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Brilliant Blue FCF

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Joyce Cheungflynn – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • use of Brilliant Blue FCF during vein graft preparation inhibits intimal hyperplasia
    Journal of Vascular Surgery, 2016
    Co-Authors: Michael J Osgood, Igor Voskresensky, Kyle M Hocking, Padmini Komalavilas, Colleen M Brophy, Kevin W Sexton, Jun Song, Joyce Cheungflynn

    Abstract:

    Background Intimal hyperplasia remains the primary cause of vein graft failure for the 1 million yearly bypass procedures performed using human saphenous vein (HSV) grafts. This response to injury is caused in part by the harvest and preparation of the conduit. The use of Brilliant Blue FCF (FCF) restores injury-induced loss of function in vascular tissues possibly via inhibition of purinergic receptor signaling. This study investigated whether pretreatment of the vein graft with FCF prevents intimal hyperplasia. Methods Cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) were used to determine the effect of FCF on platelet-derived growth factor-mediated migration and proliferation, cellular processes that contribute to intimal hyperplasia. The effectiveness of FCF treatment during the time of explantation on preventing intimal hyperplasia was evaluated in a rabbit jugular-carotid interposition model and in an organ culture model using HSV. Results FCF inhibited platelet-derived growth factor-induced migration and proliferation of A7r5 cells. Treatment with FCF at the time of vein graft explantation inhibited the subsequent development of intimal thickening in the rabbit model. Pretreatment with FCF also prevented intimal thickening of HSV in organ culture. Conclusions Incorporation of FCF as a component of vein graft preparation at the time of explantation represents a potential therapeutic approach to mitigate intimal hyperplasia, reduce vein graft failure, and improve outcome of the autologous transplantation of HSV.

  • Brilliant Blue FCF is a nontoxic dye for saphenous vein graft marking that abrogates response to injury
    Journal of Vascular Surgery, 2016
    Co-Authors: Kyle M Hocking, Fan Dong Li, Padmini Komalavilas, Colleen M Brophy, Joyce Cheungflynn

    Abstract:

    Background Injury to saphenous vein grafts during surgical preparation may contribute to the subsequent development of intimal hyperplasia, the primary cause of graft failure. Surgical skin markers currently used for vascular marking contain gentian violet and isopropanol, which damage tissue and impair physiologic functions. Brilliant Blue FCF (FCF) is a nontoxic dye alternative that may also ameliorate preparation-induced injury. Methods Porcine saphenous vein (PSV) was used to evaluate the effect of FCF on physiologic responses in a muscle bath. Cytotoxicity of FCF was measured using human umbilical venous smooth muscle cells. Effect of FCF on the development of intimal hyperplasia was evaluated in organ culture using PSV. Intracellular calcium fluxes and contractile responses were measured in response to agonists and inhibitors in rat aorta and human saphenous vein. Results Marking with FCF did not impair smooth muscle contractile responses and restored stretch injury-induced loss in smooth muscle contractility of PSV. Gentian violet has cytotoxic effects on human umbilical venous smooth muscle cells, whereas FCF is nontoxic. FCF inhibited intimal thickening in PSV in organ culture. Contraction induced by 2′(3′)- O -(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine 5′-triphosphate and intracellular calcium flux were inhibited by FCF, oxidized adenosine triphosphate, KN-62, and Brilliant Blue G, suggesting that FCF may inhibit the purinergic receptor P2X 7 . Conclusions Our studies indicated that FCF is a nontoxic marking dye for vein grafts that ameliorates vein graft injury and prevents intimal thickening, possibly due to P2X 7 receptor inhibition. FCF represents a nontoxic alternative for vein graft marking and a potentially therapeutic approach to enhance outcome in autologous transplantation of human saphenous vein into the coronary and peripheral arterial circulation.

  • Brilliant Blue FCF as an alternative dye for saphenous vein graft marking effect on conduit function
    JAMA Surgery, 2014
    Co-Authors: Igor Voskresensky, Eric S Wise, Kyle M Hocking, Fan Dong Li, Michael J Osgood, Padmini Komalavilas, Colleen M Brophy, Joyce Cheungflynn

    Abstract:

