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Blood Cell

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Muneesh Tewari – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Blood Cell origin of circulating micrornas a cautionary note for cancer biomarker studies
    Cancer Prevention Research, 2012
    Co-Authors: Colin C. Pritchard, Muneesh Tewari, Evan Kroh, Jason D Arroyo, Melanie M Miyaji, Jonathan F. Tait, Brent L Wood, Katy Dougherty

    Abstract:

    Circulating, Cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise as a new class of cancer biomarkers due to their surprisingly high stability in plasma, association with disease states, and ease of sensitive measurement. Yet little is known about the origin of circulating miRNAs in either healthy or sick people, or what factors influence levels of circulating miRNA biomarkers. Of 79 solid tumor circulating miRNA biomarkers reported in the literature, we found that fifty-eight percent (47/79) are highly expressed in one or more Blood Cell type. Plasma levels of miRNA biomarkers expressed by myeloid (e.g., miR-223, miR-197, miR-574-3p, let-7a) and lymphoid (e.g., miR-150) Blood Cells tightly correlated with corresponding white Blood Cell counts. Plasma miRNA biomarkers expressed by red Blood Cells (e.g., miR-486-5p, miR-451, miR-92a, miR-16) could not be correlated to red Cell counts due to limited variation in hematocrit in the cohort studied, but were significantly increased in hemolyzed specimens (20-30 fold plasma increase; p<0.0000001). Finally, in a patient undergoing autologous hematopoietic Cell transplantation, plasma levels of myeloid- and lymphoid-expressed miRNAs (miR-223 and miR-150, respectively) tracked closely with changes in corresponding Blood counts. We present evidence that Blood Cells are a major contributor to circulating miRNA, and that perturbations in Blood Cell counts and hemolysis can alter plasma miRNA biomarker levels by up to 50-fold. Given that a majority of reported circulating miRNA cancer biomarkers are highly expressed in Blood Cells, we suggest caution in interpretation of such results as they may reflect a Blood Cell-based phenomenon rather than a cancer-specific origin.

  • Blood Cell origin of circulating microRNAs: a cautionary note for cancer biomarker studies.
    Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia Pa.), 2012
    Co-Authors: Colin C. Pritchard, Evan Kroh, Brent Wood, Jason D Arroyo, Katy J Dougherty, Melanie M Miyaji, Jonathan F. Tait, Muneesh Tewari

    Abstract:

    Circulating, Cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise as a new class of cancer biomarkers due to their surprisingly high stability in plasma, association with disease states, and ease of sensitive measurement. Yet little is known about the origin of circulating miRNAs in either healthy or sick people or what factors influence levels of circulating miRNA biomarkers. Of 79 solid tumor circulating miRNA biomarkers reported in the literature, we found that 58% (46 of 79) are highly expressed in one or more Blood Cell type. Plasma levels of miRNA biomarkers expressed by myeloid (e.g., miR-223, miR-197, miR-574-3p, and let-7a) and lymphoid (e.g., miR-150) Blood Cells tightly correlated with corresponding white Blood Cell counts. Plasma miRNA biomarkers expressed by red Blood Cells (e.g., miR-486-5p, miR-451, miR-92a, and miR-16) could not be correlated to red Cell counts due to limited variation in hematocrit in the cohort studied but were significantly increased in hemolyzed specimens (20- to 30-fold plasma increase; P < 0.0000001). Finally, in a patient undergoing autologous hematopoietic Cell transplantation, plasma levels of myeloid- and lymphoid-expressed miRNAs (miR-223 and miR-150, respectively) tracked closely with changes in corresponding Blood counts. We present evidence that Blood Cells are a major contributor to circulating miRNA and that perturbations in Blood Cell counts and hemolysis can alter plasma miRNA biomarker levels by up to 50-fold. Given that a majority of reported circulating miRNA cancer biomarkers are highly expressed in Blood Cells, we suggest caution in interpretation of such results as they may reflect a Blood Cell-based phenomenon rather than a cancer-specific origin.

Thomas Ming Swi Chang – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • hemoglobin based red Blood Cell substitutes
    Artificial Organs, 2004
    Co-Authors: Thomas Ming Swi Chang

    Abstract:

    Polyhemoglobin is already well into the final stages of clinical trials in human with one approved for routine clinical uses in South Africa. Conjugated hemo- globin is also in ongoing clinical trials. Meanwhile, recombinant Hb has been modified to modulate the effects of nitric oxide. Other systems contain antioxidant enzymes for those clinical applications that may have potential problems related to ischemia-reperfusion inju- ries. Other developments are based on hemoglobin-lipid vesicles and also the use of nanotechnology and biode- gradable copolymers to prepare nano-dimension artificial red Blood Cells containing hemoglobin and complex enzyme systems. Key Words: Red Blood Cell substi- tutes—Artificial Blood—Polyhemoglobin—Conjugated hemoglobin—Recombinant hemoglobin—Hemoglobin- lipid vesicles—Nanotechnology—Biodegradable copoly- mers—Oxygen therapeutics.

