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Breeding Blankets

The Experts below are selected from a list of 180 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

David Demange – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • model and simulation of a vacuum sieve tray for t extraction from liquid pbli Breeding Blankets
    Fusion Engineering and Design, 2016
    Co-Authors: Merlijn Mertens, David Demange, Laetitia Frances

    Abstract:

    Tritium self-sufficiency within a nuclear fusion reactor is necessary to demonstrate nuclear fusion as a viable source of energy. Tritium can be produced within liquid eutectic PbLi but then has to be extracted to be refuelled to the plasma. The vacuum sieve tray (VST) method is based on the extraction of tritium from millimetre-scaled oscillating PbLi droplets falling inside a vacuum chamber. A simulation tool was developed describing the fluid dynamics occurring along the PbLi flow and was used to study the influence of the different geometrical and operational parameters on the VST performance. The simulation predicts that extraction efficiencies over 90% can be easily reached according to theory and previous experimental results. The size of the VST extraction unit for a fusion reactor is estimated based on the findings from our single-nozzle model and assuming no T reabsorption. It is found to be in the feasible range. Nevertheless, two approaches are discussed which may further reduce this size by up to 90%. The simulation tool proved to be an easy and powerful way to analyse and optimise VST set-ups at any scale.

  • tritium extraction technologies and demo requirements
    Fusion Engineering and Design, 2016
    Co-Authors: David Demange, Laetitia Frances, Alessia Santucci, Rodrigo Antunes, O Borisevich, D Rapisarda, M Utili

    Abstract:

    Abstract The conceptual design of the tritium extraction system (TES) for the European DEMO reactor is worked out in parallel for four different Breeding Blankets (BB) retained by EUROfusion. The TES design has to be tackled in an integrated manner optimizing the synergy with the directly interfacing inner fuel cycle, while minimizing the tritium permeation into the coolant. Considering DEMO requirements, it is most likely that only advanced technologies will be suitable for the tritium extraction systems of the BB. This paper overviews the European work programme for R&D on tritium technology for the DEMO BB, summaries the general first outcomes, and details the specific and comprehensive R&D program to study experimentally immature but promising technologies such as vacuum sieve tray or permeator against vacuum for tritium extraction from PbLi, and advanced inorganic membranes and catalytic membrane reactor for tritium extraction from He. These techniques are simple, fully continuous, likely compact with contained energy consumption. Several European Laboratories are joining their efforts to deploy several new experimental setups to accommodate the tests campaigns that will cover small scale experiments with tritium and inactive medium scale tests so as to improve the technology readiness level of these advanced processes.

  • tritium management and anti permeation strategies for three different Breeding blanket options foreseen for the european power plant physics and technology demonstration reactor study
    Fusion Engineering and Design, 2014
    Co-Authors: David Demange, S. Tosti, L V Boccaccini, F Franza, A Santucci, R Wagner

    Abstract:

    Abstract In DT fusion reactors like DEMO, the commonly accepted tritium (T) losses through the steam generator (SG) shall not exceed about 2 mg/d that are more than 5 orders of magnitude lower than the T production rate of about 360 g/d in the Breeding blanket (BB). A very effective mitigation strategy is required balancing the size and efficiency of the processes in the Breeding and cooling loops, and the availability and efficiency of anti-permeation barriers. A numerical study is presented using the T permeation code FUS-TPC that computes all T flows and inventories considering the design and operation of the BB, the SG, and the T systems. Many scenarios are numerically analyzed for three Breeding Blankets concepts – helium cooled pebbles bed (HCPB), helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL), and water cooled lithium lead (WCLL) – varying the T processes throughput and efficiency, and the permeation regimes through the BB and SG to be either surface-limited or diffusion-limited with possible permeation reduction factor. For each BB concept, we discuss workable operation scenarios and suggest specific anti-permeation strategies.

L.a. Sedano – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Numeric implementation of a nucleation, growth and transport model for helium bubbles in lead–lithium HCLL Breeding blanket channels: Theory and code development
    Fusion Engineering and Design, 2020
    Co-Authors: L. Batet, J. Fradera, E. Mas De Les Valls, L.a. Sedano

    Abstract:

    Large helium (He) production rates in liquid metal Breeding Blankets of a DT fusion reactor might have a significant influence in the system design. Low He solubility together with high local concentrations may create the conditions for He cavitation, which would have an impact in the components performance. The paper states that such a possibility is not remote in a helium cooled lithium–lead Breeding blanket design. A model based on the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) has been developed and implemented in order to have a specific tool able to simulate HCLL systems and identify the key parameters and sensitivities. The nucleation and growth model has been implemented in the open source CFD code OpenFOAM so that transport of dissolved atomic He and nucleated He bubbles can be simulated. At the current level of development it is assumed that void fraction is small enough not to affect either the hydrodynamics or the properties of the liquid metal; thus, bubbles can be represented by means of a passive scalar. He growth and transport has been implemented using the mean radius approach in order to save computational time. Limitations and capabilities of the model are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulation and sensitivity analysis under HCLL Breeding unit conditions.Postprint (published version

  • Implementation of two-phase tritium models for helium bubbles in HCLL Breeding blanket modules
    Journal of Nuclear Materials, 2011
    Co-Authors: J. Fradera, L.a. Sedano, E. Mas De Les Valls, L. Batet

    Abstract:

    Tritium self-sufficiency requirement of future DT fusion reactors involves large helium production rates
    in the Breeding Blankets; this might impact on the conceptual design of diverse fusion power reactor
    units, such as Liquid Metal (LM) Blankets. Low solubility, long residence-times and high production rates
    create the conditions for Helium nucleation, which could mean effective T sinks in LM channels.
    A model for helium nano-bubble formation and tritium conjugate transport phenomena in liquid
    Pb17.5Li and EUROFER is proposed. In a first approximation, it has been considered that He bubbles
    can be represented as a passive scalar. The nucleation model is based on the classical theory and includes
    a simplified bubble growth model. The model captures the interaction of tritium with bubbles and tritium
    diffusion through walls.
    Results show the influence of helium cavitation on tritium inventory and the importance of simulating
    the system walls instead of imposing fixed boundary conditions.