    Importance Surgical skin markers are used off-label to mark human saphenous veins (HSVs) to maintain orientation before implantation as aortocoronary or peripheral arterial bypass grafts. These surgical skin markers impair functional responses of the HSV tissue. Objectives To investigate the effect of Brilliant Blue dye 1 (Brilliant Blue FCF [for food coloring]; hereinafter, FCF) as a nontoxic alternative marking dye and to determine whether FCF has pharmacological properties. Design, Setting, and Participants Segments of HSVs were collected in university hospitals from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting procedures immediately after harvest (unmanipulated) or after typical intraoperative surgical graft preparation (after manipulation). Rat inferior venae cavae were used to determine the pharmacological properties and cellular targets of FCF. Endothelial and smooth muscle functional responses were determined in a muscle bath, and intimal thickening in HSVs was determined after 14 days in organ culture. Main Outcomes and Measures Contractile responses were measured in force and converted to stress. Smooth muscle function was expressed as maximal responses to potassium chloride depolarization contractions. Endothelial function was defined as the percentage of relaxation of maximal agonist-induced contraction. Neointimal thickness was measured by histomorphometric analysis. Results Human saphenous veins stored in the presence of FCF had no loss of endothelial or smooth muscle function. Unmanipulated HSVs preserved in the presence of FCF demonstrated a significant increase in endothelial-dependent relaxation (mean [SEM], 25.2% [6.4%] vs 30.2% [6.7%];P = .02). Application of FCF to functionally nonviable tissue significantly enhanced the smooth muscle responses (mean [SEM], 0.018 [0.004] × 105N/m2vs 0.057 [0.016] × 105N/m2;P = .05). Treatment with FCF reduced intimal thickness in organ culture (mean [SEM], −17.5% [2.1%] for unmanipulated HSVs vs −27.9% [3.7%] for HSVs after manipulation;P  Conclusions and Relevance Treatment with FCF did not impair endothelial or smooth muscle function in HSVs. Brilliant Blue FCF enhanced endothelial-dependent relaxation, restored smooth muscle function, and prevented intimal hyperplasia in HSVs in organ culture. These pharmacological properties of FCF may be due to P2X7receptor or pannexin channel inhibition. Brilliant Blue FCF is an alternative, nontoxic marking dye that may improve HSV conduit function and decrease intimal hyperplasia.

Kyle M Hocking – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • use of Brilliant Blue FCF during vein graft preparation inhibits intimal hyperplasia
    Journal of Vascular Surgery, 2016
    Co-Authors: Michael J Osgood, Igor Voskresensky, Kyle M Hocking, Padmini Komalavilas, Colleen M Brophy, Kevin W Sexton, Jun Song, Joyce Cheungflynn

    Abstract:

    Background Intimal hyperplasia remains the primary cause of vein graft failure for the 1 million yearly bypass procedures performed using human saphenous vein (HSV) grafts. This response to injury is caused in part by the harvest and preparation of the conduit. The use of Brilliant Blue FCF (FCF) restores injury-induced loss of function in vascular tissues possibly via inhibition of purinergic receptor signaling. This study investigated whether pretreatment of the vein graft with FCF prevents intimal hyperplasia. Methods Cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) were used to determine the effect of FCF on platelet-derived growth factor-mediated migration and proliferation, cellular processes that contribute to intimal hyperplasia. The effectiveness of FCF treatment during the time of explantation on preventing intimal hyperplasia was evaluated in a rabbit jugular-carotid interposition model and in an organ culture model using HSV. Results FCF inhibited platelet-derived growth factor-induced migration and proliferation of A7r5 cells. Treatment with FCF at the time of vein graft explantation inhibited the subsequent development of intimal thickening in the rabbit model. Pretreatment with FCF also prevented intimal thickening of HSV in organ culture. Conclusions Incorporation of FCF as a component of vein graft preparation at the time of explantation represents a potential therapeutic approach to mitigate intimal hyperplasia, reduce vein graft failure, and improve outcome of the autologous transplantation of HSV.

  • Brilliant Blue FCF is a nontoxic dye for saphenous vein graft marking that abrogates response to injury
    Journal of Vascular Surgery, 2016
    Co-Authors: Kyle M Hocking, Fan Dong Li, Padmini Komalavilas, Colleen M Brophy, Joyce Cheungflynn

    Abstract:

    Background Injury to saphenous vein grafts during surgical preparation may contribute to the subsequent development of intimal hyperplasia, the primary cause of graft failure. Surgical skin markers currently used for vascular marking contain gentian violet and isopropanol, which damage tissue and impair physiologic functions. Brilliant Blue FCF (FCF) is a nontoxic dye alternative that may also ameliorate preparation-induced injury. Methods Porcine saphenous vein (PSV) was used to evaluate the effect of FCF on physiologic responses in a muscle bath. Cytotoxicity of FCF was measured using human umbilical venous smooth muscle cells. Effect of FCF on the development of intimal hyperplasia was evaluated in organ culture using PSV. Intracellular calcium fluxes and contractile responses were measured in response to agonists and inhibitors in rat aorta and human saphenous vein. Results Marking with FCF did not impair smooth muscle contractile responses and restored stretch injury-induced loss in smooth muscle contractility of PSV. Gentian violet has cytotoxic effects on human umbilical venous smooth muscle cells, whereas FCF is nontoxic. FCF inhibited intimal thickening in PSV in organ culture. Contraction induced by 2′(3′)- O -(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine 5′-triphosphate and intracellular calcium flux were inhibited by FCF, oxidized adenosine triphosphate, KN-62, and Brilliant Blue G, suggesting that FCF may inhibit the purinergic receptor P2X 7 . Conclusions Our studies indicated that FCF is a nontoxic marking dye for vein grafts that ameliorates vein graft injury and prevents intimal thickening, possibly due to P2X 7 receptor inhibition. FCF represents a nontoxic alternative for vein graft marking and a potentially therapeutic approach to enhance outcome in autologous transplantation of human saphenous vein into the coronary and peripheral arterial circulation.

