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Bourbon Whiskey

The Experts below are selected from a list of 48 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Thomas Hofmann – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Sensory-Directed Identification of Taste-Active Ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European Oak Wood (Quercus robur L.) and Quantitative Analysis in Bourbon Whiskey and Oak-Matured Red Wines
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2006
    Co-Authors: Arne Glabasnia, Thomas Hofmann

    Abstract:

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in Bourbon Whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations.

  • sensory directed identification of taste active ellagitannins in american quercus alba l and european oak wood quercus robur l and quantitative analysis in Bourbon Whiskey and oak matured red wines
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2006
    Co-Authors: Arne Glabasnia, Thomas Hofmann

    Abstract:

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A−E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/reponse functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively d…

Arne Glabasnia – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Sensory-Directed Identification of Taste-Active Ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European Oak Wood (Quercus robur L.) and Quantitative Analysis in Bourbon Whiskey and Oak-Matured Red Wines
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2006
    Co-Authors: Arne Glabasnia, Thomas Hofmann

    Abstract:

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in Bourbon Whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations.

  • sensory directed identification of taste active ellagitannins in american quercus alba l and european oak wood quercus robur l and quantitative analysis in Bourbon Whiskey and oak matured red wines
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2006
    Co-Authors: Arne Glabasnia, Thomas Hofmann

    Abstract:

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A−E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/reponse functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively d…

Seth Debolt – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Liberation of recalcitrant cell wall sugars from oak barrels into Bourbon Whiskey during aging
    Scientific Reports, 2018
    Co-Authors: Jarrad Gollihue, Mitchell Richmond, Harlen Wheatley, Victoria G. Pook, Meera Nair, Isabelle A. Kagan, Seth Debolt

    Abstract:

    Oak barrels have been used by humans for thousands of years to store and transport valuable materials. Early settlers of the United States in Kentucky began charring the interior of new white oak barrels prior to aging distillate to create the distinctively flavored spirit we know as Bourbon Whiskey. Despite the unique flavor and cultural significance of “America’s Spirit”, little is known about the wood-distillate interaction that shapes Bourbon Whiskey. Here, we employed an inverse method to measure the loss of specific wood polysaccharides in the oak cask during aging for up to ten years. We found that the structural cell wall wood biopolymer, cellulose, was partially decrystallized by the charring process. This pyrolytic fracturing and subsequent exposure to the distillate was accompanied by a steady loss of sugars from the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of the oak cask. Distinct layers of structural degradation and product release from within the barrel stave are formed over time as the distillate expands into and contracts from the barrel staves. This complex, wood-sugar release process is likely associated with the time-dependent generation of the unique palate of Bourbon Whiskey.