Blister Agent - Explore the Science & Experts | ideXlab

Scan Science and Technology

Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies

Blister Agent

The Experts below are selected from a list of 219 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Chanbasha Basheer – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Determination of trace level chemical warfare Agents in water and slurry samples using hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
    Journal of chromatography. A, 2006
    Co-Authors: Chanbasha Basheer

    Abstract:

    A simple and solvent-minimised sample preparation technique based on hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction was investigated for the gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare Agents in water and slurry samples. The chemical warfare Agents included four nerve Agents and a Blister Agent. Parameters such as extraction solvent, salt concentration, stirring speed and extraction time were optimised using spiked deionised water samples. The technique provided a linear range of two orders of magnitude, good repeatability (RSDs < 10%, n = 6), good linearity (r2 >or= 0.995) and limits of detection (LODs) in the range of 0.02-0.09 microg l(-1) (S/N = 3) under full scan mode. The optimised technique was also applied to more complex slurry samples and similar precision (RSD < 15%, n = 3) and limits of detection (0.02-0.2 microgl(-1), S/N = 3) were obtained.

  • Determination of trace level chemical warfare Agents in water and slurry samples using hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
    Journal of Chromatography A, 2006
    Co-Authors: Chanbasha Basheer

    Abstract:

    Abstract A simple and solvent-minimised sample preparation technique based on hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction was investigated for the gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare Agents in water and slurry samples. The chemical warfare Agents included four nerve Agents and a Blister Agent. Parameters such as extraction solvent, salt concentration, stirring speed and extraction time were optimised using spiked deionised water samples. The technique provided a linear range of two orders of magnitude, good repeatability (RSDs

  • Determination of trace level chemical warfare Agents in water and slurry samples using hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    Journal of Chromatography A, 2006
    Co-Authors: H.s.n. Lee, Chanbasha Basheer

    Abstract:

    A simple and solvent-minimised sample preparation technique based on hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction was investigated for the gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare Agents in water and slurry samples. The chemical warfare Agents included four nerve Agents and a Blister Agent. Parameters such as extraction solvent, salt concentration, stirring speed and extraction time were optimised using spiked deionised water samples. The technique provided a linear range of two orders of magnitude, good repeatability (RSDs < 10%, n = 6), good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.995) and limits of detection (LODs) in the range of 0.02-0.09 μg l-1 (S/N = 3) under full scan mode. The optimised technique was also applied to more complex slurry samples and similar precision (RSD < 15%, n = 3) and limits of detection (0.02-0.2 μg l-1, S/N = 3) were obtained. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gary S Selwyn – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Chemical warfare Agent decontamination studies in the plasma decon chamber
    IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 2002
    Co-Authors: H.w. Herrmann, Gary S Selwyn, Ivars Henins, Jaeyoung Park, M. Jeffery, J M Williams

    Abstract:

    A “plasma decon chamber” has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Albuquerque, NM, to study the decontamination of chemical and biological warfare Agents. This technology is targeted at sensitive electronic equipment for which there is currently no acceptable, nondestructive means of decontamination. Chemical reactivity is provided by a downstream flux of reactive radicals such as atomic oxygen and atomic hydrogen, produced in a capacitively coupled plasma. In addition, the decon chamber provides an environment that accelerates the evaporation of chemical Agents from contaminated surfaces by vacuum, heat, and forced convection. Once evaporated, Agents and Agent byproducts are recirculated directly through the plasma, where they undergo further chemical breakdown. Preliminary studies on actual chemical Agents were conducted at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway, UT. Exposures were conducted at a system pressure of 30 torr, exposure temperature of 70/spl deg/C, plasma-to-sample standoff distance of 10 cm, and 10% addition of oxygen or hydrogen to a helium balance. This exposure condition was based on optimization studies conducted at LANL on Agent simulants. The Agents studied were VX and soman (GD) nerve Agents and sulfur mustard (HD) Blister Agent, as well as a thickened simulant. All Agents were decontaminated off aluminum substrates to below the detection limit of /spl sim/0.1% of the initial contamination level of approximately 1 mg/cm/sup 2/. For VX, this level of decontamination was achieved in 8-16 min of exposure, while only 2 min were required for the more volatile HD and GD. Evaporation and subsequent gas-phase chemical breakdown in the plasma appears to be the dominant decontamination mechanism for all of the Agents. However, an observed difference in the decontamination process between oxygen and hydrogen indicates that chemical reactivity in the liquid phase also plays an important role.

