Blood Substitutes - Explore the Science & Experts | ideXlab

Scan Science and Technology

Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies

Blood Substitutes

The Experts below are selected from a list of 288 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Thomas Ming Swi Chang – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • nanobiotechnology for hemoglobin based Blood Substitutes
    Critical Care Clinics, 2009
    Co-Authors: Thomas Ming Swi Chang

    Abstract:

    Nanobiotechnology is the assembling of biological molecules into nanodimension complexes. This has been used for the preparation of polyhemoglobin formed by the assembling of hemoglobin molecules into a soluble nanodimension complex. New generations of this approach include the nanobiotechnological assembly of hemoglobin, catalase, and superoxide dismutase into a soluble nanodimension complex. This acts as an oxygen carrier and an antioxidant for those conditions with potential for ischemiareperfusion injuries. Another recent novel approach is the assembling of hemoglobin and fibrinogen into a soluble nanodimension polyhemoglobin-fibrinogen complex that acts as an oxygen carrier with platelet-like activity. This is potentially useful in cases of extensive Blood loss requiring massive replacement using Blood Substitutes, resulting in the need for the replacement of platelets and clotting factors. A further step is the preparation of nanodimension artificial red Blood cells that contain hemoglobin and all the enzymes present in red Blood cells.

  • Blood Substitutes based on nanobiotechnology
    Trends in Biotechnology, 2006
    Co-Authors: Thomas Ming Swi Chang

    Abstract:

    Stimulated by concerns of potential infective agents in donated Blood, commercial enterprises have attempted to develop Blood Substitutes since the 1900s. After several years of development, a few of the many leads are showing promise. In this article, nanobiotechnological approaches that are now in phase III clinical trials are reviewed, followed by a discussion of how important basic knowledge gained is being used to develop new generations of Blood Substitutes based on nanobiotechnology.

  • present status of modified hemoglobin as Blood Substitutes and oral therapy for end stage renal failure using artificial cells containing genetically engineered cells
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2006
    Co-Authors: Thomas Ming Swi Chang

    Abstract:

    : Artificial cell or bioencapsulation has been developed for use in bioartificial organs, drug delivery, Blood Substitutes, and other areas. Recent rapid advances in modified hemoglobin Blood Substitutes have resulted in advance stages of Phase III clinical trials. Another area of use is in oral therapy, using artificial cells microencapsulated with genetically engineered cells for use in end stage renal failure and other conditions.

Kenneth C. Lowe – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Blood Substitutes from chemistry to clinic
    Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2006
    Co-Authors: Kenneth C. Lowe

    Abstract:

    Blood Substitutes are oxygen-carrying fluids that aim to provide an alternative to the transfusion of Blood. Strategies for developing such Substitutes have involved the production of materials based on the naturally occurring respiratory pigment, haemoglobin (Hb), or synthetic, chemically inert, fluorinated liquids called perfluorochemicals (PFCs). Commercial products in both categories have been developed and some approved for clinical use, primarily to facilitate oxygen supply to tissues during surgery or therapy. The latest research is focused on using microbial and plant ‘cell factories’ to express recombinant Hb, understanding the properties of polymeric Hbs from invertebrate animals, and the use of feedback from stakeholders to inform the development of new educational materials to assist patients to make informed choices on future transfusion options.

  • benefit and risk perceptions in transfusion medicine Blood and Blood Substitutes
    Journal of Internal Medicine, 2003
    Co-Authors: Kenneth C. Lowe, Eamonn Ferguson

    Abstract:

    Blood transfusion is a remarkably safe, routine procedure in clinical medicine. However, little attention has focused on the perceptions of risk associated with the receipt of Blood, Blood products or ‘Blood Substitutes‘. It is pertinent to ask (i) what key stakeholder groups know about transfusion, (ii) how safe they perceive Blood/Blood products to be, (iii) how the latter information might influence their own and others’ perceptions of risk linked to transfusion, and (iv) the extent to which approved Blood Substitutes might be preferred over autologous or donor Blood. An appreciation of what stakeholders perceive to be the benefits and risks of the receipt of Blood and Blood Substitutes will inform future transfusion strategies. To obtain such information, a programme of research has been initiated at Nottingham. Surveys have targeted key stakeholder groups, namely, UK adult Blood donors and non-donors, anaesthetists, general practitioners and health care journalists. Experimental studies examining message framing and cueing have also been conducted with undergraduate students. Such research will improve misunderstandings about current issues associated with Blood donation and transfusion against the backdrop of changing public trust of health care professionals and attitudes and expectations on Blood safety and benefits of Blood Substitutes.

