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Norbert Becker – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Culex pipiens s.l. and Culex torrentium (Culicidae) in Wrocław area (Poland): occurrence and Breeding Site preferences of mosquito vectors
    Parasitology Research, 2015
    Co-Authors: Thomas Weitzel, Piotr Jawień, Katarzyna Rydzanicz, Elzbieta Lonc, Norbert Becker

    Abstract:

    Both ornithophilic mosquito species, Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) and Culex torrentium (Martini, 1925), occur sympatric in temperate Europe. They are presumed to be primary vectors of West Nile and Sindbis viruses. Differentiation of these morphologically similar Culex species is essential for evaluation of different vector roles, for mosquito surveillance and integrated control strategies. Cx. torrentium has been neglected or erroneously determined as Cx. pipiens s.l. in some previous studies, because only males of both species can be diagnosed reliably by morphology. Thus, knowledge about species abundance, geographical distribution, Breeding Site preferences and the zoonotic risk assessment is incomplete also in Poland. In Wrocław area (Silesian Lowland), besides typical urban Breeding Sites, huge sewage irrigation fields provide suitable Breeding conditions for Culex species. They are also inhabited by 180 resident and migratory bird species serving as potential virus reservoirs. In this study, morphology of larvae and males as well as species diagnostic enzyme markers, namely adenylate kinase (AK) and 2-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), were used to discriminate Cx. pipiens s.l. and Cx. torrentium . In a total of 650 Culex larvae from 24 natural and artificial Breeding Sites, Cx. pipiens s.l. had a proportion of 94.0 % and Cx. torrentium only 6.0 %. It could be shown that both species are well adapted to various Breeding Site types like ditches, catch basins, flower pots and buckets with diverse water quality. Cx. torrentium preferred more artificial water containers in urban surrounding (12 % species proportion), whereas in semi-natural Breeding Sites, Cx. torrentium was rare (3 %). In 12 of 24 Breeding Sites, larvae of both species have been found associated.

  • culex pipiens s l and culex torrentium culicidae in wroclaw area poland occurrence and Breeding Site preferences of mosquito vectors
    Parasitology Research, 2015
    Co-Authors: Thomas Weitzel, Katarzyna Rydzanicz, Elzbieta Lonc, Piotr Jawien, Norbert Becker

    Abstract:

    Both ornithophilic mosquito species, Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) and Culex torrentium (Martini, 1925), occur sympatric in temperate Europe. They are presumed to be primary vectors of West Nile and Sindbis viruses. Differentiation of these morphologically similar Culex species is essential for evaluation of different vector roles, for mosquito surveillance and integrated control strategies. Cx. torrentium has been neglected or erroneously determined as Cx. pipiens s.l. in some previous studies, because only males of both species can be diagnosed reliably by morphology. Thus, knowledge about species abundance, geographical distribution, Breeding Site preferences and the zoonotic risk assessment is incomplete also in Poland. In Wroclaw area (Silesian Lowland), besides typical urban Breeding Sites, huge sewage irrigation fields provide suitable Breeding conditions for Culex species. They are also inhabited by 180 resident and migratory bird species serving as potential virus reservoirs. In this study, morphology of larvae and males as well as species diagnostic enzyme markers, namely adenylate kinase (AK) and 2-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), were used to discriminate Cx. pipiens s.l. and Cx. torrentium. In a total of 650 Culex larvae from 24 natural and artificial Breeding Sites, Cx. pipiens s.l. had a proportion of 94.0 % and Cx. torrentium only 6.0 %. It could be shown that both species are well adapted to various Breeding Site types like ditches, catch basins, flower pots and buckets with diverse water quality. Cx. torrentium preferred more artificial water containers in urban surrounding (12 % species proportion), whereas in semi-natural Breeding Sites, Cx. torrentium was rare (3 %). In 12 of 24 Breeding Sites, larvae of both species have been found associated.

