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) solver, with a dynamic penalty function, is used to minimize the cable backfill cross-sectional area while not exceeding the allowable temperature of the cable operation. The performed optimization procedure obtains the converged solution. The temperature distribution in soil, cables, and the cable backfill Layer is determined using the Finite Element Method. The Campbell − de Vries thermal conductivity model is employed for the soil surrounding the underground power cable system. An MATLAB code is written for solving the heat conduction equation and to determine the temperature distribution within the underground power cable system. By using the momentum-type Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, it is possible to design the best-found dimensions of the cable Bedding Layer (width and height). Moreover, the dynamic penalty function employed in the optimization procedure has assured the determination of the maximum temperature of cable conductor close to its best-found value.

Paul Cisek – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The performance analysis of a new thermal backfill material for underground power cable system
    Applied Thermal Engineering, 2016
    Co-Authors: Paweł Ocłoń, Paul Cisek, Dawid Taler, Marcin Pilarczyk, Marco Bittelli, Eva Kroener, Ravipudi Venkata Rao, Andrea Vallati

    Abstract:

    Lafarge Gruntar™ material is proposed in this paper as a new thermal backfill component, and different mass fractions such as 5%, 10%, and 15% are examined. The thermal properties of the developed backfill are determined by experiments with respect to water content and time. Based on the experimental data it is found that the 15% mass fraction Lafarge Gruntar™ material provides the most favorable thermal conductivity i.e. over 1.00 W/(m K) in the dry state. This paper also presents a thermal performance optimization procedure for the high voltage underground power cable system. The new thermal backfill material is considered to be installed within the cable system to improve its thermal performance. The analyzed system consists of three underground power cables situated in a flat formation (in−line arrangement) in thermal backfill, buried in the native soil. To avoid extensive mechanical loads caused by vibrations, when locating beneath a paved ground (e.g. under road crossings), the cables are situated in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) casing pipes filled with sand−bentonite mixture. The pipes are then placed into a thermal backfill and buried in the native soil. The Installation of thermal backfill material is relatively expensive since in many cases the buried line is installed over many kilometers. Therefore, it is important to determine the optimal dimensions of the cable Bedding Layer to minimize the material and installation costs while keeping efficient heat dissipation from the cables. The momentum-type Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) solver, with a dynamic penalty function, is used to minimize the cable backfill cross-sectional area while not exceeding the allowable temperature of the cable operation. The performed optimization procedure obtains the converged solution. The temperature distribution in soil, cables, and the cable backfill Layer is determined using the Finite Element Method. The Campbell − de Vries thermal conductivity model is employed for the soil surrounding the underground power cable system. An MATLAB code is written for solving the heat conduction equation and to determine the temperature distribution within the underground power cable system. By using the momentum-type Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, it is possible to design the best-found dimensions of the cable Bedding Layer (width and height). Moreover, the dynamic penalty function employed in the optimization procedure has assured the determination of the maximum temperature of cable conductor close to its best-found value.

  • Optimizing of the underground power cable Bedding using momentum-type particle swarm optimization method
    Energy, 2015
    Co-Authors: Piotr Chełpiński, Paul Cisek, Dawid Taler, Marcin Pilarczyk, Tomasz Szwarc

    Abstract:

    Thermal performance optimization of underground power cable system is presented in this paper. The analyzed system consists of three underground power cables situated in an in-line arrangement. The HDPE (High-Density Polyethylene) casing pipes, filled with SBM (Sand-Bentonite Mixture), covers the cables to protect them from heavy mechanical loads (e.g. vibrations). The FTB (Fluidized Thermal Backfill) Layer is applied to prevent the cables from overheating. Due to the substantial costs of FTB backfill material (in relation to the native soil or dry sand), the cross-sectional area of FTB Bedding Layer has to be minimized. Furthermore, the maximum cable conductor temperature is expected not to exceed the optimum operating temperature. Therefore, the optimization procedure i.e. momentum-type PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) is applied. The FEM (Finite Element Method) is used to solve the two-dimensional steady-state heat conduction problem. As a result, temperature distribution is determined for the native soil, FTB Bedding, and cables. The performed computations considered the temperature dependent current rating and volumetric heat generation rate from cable conductor. The applied optimization procedure resulted in determination of the optimum cable spacing and cross-sectional area of the rectangular-shaped FTB Bedding Layer. Moreover, the obtained maximum temperature for the cable core do not exceed the allowable value.