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Binder System

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Muhammad Dilawer Hayat – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Binder System interactions and their effects
    Feedstock Technology for Reactive Metal Injection Molding, 2020
    Co-Authors: Muhammad Dilawer Hayat

    Abstract:

    Abstract At present, the Binder’s properties for metal injection molding (MIM) are assessed by rheological measurements and thermal decomposition temperature of the backbone polymer. Although blend studies of common polymers are available in the literature, little attention has been paid to study specific interactions among the particular Binder System components and the effects of such interaction on reactive powders-MIM feedstocks are largely missing. This chapter aims to give readers some basic knowledge about polymer blends, their thermodynamics, and the possible interactions among individual components of common Binder Systems. In the last section, interactions between a Binder System and metallic powder are also explained. After going through this chapter, the readers should be able to identify the importance of such interactions and know-how these interactions can be used to improve the properties of a feedstock.

  • improving titanium injection moulding feedstock based on peg ppc based Binder System
    Powder Technology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Muhammad Dilawer Hayat, Pratik Prakash Jadhav, Hongzhou Zhang

    Abstract:

    Abstract Binder System is an integral part of metal injection moulding (MIM) process that holds the metal powder together until the first stage of sintering. In this research, a new Binder System was developed consisting of water soluble polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the main component, while poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were used as the backbone components for titanium-MIM processing. The macromolecular interactions between various Binder components were evident from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. The interactions between polymeric components in the Binder provided ample compatibility within the Binder System as revealed from the thermo-rheological properties of the titanium-MIM feedstock, which ensured suitability for thermal processing. Incorporation of PMMA in PEG/PPC Binder System significantly improved the green strength of the moulded parts especially after initial water debinding step and thereby facilitated the following thermal processing. In addition, the chemical interactions between the polymers in PMMA-containing Binder System enhanced the thermal stability of the as-moulded parts. Hence, the interactions between different polymeric materials showed a crucial role in developing suitable Binder System for the MIM processing. The oxygen, carbon and nitrogen impurity contents of thermally debound samples obtained from this new Binder System met the grade 1 ASTM standard, suggesting the potential applicability in the production of high quality titanium products.

  • Improving titanium injection moulding feedstock based on PEG/PPC based Binder System
    Powder Technology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Muhammad Dilawer Hayat, Pratik Prakash Jadhav, Hongzhou Zhang

    Abstract:

    Abstract Binder System is an integral part of metal injection moulding (MIM) process that holds the metal powder together until the first stage of sintering. In this research, a new Binder System was developed consisting of water soluble polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the main component, while poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were used as the backbone components for titanium-MIM processing. The macromolecular interactions between various Binder components were evident from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. The interactions between polymeric components in the Binder provided ample compatibility within the Binder System as revealed from the thermo-rheological properties of the titanium-MIM feedstock, which ensured suitability for thermal processing. Incorporation of PMMA in PEG/PPC Binder System significantly improved the green strength of the moulded parts especially after initial water debinding step and thereby facilitated the following thermal processing. In addition, the chemical interactions between the polymers in PMMA-containing Binder System enhanced the thermal stability of the as-moulded parts. Hence, the interactions between different polymeric materials showed a crucial role in developing suitable Binder System for the MIM processing. The oxygen, carbon and nitrogen impurity contents of thermally debound samples obtained from this new Binder System met the grade 1 ASTM standard, suggesting the potential applicability in the production of high quality titanium products.

Janis E. Swan – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • analysis of rheological behaviour of titanium feedstocks formulated with a water soluble Binder System for powder injection moulding
    Powder Technology, 2015
    Co-Authors: G. Thavanayagam, Kim L. Pickering, Janis E. Swan

    Abstract:

    Abstract Binder selection and formulation are critical in powder injection moulding. Binders play a key role in controlling the rheological properties of a feedstock and influence whether the resulting feedstock can be successfully injection moulded, debound and sintered without defects. A four-step process was used to mix hydride-dehydride titanium alloy (processed) powder (Ti–6Al–4V) with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) based water soluble Binder System. The rheological properties, including flow behaviour index, flow activation energy, fluidity and melt flow index of the homogeneous feedstock, were determined with a capillary rheometer. All feedstock formulations exhibited shear thinning flow behaviour. The optimum feedstock consisting of 60 vol.% powder content, 32 vol.% PEG, 6 vol.% polyvinyl butyryl and 2 vol.% stearic acid was suitable for titanium injection moulding.

