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Blue-and-Yellow Macaw

The Experts below are selected from a list of 105 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Adriana Bravo – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Ecology and Management of Nesting Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna) in Mauritia Palm Swamps
    Biodiversity & Conservation, 2006
    Co-Authors: Donald Brightsmith, Adriana Bravo

    Abstract:

    This paper reports on the nesting ecology of Blue-and-Yellow Macaws ( Ara ararauna ) and the structure, conservation, and management of the Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps where they nest: clutch size averaged 2.6 and the number of chicks fledged per nesting attempt was 0.5. Macaws nested in tall dead palms in healthy palm swamps and in palms of all heights in open dieing palm stands. All nesting palms rose well above the surrounding vegetation presumably to discourage terrestrial predators. PVC nest boxes failed to attract nesting Blue-and-Yellow Macaws. A small section of palm swamp was managed to encourage Macaw nesting by cutting the tops off of M. flexuosa palms and clearing the understory vegetation. The palms remained standing from 4 to 7 years and were occupied by nesting Macaws at a rate of 24%. The data presented here suggest that cutting five palms a year in perpetuity would produce a stand of approximately 20 standing dead palms used by 6 or more pairs of Macaws annually. However, Macaw occupancy rates would depend on the density of Macaws and density of naturally occurring nest sites. This management scheme could be conducted on a 100-year rotation in an area of 1–4 ha or more depending on the palm density. Such a colony could be used to increase reproductive success of Blue-and-Yellow Macaw populations, create a valuable ecotourism resource, and concentrate Macaw nesting in protected areas.

  • Ecology and Management of Nesting Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna) in Mauritia Palm Swamps
    Biodiversity and Conservation, 2006
    Co-Authors: Donald Brightsmith, Adriana Bravo

    Abstract:

    This paper reports on the nesting ecology of Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna) and the structure, conservation, and management of the Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps where they nest: clutch size averaged 2.6 and the number of chicks fledged per nesting attempt was 0.5. Macaws nested in tall dead palms in healthy palm swamps and in palms of all heights in open dieing palm stands. All nesting palms rose well above the surrounding vegetation presumably to discourage terrestrial predators. PVC nest boxes failed to attract nesting Blue-and-Yellow Macaws. A small section of palm swamp was managed to encourage Macaw nesting by cutting the tops off of M. flexuosa palms and clearing the understory vegetation. The palms remained standing from 4 to 7 years and were occupied by nesting Macaws at a rate of 24%. The data presented here suggest that cutting five palms a year in perpetuity would produce a stand of approximately 20 standing dead palms used by 6 or more pairs of Macaws annually. However, Macaw occupancy rates would depend on the density of Macaws and density of naturally occurring nest sites. This management scheme could be conducted on a 100-year rotation in an area of 1–4 ha or more depending on the palm density. Such a colony could be used to increase reproductive success of Blue-and-Yellow Macaw populations, create a valuable ecotourism resource, and concentrate Macaw nesting in protected areas.

Donald Brightsmith – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Ecology and Management of Nesting Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna) in Mauritia Palm Swamps
    Biodiversity & Conservation, 2006
    Co-Authors: Donald Brightsmith, Adriana Bravo

    Abstract:

    This paper reports on the nesting ecology of Blue-and-Yellow Macaws ( Ara ararauna ) and the structure, conservation, and management of the Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps where they nest: clutch size averaged 2.6 and the number of chicks fledged per nesting attempt was 0.5. Macaws nested in tall dead palms in healthy palm swamps and in palms of all heights in open dieing palm stands. All nesting palms rose well above the surrounding vegetation presumably to discourage terrestrial predators. PVC nest boxes failed to attract nesting Blue-and-Yellow Macaws. A small section of palm swamp was managed to encourage Macaw nesting by cutting the tops off of M. flexuosa palms and clearing the understory vegetation. The palms remained standing from 4 to 7 years and were occupied by nesting Macaws at a rate of 24%. The data presented here suggest that cutting five palms a year in perpetuity would produce a stand of approximately 20 standing dead palms used by 6 or more pairs of Macaws annually. However, Macaw occupancy rates would depend on the density of Macaws and density of naturally occurring nest sites. This management scheme could be conducted on a 100-year rotation in an area of 1–4 ha or more depending on the palm density. Such a colony could be used to increase reproductive success of Blue-and-Yellow Macaw populations, create a valuable ecotourism resource, and concentrate Macaw nesting in protected areas.

