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Bicyclus anynana

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Paul M. Brakefield – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • differentiation in putative male sex pheromone components across and within populations of the african butterfly Bicyclus anynana as a potential driver of reproductive isolation
    Ecology and Evolution, 2016
    Co-Authors: Paul Bacquet, Paul M. Brakefield, Christer Lofstedt, Honglei Wang, Oskar Brattstrom, Maaike A De Jong, Freerk Molleman, Stephanie Heuskin, George Lognay, Alain Vanderpoorten

    Abstract:

    Sexual traits are often the most divergent characters among closely related species, suggesting an important role of sexual traits in speciation. However, to prove this, we need to show that sexual trait differences accumulate before or during the speciation process, rather than being a consequence of it. Here, we contrast patterns of divergence among putative male sex pheromone (pMSP) composition and the genetic structure inferred from variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 and nuclear CAD loci in the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Butler, 1879) to determine whether the evolution of “pheromonal dialects” occurs before or after the differentiation process. We observed differences in abundance of some shared pMSP components as well as differences in the composition of the pMSP among B. anynana populations. In addition, B. anynana individuals from Kenya displayed differences in the pMSP composition within a single population that appeared not associated with genetic differences. These differences in pMSP composition both between and within B. anynana populations were as large as those found between different Bicyclus species. Our results suggest that “pheromonal dialects” evolved within and among populations of B. anynana and may therefore act as precursors of an ongoing speciation process.

  • The predictive adaptive response: modeling the life-history evolution of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana in seasonal environments.
    The American Naturalist, 2013
    Co-Authors: Joost Van Den Heuvel, Bas J. Zwaan, Paul M. Brakefield, Marjo Saastamoinen, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Daryl P Shanley

    Abstract:

    A predictive adaptive response (PAR) is a type of developmental plasticity where the response to an environmental cue is not immediately advantageous but instead is later in life. The PAR is a way for organisms to maximize fitness in varying environments. Insects living in seasonal environments are valuable model systems for testing the existence and form of PAR. Previous manipulations of the larval and the adult environments of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana have shown that individuals that were food restricted during the larval stage coped better with forced flight during the adult stage compared to those with optimal conditions in the larval stage. Here, we describe a state-dependent energy allocation model, which we use to test whether such a response to food restriction could be adaptive in nature where this butterfly exhibits seasonal cycles. The results from the model confirm the responses obtained in our previous experimental work and show how such an outcome was facilitated by resource allocation patterns to the thorax during the pupal stage. We conclude that for B. anynana, early-stage cues can direct development toward a better adapted phenotype later in life and, therefore, that a PAR has evolved in this species.

  • the predictive adaptive response modeling the life history evolution of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana in seasonal environments
    The American Naturalist, 2013
    Co-Authors: Joost Van Den Heuvel, Bas J. Zwaan, Paul M. Brakefield, Marjo Saastamoinen, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Daryl P Shanley

    Abstract:

    Abstract A predictive adaptive response (PAR) is a type of developmental plasticity where the response to an environmental cue is not immediately advantageous but instead is later in life. The PAR is a way for organisms to maximize fitness in varying environments. Insects living in seasonal environments are valuable model systems for testing the existence and form of PAR. Previous manipulations of the larval and the adult environments of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana have shown that individuals that were food restricted during the larval stage coped better with forced flight during the adult stage compared to those with optimal conditions in the larval stage. Here, we describe a state-dependent energy allocation model, which we use to test whether such a response to food restriction could be adaptive in nature where this butterfly exhibits seasonal cycles. The results from the model confirm the responses obtained in our previous experimental work and show how such an outcome was facilitated by resource a…

Antonia Monteiro – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • multiple loci control eyespot number variation on the hindwings of Bicyclus anynana butterflies
    Genetics, 2020
    Co-Authors: Antonia Monteiro, Angel G Riveracolon, Riccardo Papa, Erica L Westerman, Steven M Van Belleghem

    Abstract:

    The underlying genetic changes that regulate the appearance and disappearance of repeated traits, or serial homologs, remain poorly understood. One hypothesis is that variation in genomic regions flanking master regulatory genes, also known as input–output genes, controls variation in trait number, making the locus of evolution almost predictable. Another hypothesis implicates genetic variation in up- or downstream loci of master control genes. Here, we use the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that exhibits natural variation in eyespot number on the dorsal hindwing, to test these two hypotheses. We first estimated the heritability of dorsal hindwing eyespot number by breeding multiple butterfly families differing in eyespot number and regressing eyespot numbers of offspring on midparent values. We then estimated the number and identity of independent genetic loci contributing to eyespot number variation by performing a genome-wide association study with restriction site-associated DNA sequencing from multiple individuals varying in number of eyespots sampled across a freely breeding laboratory population. We found that dorsal hindwing eyespot number has a moderately high heritability of ∼0.50 and is characterized by a polygenic architecture. Previously identified genomic regions involved in eyespot development, and novel ones, display high association with dorsal hindwing eyespot number, suggesting that homolog number variation is likely determined by regulatory changes at multiple loci that build the trait, and not by variation at single master regulators or input–output genes.