  • Atmospheric pressure plasma jet technology applied to chem/bio decontamination
    ICOPS 2000. IEEE Conference Record – Abstracts. 27th IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (Cat. No.00CH37087), 2000
    Co-Authors: H.w. Herrmann, Gary S Selwyn, Ivars Henins, J. Park

    Abstract:

    Summary form only given. The possibility of an attack using chemical or biological warfare (CBW) Agents in either a domestic terrorism or military situation has become all too real in recent history. This has been made evident by the 1995 sarin nerve gas attack on the Tokyo subway and the threat of chem/bio warfare in the Persian Gulf and Korea. The U.S. has stepped up efforts in defence against these horrific Agents, particularly in the areas of detection and decontamination. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) technology may provide a much needed method of CBW decontamination which, unlike traditional decon methods, is dry and nondestructive to sensitive equipment and materials. The APPJ discharge uses a high-flow feedgas consisting primarily of an inert carrier gas, such as He, and a small amount of a reactive additive, such as O/sub 2/, which flows between capacitively-coupled electrodes powered at 13.56 MHz. A nonthermal plasma formed between the electrodes generates highly reactive metastable and atomic species of oxygen through energetic electron impact. These reactive species are then directed onto a contaminated surface. The reactive effluent of the APPJ has been shown to effectively neutralize VX nerve Agent as well as simulants for anthrax and mustard Blister Agent. Research efforts are now being directed towards reducing He consumption and increasing the allowable stand-off distance.

  • atmospheric pressure plasma jet technology applied to chem bio decontamination
    International Conference on Plasma Science, 2000
    Co-Authors: H.w. Herrmann, Gary S Selwyn, Ivars Henins, Jaeyoung Park

    Abstract:

    Summary form only given. The possibility of an attack using chemical or biological warfare (CBW) Agents in either a domestic terrorism or military situation has become all too real in recent history. This has been made evident by the 1995 sarin nerve gas attack on the Tokyo subway and the threat of chem/bio warfare in the Persian Gulf and Korea. The U.S. has stepped up efforts in defence against these horrific Agents, particularly in the areas of detection and decontamination. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) technology may provide a much needed method of CBW decontamination which, unlike traditional decon methods, is dry and nondestructive to sensitive equipment and materials. The APPJ discharge uses a high-flow feedgas consisting primarily of an inert carrier gas, such as He, and a small amount of a reactive additive, such as O/sub 2/, which flows between capacitively-coupled electrodes powered at 13.56 MHz. A nonthermal plasma formed between the electrodes generates highly reactive metastable and atomic species of oxygen through energetic electron impact. These reactive species are then directed onto a contaminated surface. The reactive effluent of the APPJ has been shown to effectively neutralize VX nerve Agent as well as simulants for anthrax and mustard Blister Agent. Research efforts are now being directed towards reducing He consumption and increasing the allowable stand-off distance.

H.w. Herrmann – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Chemical warfare Agent decontamination studies in the plasma decon chamber
    IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 2002
    Co-Authors: H.w. Herrmann, Gary S Selwyn, Ivars Henins, Jaeyoung Park, M. Jeffery, J M Williams

    Abstract:

