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Bow Riding

The Experts below are selected from a list of 42 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Luciana M Moller – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • a biopsy pole system for Bow Riding dolphins sampling success behavioral responses and test for sampling bias
    Marine Mammal Science, 2007
    Co-Authors: Kerstin Bilgmann, Owen J Griffiths, Simon J Allen, Luciana M Moller

    Abstract:

    The collection of biopsy samples from free-ranging cetaceans has proven useful for addressing questions regarding population and social structure (e.g., Baker et al. 1990), evolutionary relationships (e.g., LeDuc et al. 1999), feeding ecology (e.g., Walker et al. 1999), and contaminant levels (e.g., Fossi et al. 2000). In the past, modified crossBows and rifles have been used to sample both large and small cetaceans (e.g., Weinrich et al. 1991, Barrett-Lennard et al. 1996, Krutzen et al. 2002). These systems have been shown to elicit only short-term behavioral responses by sampled animals, and no physiological complications have been reported during wound healing (e.g., Weller et al. 1997, Krutzen et al. 2002). The International Whaling Commission has deemed these methods acceptable because there is no evidence of long-term detrimental effects to sampled individuals or populations (International Whaling Commission 1991). However, such techniques are not without risk. For example, the use of a crossBow has led to the death of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the central Mediterranean Sea (Bearzi 2000). Less invasive techniques to obtain tissue samples from free-ranging small cetaceans are desirable, and other methods developed for this purpose include skin swabbing (Harlin et al. 1999) and fecal sampling (Parsons et al. 1999). When selecting a sampling technique, the conservation status of the species and target population, as well as the potential behavioral response of the animals to sampling, should be considered. It is also important to assess if the research question can be answered with the amount of tissue obtained with a specific technique.

  • A BIOPSY POLE SYSTEM FOR BowRiding DOLPHINS: SAMPLING SUCCESS, BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES, AND TEST FOR SAMPLING BIAS
    Marine Mammal Science, 2006
    Co-Authors: Kerstin Bilgmann, Owen J Griffiths, Simon J Allen, Luciana M Moller

    Abstract:

    The collection of biopsy samples from free-ranging cetaceans has proven useful for addressing questions regarding population and social structure (e.g., Baker et al. 1990), evolutionary relationships (e.g., LeDuc et al. 1999), feeding ecology (e.g., Walker et al. 1999), and contaminant levels (e.g., Fossi et al. 2000). In the past, modified crossBows and rifles have been used to sample both large and small cetaceans (e.g., Weinrich et al. 1991, Barrett-Lennard et al. 1996, Krutzen et al. 2002). These systems have been shown to elicit only short-term behavioral responses by sampled animals, and no physiological complications have been reported during wound healing (e.g., Weller et al. 1997, Krutzen et al. 2002). The International Whaling Commission has deemed these methods acceptable because there is no evidence of long-term detrimental effects to sampled individuals or populations (International Whaling Commission 1991). However, such techniques are not without risk. For example, the use of a crossBow has led to the death of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the central Mediterranean Sea (Bearzi 2000). Less invasive techniques to obtain tissue samples from free-ranging small cetaceans are desirable, and other methods developed for this purpose include skin swabbing (Harlin et al. 1999) and fecal sampling (Parsons et al. 1999). When selecting a sampling technique, the conservation status of the species and target population, as well as the potential behavioral response of the animals to sampling, should be considered. It is also important to assess if the research question can be answered with the amount of tissue obtained with a specific technique.

Paul S. Kemp – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Assessing hydrodynamic space use of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a complex flow environment: a return to first principles.
    The Journal of Experimental Biology, 2016
    Co-Authors: James R. Kerr, Costantino Manes, Paul S. Kemp

    Abstract:

    It is commonly assumed that stream-dwelling fish should select positions where they can reduce energetic costs relative to benefits gained and enhance fitness. However, the selection of appropriate hydrodynamic metrics that predict space use is the subject of recent debate and a cause of controversy. This is for three reasons: 1) flow characteristics are often oversimplified, 2) confounding variables are not always controlled, and 3) there is limited understanding of the explanatory mechanisms that underpin the biophysical interactions between fish and their hydrodynamic environment. This study investigated the space use of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a complex hydrodynamic flow field created using an array of different sized vertically oriented cylinders in a large open-channel flume in which confounding variables were controlled. A hydrodynamic drag function based on single-point time-averaged velocity statistics that incorporates the influence of turbulent fluctuations (D) was used to infer the energetic cost of steady swimming. Novel hydrodynamic preference curves were developed and used to assess the appropriateness of D as a descriptor of space use compared to other commonly used metrics. Zones in which performance enhancing swimming behaviours (e.g. Karman gaiting, entraining, and Bow Riding) that enable fish to hold position while reducing energetic costs (termed ‘specialised behaviours’) were identified and occupancy recorded. We demonstrate that energy conservation strategies play a key role in space use in an energetically taxing environment with the majority of trout groups choosing to frequently occupy areas where specialised behaviours may be adopted or by selecting low drag regions.