Joseph J Nocera – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • social information trumps vegetation structure in Breeding Site selection by a migrant songbird
    Proceedings of The Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2008
    Co-Authors: Matthew G Betts, Adam S Hadley, Nicholas L Rodenhouse, Joseph J Nocera

    Abstract:

    To maximize fitness, organisms must assess and select suitable habitat. Early research studying birds suggested that organisms consider primarily vegetation structural cues in their habitat choices. We show that experimental exposure to singing in the post-Breeding period provides a social cue that is used for habitat selection the following year by a migrant songbird, the black-throated blue warbler ( Dendroica caerulescens ). Our experimental social cues coerced individuals to adopt territories in areas of very poor habitat quality where individuals typically do not occur. This indicates that social information can override typical associations with vegetation structure. We demonstrate that a strong settlement response was elicited because post-Breeding song at a Site is highly correlated with reproductive success. These results constitute a previously undocumented, but highly parsimonious mechanism for the inadvertent transfer of reproductive (public) information from successful breeders to dispersers. We hypothesize that post-Breeding song is a pervasive and reliable cue for species that communicate vocally, inhabit temporally autocorrelated environments, produce young asynchronously and/or abandon territories after reproductive failure.

  • inadvertent social information in Breeding Site selection of natal dispersing birds
    Proceedings of The Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2006
    Co-Authors: Joseph J Nocera, Graham J Forbes, Lucalain Giraldeau

    Abstract:

    Several species use the number of young produced as public information (PI) to assess Breeding Site quality. PI is inaccessible for synchronously Breeding birds because nests are empty by the time the young can collect this information. We investigate if location cues are the next best source of inadvertent social information (ISI) used by young prospectors during Breeding Site choice. We experimentally deployed ISI as decoys and song playbacks of Breeding males in suitable and sub-optimal habitats during pre- and postBreeding periods, and monitored territory establishment during the subsequent Breeding season for a social, bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), and a more solitary species, Nelson’s sharp-tailed sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni ). The sparrows did not respond to treatments, but bobolinks responded strongly to post-Breeding location cues, irrespective of habitat quality. The following year, 17/20 sub-optimal plots to which bobolink males were recruited were defended for at least two weeks, indicating that song heard the previous year could exert a ‘carry-over attraction’ effect on conspecifics the following year. Sixteen recruited males were natal dispersers, as expected when animals have little opportunity to directly sample their natal habitat quality. We suggest that differences in Breeding synchronicity may induce an equivalent clinal distribution of ISI use.

Velimatti Pakanen – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • quantitative genetics of the use of conspecific and heterospecific social cues for Breeding Site choice
    Evolution, 2020
    Co-Authors: Jere Tolvanen, Velimatti Pakanen, Sami M Kivela, Blandine Doligez, Jennifer Morinay, Lars Gustafsson, P Bijma

    Abstract:

    Social information use for decision-making is common and affects ecological and evolutionary processes, including social aggregation, species coexistence, and cultural evolution. Despite increasing ecological knowledge on social information use, very little is known about its genetic basis and therefore its evolutionary potential. Genetic variation in a trait affecting an individual’s social and nonsocial environment may have important implications for population dynamics, interspecific interactions, and, for expression of other, environmentally plastic traits. We estimated repeatability, additive genetic variance, and heritability of the use of conspecific and heterospecific social cues (abundance and Breeding success) for Breeding Site choice in a population of wild collared flycatchers Ficedula albicollis. Repeatability was found for two social cues: previous year conspecific Breeding success and previous year heterospecific abundance. Yet, additive genetic variances for these two social cues, and thus heritabilities, were low. This suggests that most of the phenotypic variation in the use of social cues and resulting conspecific and heterospecific social environment experienced by individuals in this population stems from phenotypic plasticity. Given the important role of social information use on ecological and evolutionary processes, more studies on genetic versus environmental determinism of social information use are needed.