  • Brilliant Blue FCF as an alternative dye for saphenous vein graft marking effect on conduit function
    JAMA Surgery, 2014
    Co-Authors: Igor Voskresensky, Eric S Wise, Kyle M Hocking, Fan Dong Li, Michael J Osgood, Padmini Komalavilas, Colleen M Brophy, Joyce Cheungflynn

    Abstract:

    Importance Surgical skin markers are used off-label to mark human saphenous veins (HSVs) to maintain orientation before implantation as aortocoronary or peripheral arterial bypass grafts. These surgical skin markers impair functional responses of the HSV tissue. Objectives To investigate the effect of Brilliant Blue dye 1 (Brilliant Blue FCF [for food coloring]; hereinafter, FCF) as a nontoxic alternative marking dye and to determine whether FCF has pharmacological properties. Design, Setting, and Participants Segments of HSVs were collected in university hospitals from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting procedures immediately after harvest (unmanipulated) or after typical intraoperative surgical graft preparation (after manipulation). Rat inferior venae cavae were used to determine the pharmacological properties and cellular targets of FCF. Endothelial and smooth muscle functional responses were determined in a muscle bath, and intimal thickening in HSVs was determined after 14 days in organ culture. Main Outcomes and Measures Contractile responses were measured in force and converted to stress. Smooth muscle function was expressed as maximal responses to potassium chloride depolarization contractions. Endothelial function was defined as the percentage of relaxation of maximal agonist-induced contraction. Neointimal thickness was measured by histomorphometric analysis. Results Human saphenous veins stored in the presence of FCF had no loss of endothelial or smooth muscle function. Unmanipulated HSVs preserved in the presence of FCF demonstrated a significant increase in endothelial-dependent relaxation (mean [SEM], 25.2% [6.4%] vs 30.2% [6.7%];P = .02). Application of FCF to functionally nonviable tissue significantly enhanced the smooth muscle responses (mean [SEM], 0.018 [0.004] × 105N/m2vs 0.057 [0.016] × 105N/m2;P = .05). Treatment with FCF reduced intimal thickness in organ culture (mean [SEM], −17.5% [2.1%] for unmanipulated HSVs vs −27.9% [3.7%] for HSVs after manipulation;P  Conclusions and Relevance Treatment with FCF did not impair endothelial or smooth muscle function in HSVs. Brilliant Blue FCF enhanced endothelial-dependent relaxation, restored smooth muscle function, and prevented intimal hyperplasia in HSVs in organ culture. These pharmacological properties of FCF may be due to P2X7receptor or pannexin channel inhibition. Brilliant Blue FCF is an alternative, nontoxic marking dye that may improve HSV conduit function and decrease intimal hyperplasia.

Zhijian Wu – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • kinetics and thermodynamics of the organic dye adsorption on the mesoporous hybrid xerogel
    Chemical Engineering Journal, 2005
    Co-Authors: Zhijian Wu

    Abstract:

    We investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics of Brilliant Blue FCF (BBF) adsorption on a mesoporous hybrid xerogel derived from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and propyltriethoxysilane (PTES) with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a templating agent. We study the effect of initial BBF concentration, temperature, pH, and ionic strength on the adsorption of BBF from aqueous solution. Kinetic studies show that the kinetic data are well described by the pseudo second-order kinetic model. Initial adsorption rate increases with the increase in initial BBF concentration and temperature. The internal diffusion appears to be the rate-limiting step for the adsorption process. The equilibrium adsorption amount increases with the increase in initial BBF concentration, temperature, solution acidity, and ionic strength. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic. Electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interaction are suggested to be the dominant interactions between dye and the xerogel surface.

  • design of doped hybrid xerogels for a controlled release of Brilliant Blue FCF
    Journal of Non-crystalline Solids, 2004
    Co-Authors: Zhijian Wu

    Abstract:

    Abstract We investigate a controlled release of Brilliant Blue FCF (BBF) 1 from doped hybrid xerogels by considering the effects of release media, precursors, and dopants. The three release media used are acidic, neutral, and basic solutions. In the xerogel preparation, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES), propyltriethoxysilane (PTES), and phenyltriethoxysilane (PhTES) are used as precursors, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as dopants. Our experimental results suggest that BBF release can easily be controlled by using organosilanes as well as TEOS as precursors and/or by adding dopants. The released amount of BBF from organically modified xerogels is usually lower than that from TEOS-based xerogels. For different dopants, the released amount is in the order of SDS > HPC ∼ without dopant > CTAB. We find that the experimental results can be well explained by considering the textural properties of the xerogels and the electrostatic, hydrophobic, and aromatic–aromatic interactions between BBF and xerogel matrices/dopants.