    A “plasma decon chamber” has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Albuquerque, NM, to study the decontamination of chemical and biological warfare Agents. This technology is targeted at sensitive electronic equipment for which there is currently no acceptable, nondestructive means of decontamination. Chemical reactivity is provided by a downstream flux of reactive radicals such as atomic oxygen and atomic hydrogen, produced in a capacitively coupled plasma. In addition, the decon chamber provides an environment that accelerates the evaporation of chemical Agents from contaminated surfaces by vacuum, heat, and forced convection. Once evaporated, Agents and Agent byproducts are recirculated directly through the plasma, where they undergo further chemical breakdown. Preliminary studies on actual chemical Agents were conducted at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway, UT. Exposures were conducted at a system pressure of 30 torr, exposure temperature of 70/spl deg/C, plasma-to-sample standoff distance of 10 cm, and 10% addition of oxygen or hydrogen to a helium balance. This exposure condition was based on optimization studies conducted at LANL on Agent simulants. The Agents studied were VX and soman (GD) nerve Agents and sulfur mustard (HD) Blister Agent, as well as a thickened simulant. All Agents were decontaminated off aluminum substrates to below the detection limit of /spl sim/0.1% of the initial contamination level of approximately 1 mg/cm/sup 2/. For VX, this level of decontamination was achieved in 8-16 min of exposure, while only 2 min were required for the more volatile HD and GD. Evaporation and subsequent gas-phase chemical breakdown in the plasma appears to be the dominant decontamination mechanism for all of the Agents. However, an observed difference in the decontamination process between oxygen and hydrogen indicates that chemical reactivity in the liquid phase also plays an important role.

  • Atmospheric pressure plasma jet technology applied to chem/bio decontamination
    ICOPS 2000. IEEE Conference Record – Abstracts. 27th IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (Cat. No.00CH37087), 2000
    Co-Authors: H.w. Herrmann, Gary S Selwyn, Ivars Henins, J. Park

    Abstract:

    Summary form only given. The possibility of an attack using chemical or biological warfare (CBW) Agents in either a domestic terrorism or military situation has become all too real in recent history. This has been made evident by the 1995 sarin nerve gas attack on the Tokyo subway and the threat of chem/bio warfare in the Persian Gulf and Korea. The U.S. has stepped up efforts in defence against these horrific Agents, particularly in the areas of detection and decontamination. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) technology may provide a much needed method of CBW decontamination which, unlike traditional decon methods, is dry and nondestructive to sensitive equipment and materials. The APPJ discharge uses a high-flow feedgas consisting primarily of an inert carrier gas, such as He, and a small amount of a reactive additive, such as O/sub 2/, which flows between capacitively-coupled electrodes powered at 13.56 MHz. A nonthermal plasma formed between the electrodes generates highly reactive metastable and atomic species of oxygen through energetic electron impact. These reactive species are then directed onto a contaminated surface. The reactive effluent of the APPJ has been shown to effectively neutralize VX nerve Agent as well as simulants for anthrax and mustard Blister Agent. Research efforts are now being directed towards reducing He consumption and increasing the allowable stand-off distance.

  • atmospheric pressure plasma jet technology applied to chem bio decontamination
    International Conference on Plasma Science, 2000
    Co-Authors: H.w. Herrmann, Gary S Selwyn, Ivars Henins, Jaeyoung Park

    Abstract:

    Summary form only given. The possibility of an attack using chemical or biological warfare (CBW) Agents in either a domestic terrorism or military situation has become all too real in recent history. This has been made evident by the 1995 sarin nerve gas attack on the Tokyo subway and the threat of chem/bio warfare in the Persian Gulf and Korea. The U.S. has stepped up efforts in defence against these horrific Agents, particularly in the areas of detection and decontamination. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) technology may provide a much needed method of CBW decontamination which, unlike traditional decon methods, is dry and nondestructive to sensitive equipment and materials. The APPJ discharge uses a high-flow feedgas consisting primarily of an inert carrier gas, such as He, and a small amount of a reactive additive, such as O/sub 2/, which flows between capacitively-coupled electrodes powered at 13.56 MHz. A nonthermal plasma formed between the electrodes generates highly reactive metastable and atomic species of oxygen through energetic electron impact. These reactive species are then directed onto a contaminated surface. The reactive effluent of the APPJ has been shown to effectively neutralize VX nerve Agent as well as simulants for anthrax and mustard Blister Agent. Research efforts are now being directed towards reducing He consumption and increasing the allowable stand-off distance.