  • Assessing hydrodynamic space use of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a complex flow environment: a return to first principles.
    The Journal of experimental biology, 2016
    Co-Authors: James R. Kerr, Costantino Manes, Paul S. Kemp

    Abstract:

    It is commonly assumed that stream-dwelling fish should select positions where they can reduce energetic costs relative to benefits gained and enhance fitness. However, the selection of appropriate hydrodynamic metrics that predict space use is the subject of recent debate and a cause of controversy. This is for three reasons: (1) flow characteristics are often oversimplified, (2) confounding variables are not always controlled and (3) there is limited understanding of the explanatory mechanisms that underpin the biophysical interactions between fish and their hydrodynamic environment. This study investigated the space use of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a complex hydrodynamic flow field created using an array of different sized vertically oriented cylinders in a large open-channel flume in which confounding variables were controlled. A hydrodynamic drag function (D) based on single-point time-averaged velocity statistics that incorporates the influence of turbulent fluctuations was used to infer the energetic cost of steady swimming. Novel hydrodynamic preference curves were developed and used to assess the appropriateness of D as a descriptor of space use compared with other commonly used metrics. Zones in which performance-enhancing swimming behaviours (e.g. Kármán gaiting, entraining and Bow Riding) that enable fish to hold position while reducing energetic costs (termed ‘specialised behaviours’) were identified and occupancy was recorded. We demonstrate that energy conservation strategies play a key role in space use in an energetically taxing environment with the majority of trout groups choosing to frequently occupy areas in which specialised behaviours may be adopted or by selecting low-drag regions.

Kerstin Bilgmann – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • a biopsy pole system for Bow Riding dolphins sampling success behavioral responses and test for sampling bias
    Marine Mammal Science, 2007
    Co-Authors: Kerstin Bilgmann, Owen J Griffiths, Simon J Allen, Luciana M Moller

    Abstract:

    The collection of biopsy samples from free-ranging cetaceans has proven useful for addressing questions regarding population and social structure (e.g., Baker et al. 1990), evolutionary relationships (e.g., LeDuc et al. 1999), feeding ecology (e.g., Walker et al. 1999), and contaminant levels (e.g., Fossi et al. 2000). In the past, modified crossBows and rifles have been used to sample both large and small cetaceans (e.g., Weinrich et al. 1991, Barrett-Lennard et al. 1996, Krutzen et al. 2002). These systems have been shown to elicit only short-term behavioral responses by sampled animals, and no physiological complications have been reported during wound healing (e.g., Weller et al. 1997, Krutzen et al. 2002). The International Whaling Commission has deemed these methods acceptable because there is no evidence of long-term detrimental effects to sampled individuals or populations (International Whaling Commission 1991). However, such techniques are not without risk. For example, the use of a crossBow has led to the death of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the central Mediterranean Sea (Bearzi 2000). Less invasive techniques to obtain tissue samples from free-ranging small cetaceans are desirable, and other methods developed for this purpose include skin swabbing (Harlin et al. 1999) and fecal sampling (Parsons et al. 1999). When selecting a sampling technique, the conservation status of the species and target population, as well as the potential behavioral response of the animals to sampling, should be considered. It is also important to assess if the research question can be answered with the amount of tissue obtained with a specific technique.

  • A BIOPSY POLE SYSTEM FOR BowRiding DOLPHINS: SAMPLING SUCCESS, BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES, AND TEST FOR SAMPLING BIAS
    Marine Mammal Science, 2006
    Co-Authors: Kerstin Bilgmann, Owen J Griffiths, Simon J Allen, Luciana M Moller

    Abstract:

    The collection of biopsy samples from free-ranging cetaceans has proven useful for addressing questions regarding population and social structure (e.g., Baker et al. 1990), evolutionary relationships (e.g., LeDuc et al. 1999), feeding ecology (e.g., Walker et al. 1999), and contaminant levels (e.g., Fossi et al. 2000). In the past, modified crossBows and rifles have been used to sample both large and small cetaceans (e.g., Weinrich et al. 1991, Barrett-Lennard et al. 1996, Krutzen et al. 2002). These systems have been shown to elicit only short-term behavioral responses by sampled animals, and no physiological complications have been reported during wound healing (e.g., Weller et al. 1997, Krutzen et al. 2002). The International Whaling Commission has deemed these methods acceptable because there is no evidence of long-term detrimental effects to sampled individuals or populations (International Whaling Commission 1991). However, such techniques are not without risk. For example, the use of a crossBow has led to the death of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the central Mediterranean Sea (Bearzi 2000). Less invasive techniques to obtain tissue samples from free-ranging small cetaceans are desirable, and other methods developed for this purpose include skin swabbing (Harlin et al. 1999) and fecal sampling (Parsons et al. 1999). When selecting a sampling technique, the conservation status of the species and target population, as well as the potential behavioral response of the animals to sampling, should be considered. It is also important to assess if the research question can be answered with the amount of tissue obtained with a specific technique.