  • Ecology and Management of Nesting Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna) in Mauritia Palm Swamps
    Biodiversity and Conservation, 2006
    Co-Authors: Donald Brightsmith, Adriana Bravo

    Abstract:

    This paper reports on the nesting ecology of Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna) and the structure, conservation, and management of the Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps where they nest: clutch size averaged 2.6 and the number of chicks fledged per nesting attempt was 0.5. Macaws nested in tall dead palms in healthy palm swamps and in palms of all heights in open dieing palm stands. All nesting palms rose well above the surrounding vegetation presumably to discourage terrestrial predators. PVC nest boxes failed to attract nesting Blue-and-Yellow Macaws. A small section of palm swamp was managed to encourage Macaw nesting by cutting the tops off of M. flexuosa palms and clearing the understory vegetation. The palms remained standing from 4 to 7 years and were occupied by nesting Macaws at a rate of 24%. The data presented here suggest that cutting five palms a year in perpetuity would produce a stand of approximately 20 standing dead palms used by 6 or more pairs of Macaws annually. However, Macaw occupancy rates would depend on the density of Macaws and density of naturally occurring nest sites. This management scheme could be conducted on a 100-year rotation in an area of 1–4 ha or more depending on the palm density. Such a colony could be used to increase reproductive success of Blue-and-Yellow Macaw populations, create a valuable ecotourism resource, and concentrate Macaw nesting in protected areas.

Richard O. Prum – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • development of colour producing β keratin nanostructures in avian feather barbs
    Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 2009
    Co-Authors: Richard O. Prum, Eric R Dufresne, Tim Quinn, Karla Waters

    Abstract:

    The non-iridescent structural colours of avian feather barbs are produced by coherent light scattering from amorphous (i.e. quasi-ordered) nanostructures of β-keratin and air in the medullary cells of feather barb rami. Known barb nanostructures belong to two distinct morphological classes. ‘Channel’ nanostructures consist of β-keratin bars and air channels of elongate, tortuous and twisting forms. ‘Spherical’ nanostructures consist of highly spherical air cavities that are surrounded by thin β-keratin bars and sometimes interconnected by tiny passages. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observe that the colour-producing channel-type nanostructures of medullary β-keratin in feathers of the Blue-and-Yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna, Psittacidae) develop by intracellular self-assembly; the process proceeds in the absence of any biological prepattern created by the cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum or cellular intermediate filaments. We examine the hypothesis that the shape and size of these self-assembled, intracellular nanostructures are determined by phase separation of β-keratin protein from the cytoplasm of the cell. The shapes of a broad sample of colour-producing channel-type nanostructures from nine avian species are very similar to those self-assembled during the phase separation of an unstable mixture, a process called spinodal decomposition (SD). In contrast, the shapes of a sample of spherical-type nanostructures from feather barbs of six species show a poor match to SD. However, spherical nanostructures show a strong morphological similarity to morphologies produced by phase separation of a metastable mixture, called nucleation and growth. We propose that colour-producing, intracellular, spongy medullary β-keratin nanostructures develop their characteristic sizes and shapes by phase separation during protein polymerization. We discuss the possible role of capillary flow through drying of medullary cells in the development of the hollow morphology of typical and spongy feather medullary cells.

  • Development of colour-producing beta-keratin nanostructures in avian feather barbs.
    Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 2009
    Co-Authors: Richard O. Prum, Eric R Dufresne, Tim Quinn, Karla Waters

    Abstract:

    The non-iridescent structural colours of avian feather barbs are produced by coherent light scattering from amorphous (i.e. quasi-ordered) nanostructures of beta-keratin and air in the medullary cells of feather barb rami. Known barb nanostructures belong to two distinct morphological classes. ‘Channel’ nanostructures consist of beta-keratin bars and air channels of elongate, tortuous and twisting forms. ‘Spherical’ nanostructures consist of highly spherical air cavities that are surrounded by thin beta-keratin bars and sometimes interconnected by tiny passages. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observe that the colour-producing channel-type nanostructures of medullary beta-keratin in feathers of the Blue-and-Yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna, Psittacidae) develop by intracellular self-assembly; the process proceeds in the absence of any biological prepattern created by the cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum or cellular intermediate filaments. We examine the hypothesis that the shape and size of these self-assembled, intracellular nanostructures are determined by phase separation of beta-keratin protein from the cytoplasm of the cell. The shapes of a broad sample of colour-producing channel-type nanostructures from nine avian species are very similar to those self-assembled during the phase separation of an unstable mixture, a process called spinodal decomposition (SD). In contrast, the shapes of a sample of spherical-type nanostructures from feather barbs of six species show a poor match to SD. However, spherical nanostructures show a strong morphological similarity to morphologies produced by phase separation of a metastable mixture, called nucleation and growth. We propose that colour-producing, intracellular, spongy medullary beta-keratin nanostructures develop their characteristic sizes and shapes by phase separation during protein polymerization. We discuss the possible role of capillary flow through drying of medullary cells in the development of the hollow morphology of typical and spongy feather medullary cells.