  • Numeric implementation of a nucleation, growth and transport model for helium bubbles in lead–lithium HCLL Breeding blanket channels: Theory and code development
    Fusion Engineering and Design, 2011
    Co-Authors: L. Batet, J. Fradera, E. Mas De Les Valls, L.a. Sedano

    Abstract:

    Large helium (He) production rates in liquid metal Breeding Blankets of a DT fusion reactor might have a significant influence in the system design. Low He solubility together with high local concentrations may create the conditions for He cavitation, which would have an impact in the components performance. The paper states that such a possibility is not remote in a helium cooled lithium–lead Breeding blanket design. A model based on the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) has been developed and implemented in order to have a specific tool able to simulate HCLL systems and identify the key parameters and sensitivities. The nucleation and growth model has been implemented in the open source CFD code OpenFOAM so that transport of dissolved atomic He and nucleated He bubbles can be simulated. At the current level of development it is assumed that void fraction is small enough not to affect either the hydrodynamics or the properties of the liquid metal; thus, bubbles can be represented by means of a passive scalar. He growth and transport has been implemented using the mean radius approach in order to save computational time. Limitations and capabilities of the model are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulation and sensitivity analysis under HCLL Breeding unit conditions.

Laetitia Frances – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • accuracy evaluation and experimental plan of the multi nozzle vacuum sieve tray facility at the tritium laboratory karlsruhe
    Fusion Engineering and Design, 2019
    Co-Authors: Ester Diazalvarez, Laetitia Frances

    Abstract:

    Abstract Tritium will be produced in Breeding Blankets by neutron bombardment of lithium to ensure the self-sufficiency of fusion power plants. Then, this tritium must be extracted to fuel the plasma. The Vacuum Sieve Tray (VST) technique has been proposed for the tritium extraction system of liquid Blankets in the European DEMO. This technique consists in extracting the tritium dissolved in Pb-16Li by generating droplets, which oscillate while falling in vacuum. The Multi-Nozzle VST (MNVST) setup was assembled at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) to study the scalability of the VST technique, as well as to serve as a preliminary deuterium/lead-lithium facility before the construction of a new rig to be operated with tritium. Numerical simulations were discussed with regard to the expected accuracy of measurements to develop an experimental plan. The amount of deuterium extracted depending on the operation conditions was estimated and its distinguishability from one experiment to another was investigated, resulting in the approval of the methodology. As a result, six equilibrium pressures (10, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 mbar), three Pb-16Li temperatures (350, 400, 450 °C) and two nozzle geometries (1 and 19 nozzles) were selected to be tested during the MNVST experiments.

  • model and simulation of a vacuum sieve tray for t extraction from liquid pbli Breeding Blankets
    Fusion Engineering and Design, 2016
    Co-Authors: Merlijn Mertens, David Demange, Laetitia Frances

    Abstract:

    Tritium self-sufficiency within a nuclear fusion reactor is necessary to demonstrate nuclear fusion as a viable source of energy. Tritium can be produced within liquid eutectic PbLi but then has to be extracted to be refuelled to the plasma. The vacuum sieve tray (VST) method is based on the extraction of tritium from millimetre-scaled oscillating PbLi droplets falling inside a vacuum chamber. A simulation tool was developed describing the fluid dynamics occurring along the PbLi flow and was used to study the influence of the different geometrical and operational parameters on the VST performance. The simulation predicts that extraction efficiencies over 90% can be easily reached according to theory and previous experimental results. The size of the VST extraction unit for a fusion reactor is estimated based on the findings from our single-nozzle model and assuming no T reabsorption. It is found to be in the feasible range. Nevertheless, two approaches are discussed which may further reduce this size by up to 90%. The simulation tool proved to be an easy and powerful way to analyse and optimise VST set-ups at any scale.

  • tritium extraction technologies and demo requirements
    Fusion Engineering and Design, 2016
    Co-Authors: David Demange, Laetitia Frances, Alessia Santucci, Rodrigo Antunes, O Borisevich, D Rapisarda, M Utili

    Abstract:

    Abstract The conceptual design of the tritium extraction system (TES) for the European DEMO reactor is worked out in parallel for four different Breeding Blankets (BB) retained by EUROfusion. The TES design has to be tackled in an integrated manner optimizing the synergy with the directly interfacing inner fuel cycle, while minimizing the tritium permeation into the coolant. Considering DEMO requirements, it is most likely that only advanced technologies will be suitable for the tritium extraction systems of the BB. This paper overviews the European work programme for R&D on tritium technology for the DEMO BB, summaries the general first outcomes, and details the specific and comprehensive R&D program to study experimentally immature but promising technologies such as vacuum sieve tray or permeator against vacuum for tritium extraction from PbLi, and advanced inorganic membranes and catalytic membrane reactor for tritium extraction from He. These techniques are simple, fully continuous, likely compact with contained energy consumption. Several European Laboratories are joining their efforts to deploy several new experimental setups to accommodate the tests campaigns that will cover small scale experiments with tritium and inactive medium scale tests so as to improve the technology readiness level of these advanced processes.