  • red Blood Cell substitutes
    Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology, 2000
    Co-Authors: Thomas Ming Swi Chang

    Abstract:

    Abstract Soluble polymerized haemoglobin (polyhaemoglobin) is now in a phase III clinical trials. Patients have received up to 20 units (10 litres) in trauma surgery and other surgery. Polyhaemoglobin can be stored for more than 1 year. Haemoglobin solutions have no Blood group antigen and can be used as a ‘universal donor’ oxygen carrier. They can also be sterilized. With a circulation half-life of 24 hours they are undergoing trials for peri-operative use. For conditions with potential for ischaemia-reperfusion injuries, a new polyhaemoglobin–superoxide dismutase–catalase, which can reduce oxygen radicals, is being developed. Recombinant human haemoglobin has been tested in clinical trials, and a new type of recombinant human haemoglobin that has low affinity for nitric oxide is being developed for clinical trials. To increase the circulation time, artificial red Blood Cells have been prepared with a bilayer lipid membrane (haemoglobin liposomes) or with a biodegradable polymer membrane-like polylactide (haemoglobin nanocapsules). Synthetic chemicals such as perfluorochemicals are also being developed and tested in clinical trials as red Blood Cell substitutes.

Colin C. Pritchard – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Blood Cell origin of circulating micrornas a cautionary note for cancer biomarker studies
    Cancer Prevention Research, 2012
    Co-Authors: Colin C. Pritchard, Muneesh Tewari, Evan Kroh, Jason D Arroyo, Melanie M Miyaji, Jonathan F. Tait, Brent L Wood, Katy Dougherty

    Abstract:

    Circulating, Cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise as a new class of cancer biomarkers due to their surprisingly high stability in plasma, association with disease states, and ease of sensitive measurement. Yet little is known about the origin of circulating miRNAs in either healthy or sick people, or what factors influence levels of circulating miRNA biomarkers. Of 79 solid tumor circulating miRNA biomarkers reported in the literature, we found that fifty-eight percent (47/79) are highly expressed in one or more Blood Cell type. Plasma levels of miRNA biomarkers expressed by myeloid (e.g., miR-223, miR-197, miR-574-3p, let-7a) and lymphoid (e.g., miR-150) Blood Cells tightly correlated with corresponding white Blood Cell counts. Plasma miRNA biomarkers expressed by red Blood Cells (e.g., miR-486-5p, miR-451, miR-92a, miR-16) could not be correlated to red Cell counts due to limited variation in hematocrit in the cohort studied, but were significantly increased in hemolyzed specimens (20-30 fold plasma increase; p<0.0000001). Finally, in a patient undergoing autologous hematopoietic Cell transplantation, plasma levels of myeloid- and lymphoid-expressed miRNAs (miR-223 and miR-150, respectively) tracked closely with changes in corresponding Blood counts. We present evidence that Blood Cells are a major contributor to circulating miRNA, and that perturbations in Blood Cell counts and hemolysis can alter plasma miRNA biomarker levels by up to 50-fold. Given that a majority of reported circulating miRNA cancer biomarkers are highly expressed in Blood Cells, we suggest caution in interpretation of such results as they may reflect a Blood Cell-based phenomenon rather than a cancer-specific origin.

  • Blood Cell origin of circulating microRNAs: a cautionary note for cancer biomarker studies.
    Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia Pa.), 2012
    Co-Authors: Colin C. Pritchard, Evan Kroh, Brent Wood, Jason D Arroyo, Katy J Dougherty, Melanie M Miyaji, Jonathan F. Tait, Muneesh Tewari

    Abstract:

    Circulating, Cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise as a new class of cancer biomarkers due to their surprisingly high stability in plasma, association with disease states, and ease of sensitive measurement. Yet little is known about the origin of circulating miRNAs in either healthy or sick people or what factors influence levels of circulating miRNA biomarkers. Of 79 solid tumor circulating miRNA biomarkers reported in the literature, we found that 58% (46 of 79) are highly expressed in one or more Blood Cell type. Plasma levels of miRNA biomarkers expressed by myeloid (e.g., miR-223, miR-197, miR-574-3p, and let-7a) and lymphoid (e.g., miR-150) Blood Cells tightly correlated with corresponding white Blood Cell counts. Plasma miRNA biomarkers expressed by red Blood Cells (e.g., miR-486-5p, miR-451, miR-92a, and miR-16) could not be correlated to red Cell counts due to limited variation in hematocrit in the cohort studied but were significantly increased in hemolyzed specimens (20- to 30-fold plasma increase; P < 0.0000001). Finally, in a patient undergoing autologous hematopoietic Cell transplantation, plasma levels of myeloid- and lymphoid-expressed miRNAs (miR-223 and miR-150, respectively) tracked closely with changes in corresponding Blood counts. We present evidence that Blood Cells are a major contributor to circulating miRNA and that perturbations in Blood Cell counts and hemolysis can alter plasma miRNA biomarker levels by up to 50-fold. Given that a majority of reported circulating miRNA cancer biomarkers are highly expressed in Blood Cells, we suggest caution in interpretation of such results as they may reflect a Blood Cell-based phenomenon rather than a cancer-specific origin.