G. Thavanayagam – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • analysis of rheological behaviour of titanium feedstocks formulated with a water soluble Binder System for powder injection moulding
    Powder Technology, 2015
    Co-Authors: G. Thavanayagam, Kim L. Pickering, Janis E. Swan

    Abstract:

    Abstract Binder selection and formulation are critical in powder injection moulding. Binders play a key role in controlling the rheological properties of a feedstock and influence whether the resulting feedstock can be successfully injection moulded, debound and sintered without defects. A four-step process was used to mix hydride-dehydride titanium alloy (processed) powder (Ti–6Al–4V) with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) based water soluble Binder System. The rheological properties, including flow behaviour index, flow activation energy, fluidity and melt flow index of the homogeneous feedstock, were determined with a capillary rheometer. All feedstock formulations exhibited shear thinning flow behaviour. The optimum feedstock consisting of 60 vol.% powder content, 32 vol.% PEG, 6 vol.% polyvinyl butyryl and 2 vol.% stearic acid was suitable for titanium injection moulding.

  • rheological properties of feedstock composed of titanium alloy powder and polyethylene glycol based Binder System for metal injection moulding
    PRICM: 8 Pacific Rim International Congress on Advanced Materials and Processing, 2013
    Co-Authors: G. Thavanayagam, Deliang Zhang, Kim L. Pickering

    Abstract:

    Metal injection moulding (MIM) has been widely recognized as a route for cost effective production of titanium alloy parts with complex shapes. In this study, feedstock was prepared by mixing HDH Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder with polyethylene glycol (PEG) based Binder System. Feedstock formulation was homogeneous with a combination of dry mixing by a planetary mixer and a roller mixer, as well as melt mixing by a twin blade compounder and a twin screw extruder. Investigations were done using a capillary rheometer to understand the effects of key parameters such as powder loadings and Binder formulations on the rheological properties of feedstock. Results showed that all feedstock formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow behaviour. A feedstock consists of 86 wt.% powder loading was found to be more suitable for MIM with the feeding screw speed of 200rpm, injection pressure of 20MPa and the feed to nozzle temperature of 130°C to 145°C.

  • A Study of Polyvinyl Butyryl Based Binder System in Titanium Based Metal Injection Moulding
    Key Engineering Materials, 2012
    Co-Authors: G. Thavanayagam, Kim L. Pickering, Deliang Zhang, Stiliana Rousseva Raynova

    Abstract:

    Metal injection moulding (MIM) is an innovative injection moulding technique widely used to produce complex shaped components from feedstock composed of metal powders and thermosetting or thermoplastic Binders. In MIM, Binder selection and formulation are considered as critical processes since Binder characteristics dictate the success of MIM. The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of polyvinyl butyryl (PVB) based Binder System in Ti-6Al-4V(wt.%)/Binder feedstock, as well as to understand the effects of key parameters, such as powder loading and mixing conditions on the rheological properties of a feedstock. In this study, PVB, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and stearic acid (SA) were chosen to formulate a multi-component Binder System to prepare Ti-6Al-4V based feedstock with the aid of three types of mixers: a compounder, a modified mechanical mixer and a twin screw extruder. Further, morphological analysis was performed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thermal analysis was performed using simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Results showed that Binder formulation was reasonably successful with the aid of both mechanical mixer and a twin screw extruder under certain mixing conditions, and the critical powder loading was 68 vol.%, resulting in an optimum powder loading of 63 vol.% .