  • dissection of larval and pupal wings of Bicyclus anynana butterflies
    Methods and protocols, 2020
    Co-Authors: Tirtha Das Banerjee, Antonia Monteiro

    Abstract:

    The colorful wings of butterflies are emerging as model systems for evolutionary and developmental studies. Some of these studies focus on localizing gene transcripts and proteins in wings at the larval and pupal stages using techniques such as immunostaining and in situ hybridization. Other studies quantify mRNA expression levels or identify regions of open chromatin that are bound by proteins at different stages of wing development. All these techniques require dissection of the wings from the animal but a detailed video protocol describing this procedure has not been available until now. Here, we present a written and accompanying video protocol where we describe the tools and the method we use to remove the larval and pupal wings of the African Squinting Bush Brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana. This protocol should be easy to adapt to other species.

  • Early-exposure to new sex pheromone blends alters mate preference in female butterflies and in their offspring.
    Nature Communications, 2020
    Co-Authors: Emilie Dion, Katie Weber, Antonia Monteiro

    Abstract:

    While the diversity of sex pheromone communication systems across insects is well documented, the mechanisms that lead to such diversity are not well understood. Sex pheromones constitute a species-specific system of sexual communication that reinforces interspecific reproductive isolation. When odor blends evolve, the efficacy of male-female communication becomes compromised, unless preference for novel blends also evolves. We explore odor learning as a possible mechanism leading to changes in sex pheromone preferences in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Our experiments reveal mating patterns suggesting that mating bias for new blends can develop following a short learning experience, and that this maternal experience impacts the mating outcome of offspring without further exposure. We propose that odor learning can be a key factor in the evolution of sex pheromone blend recognition and in chemosensory speciation. Pheromones are an essential cue for species recognition and mate selection in many insects including the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Here the authors show that females with a short social experience of a new male learn preferences for novel pheromone blends, a preference which also occurs in their daughters.

Bas J. Zwaan – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • a high coverage draft genome of the mycalesine butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    GigaScience, 2017
    Co-Authors: Reuben W Nowell, Bas J. Zwaan, Benjamin Elsworth, Vicencio Oostra, Christopher W Wheat, Marjo Saastamoinen, Ilik J Saccheri, Bethany R Wasik, Heidi Connahs, Muhammad L Aslam

    Abstract:

    The mycalesine butterfly Bicyclus anynana, the “Squinting bush brown,” is a model organism in the study of lepidopteran ecology, development, and evolution. Here, we present a draft genome sequence for B. anynana to serve as a genomics resource for current and future studies of this important model species. Seven libraries with insert sizes ranging from 350 bp to 20 kb were constructed using DNA from an inbred female and sequenced using both Illumina and PacBio technology; 128 Gb of raw Illumina data was filtered to 124 Gb and assembled to a final size of 475 Mb (∼×260 assembly coverage). Contigs were scaffolded using mate-pair, transcriptome, and PacBio data into 10 800 sequences with an N50 of 638 kb (longest scaffold 5 Mb). The genome is comprised of 26% repetitive elements and encodes a total of 22 642 predicted protein-coding genes. Recovery of a BUSCO set of core metazoan genes was almost complete (98%). Overall, these metrics compare well with other recently published lepidopteran genomes. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Bicyclus anynana. The genome assembly and annotated gene models are available at LepBase (http://ensembl.lepbase.org/index.html).

  • The predictive adaptive response: modeling the life-history evolution of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana in seasonal environments.
    The American Naturalist, 2013
    Co-Authors: Joost Van Den Heuvel, Bas J. Zwaan, Paul M. Brakefield, Marjo Saastamoinen, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Daryl P Shanley

    Abstract:

    A predictive adaptive response (PAR) is a type of developmental plasticity where the response to an environmental cue is not immediately advantageous but instead is later in life. The PAR is a way for organisms to maximize fitness in varying environments. Insects living in seasonal environments are valuable model systems for testing the existence and form of PAR. Previous manipulations of the larval and the adult environments of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana have shown that individuals that were food restricted during the larval stage coped better with forced flight during the adult stage compared to those with optimal conditions in the larval stage. Here, we describe a state-dependent energy allocation model, which we use to test whether such a response to food restriction could be adaptive in nature where this butterfly exhibits seasonal cycles. The results from the model confirm the responses obtained in our previous experimental work and show how such an outcome was facilitated by resource allocation patterns to the thorax during the pupal stage. We conclude that for B. anynana, early-stage cues can direct development toward a better adapted phenotype later in life and, therefore, that a PAR has evolved in this species.

  • the predictive adaptive response modeling the life history evolution of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana in seasonal environments
    The American Naturalist, 2013
    Co-Authors: Joost Van Den Heuvel, Bas J. Zwaan, Paul M. Brakefield, Marjo Saastamoinen, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Daryl P Shanley

    Abstract:

    Abstract A predictive adaptive response (PAR) is a type of developmental plasticity where the response to an environmental cue is not immediately advantageous but instead is later in life. The PAR is a way for organisms to maximize fitness in varying environments. Insects living in seasonal environments are valuable model systems for testing the existence and form of PAR. Previous manipulations of the larval and the adult environments of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana have shown that individuals that were food restricted during the larval stage coped better with forced flight during the adult stage compared to those with optimal conditions in the larval stage. Here, we describe a state-dependent energy allocation model, which we use to test whether such a response to food restriction could be adaptive in nature where this butterfly exhibits seasonal cycles. The results from the model confirm the responses obtained in our previous experimental work and show how such an outcome was facilitated by resource a…