  • fluorinated Blood Substitutes and oxygen carriers
    Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, 2001
    Co-Authors: Kenneth C. Lowe

    Abstract:

    Abstract Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) are highly fluorinated, inert organic compounds that can dissolve large volumes of O 2 and other respiratory gases. PFCs are unreactive in the body and excreted primarily as a vapour by exhalation. However, PFC liquids are immiscible with aqueous systems, including Blood, but can be injected safely into the Bloodstream as emulsions. Such emulsions are currently being assessed clinically as temporary, intravascular respiratory gas-carriers and tissue oxygenating fluids (so-called ‘Blood Substitutes’). One such emulsion, a commercial perflubron-based formulation, Oxygent™, is in advanced clinical trials as an alternative to allogeneic (donor) Blood transfusion during surgery. Basic and clinical studies indicate that Oxygent™ can support O 2 delivery to tissues during acute Blood loss with no abnormal haemodynamic changes.

A. P. Shepherd – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • co oximetry interference by hemoglobin based Blood Substitutes
    Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2001
    Co-Authors: Aaron Ashoka Ali, Genevieve Shepherd Ali, J M Steinke, A. P. Shepherd

    Abstract:

    The Blood Substitutes now being developed from molecularly modified hemoglobin interfere with a wide variety of clinical analyzers, but their effects on cooximeters are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of five hemoglobin-based Blood Substitutes on the measurements of eight different oximeters and cooximeters: the AVL Omni 6, the AVOXimeters 1000 and 4000, the Ciba Corning (now Bayer) CC270 CO-Oximeter, the Instrumentation Laboratory Synthesis 35, the IL482 and IL682 CO-Oximeters, and the Radiometer OSM3 Hemoximeter. The five Blood Substitutes in this study were obtained from Apex Bioscience (Research Triangle Park, NC), Baxter Healthcare Corp. (Deerfield, IL), Biopure Corp. (Cambridge, MA), Hemoglobin Therapeutics, and Hemosol, Inc. (Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada). A cooximeter control was used to compare the eight different instruments’ measurements on unaltered human hemoglobin. The instruments yielded measurements of total hemoglobin concentration in undiluted Blood Substitutes that were generally not more variable than those on the control material. By contrast, when compared with readings on controls, the test instruments yielded measurements of the fractional concentrations of oxy-, deoxy-, carboxy-, and methemoglobin that showed greater instrument-to-instrument disparities and larger standard deviations about the all-instrument means. In some cases, the interference was even more obvious: five of six cooximeters gave negative carboxyhemoglobin readings on one particular product. Our findings indicate that the instruments will give less accurate but clinically useful measurements in the presence of these hemoglobin-based Blood Substitutes.

  • co oximetry interference by hemoglobin based Blood Substitutes
    Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2001
    Co-Authors: J M Steinke, A. P. Shepherd

    Abstract:

    UNLABELLED: The Blood Substitutes now being developed from molecularly modified hemoglobin interfere with a wide variety of clinical analyzers, but their effects on cooximeters are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of five hemoglobin-based Blood Substitutes on the measurements of eight different oximeters and cooximeters: the AVL Omni 6, the AVOXimeters 1000 and 4000, the Ciba Corning (now Bayer) CC270 CO-Oximeter, the Instrumentation Laboratory Synthesis 35, the IL482 and IL682 CO-Oximeters, and the Radiometer OSM3 Hemoximeter. The five Blood Substitutes in this study were obtained from Apex Bioscience (Research Triangle Park, NC), Baxter Healthcare Corp. (Deerfield, IL), Biopure Corp. (Cambridge, MA), Hemoglobin Therapeutics, and Hemosol, Inc. (Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada). A cooximeter control was used to compare the eight different instruments’ measurements on unaltered human hemoglobin. The instruments yielded measurements of total hemoglobin concentration in undiluted Blood Substitutes that were generally not more variable than those on the control material. By contrast, when compared with readings on controls, the test instruments yielded measurements of the fractional concentrations of oxy-, deoxy-, carboxy-, and methemoglobin that showed greater instrument-to-instrument disparities and larger standard deviations about the all-instrument means. In some cases, the interference was even more obvious: five of six cooximeters gave negative carboxyhemoglobin readings on one particular product. Our findings indicate that the instruments will give less accurate but clinically useful measurements in the presence of these hemoglobin-based Blood Substitutes. IMPLICATIONS: We investigated the effects of five hemoglobin-based Blood Substitutes on the measurements of eight different cooximeters. Some Blood Substitutes caused obvious interference, such as negative carboxyhemoglobin readings; however, the findings indicate that cooximeters will generally give less accurate but clinically useful measurements in the presence of the hemoglobin-based Blood Substitutes that were tested.