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Biomass Technology

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J M Kenny – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • production of nanocrystalline cellulose from lignocellulosic Biomass Technology and applications
    Carbohydrate Polymers, 2013
    Co-Authors: Lucia Brinchi, J M Kenny, Franco Cotana, Elena Fortunati

    Abstract:

    The use of renewables materials for industrial applications is becoming impellent due to the increasing demand of alternatives to scarce and unrenewable petroleum supplies. In this regard, nanocrystalline cellulose, NCC, derived from cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer, is one of the most promising materials. NCC has unique features, interesting for the development of new materials: the abundance of the source cellulose, its renewability and environmentally benign nature, its mechanical properties and its nano-scaled dimensions open a wide range of possible properties to be discovered. One of the most promising uses of NCC is in polymer matrix nanocomposites, because it can provide a significant reinforcement. This review provides an overview on this emerging nanomaterial, focusing on extraction procedures, especially from lignocellulosic Biomass, and on technological developments and applications of NCC-based materials. Challenges and future opportunities of NCC-based materials will be are discussed as well as obstacles remaining for their large use.

Charles E. Wyman – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Ethanol from lignocellulosic Biomass: Technology, economics, and opportunities
    Bioresource Technology, 1994
    Co-Authors: Charles E. Wyman

    Abstract:

    Production of ethanol from agriculutural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, energy crops, and other forms of lignocellulosic Biomass could improve energy security, reduce trade deficits, decrease urban air pollution, and contribute little, if any, net carbon dioxide accumulation to the atmosphere. Dilute acid can open up the Biomass structure for subsequent processing. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process is favored for producing ethanol from the major fraction of lignocellulosic Biomass, cellulose, because of its low cost potential. Technology has also been developed for converting the second largest Biomass fraction, hemicellulose, into ethanol. The remaining fraction, containing mostly lignin, can be burned as boiler fuel to power the conversion process and generate extra electricity to export. Developments in conversion Technology have reduced the projected gate price of ethanol from about US$0.95/liter (US$3.60/gallon) in 1980 to only about US$0.32/liter (US$1.22/gallon) in 1994. Technical targets have been identified to bring the selling price down to about US$0.18/liter (US$0.67/gallon), a level that is competitive when oil prices exceed US$25/barrel. However, at current projected costs, ethanol from Biomass could be competitive with ethanol from corn, particularly if lower cost feedstocks or other niche markets are capitalized upon. © 1995.

Deepak Pant – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic Biomass: Technology and sustainability
    Energies, 2015
    Co-Authors: Anoop Singh, Surajbhan Sevda, Ibrahim M. Abu-reesh, Karolien Vanbroekhoven, Dheeraj Rathore, Deepak Pant

    Abstract:

    Among the various renewable energy sources, biohydrogen is gaining a lot of traction as it has very high efficiency of conversion to usable power with less pollutant generation. The various technologies available for the production of biohydrogen from lignocellulosic Biomass such as direct biophotolysis, indirect biophotolysis, photo, and dark fermentations have some drawbacks (e.g., low yield and slower production rate, etc.), which limits their practical application. Among these, metabolic engineering is presently the most promising for the production of biohydrogen as it overcomes most of the limitations in other technologies. Microbial electrolysis is another recent Technology that is progressing very rapidly. However, it is the dark fermentation approach, followed by photo fermentation, which seem closer to commercialization. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic Biomass is particularly suitable for relatively small and decentralized systems and it can be considered as an important sustainable and renewable energy source. The comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic Biomass and its comparison with other biofuels can be a tool for policy decisions. In this paper, we discuss the various possible approaches for producing biohydrogen from lignocellulosic Biomass which is an globally available abundant resource. The main technological challenges are discussed in detail, followed by potential solutions.