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Daniel Clery – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • ITER faces further five-year delay
    Physics World, 2016
    Co-Authors: Daniel Clery


    The €14bn ITER fusion reactor currently under construction in Cadarache, France, will require an additional cash injection of €4.6bn if it is to start up in 2025 – a target date that is already five years later than currently scheduled.

  • ITER nominates next leader
    Physics World, 2015
    Co-Authors: Daniel Clery


    Bernard Bigot, chair of France’s Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), has been chosen as the next director-general of ITER – the experimental fusion reactor currently being built in Cadarache, France.

  • US sanctions on Russia hit ITER council
    Physics World, 2014
    Co-Authors: Daniel Clery


    The ITER fusion experiment has had to bow to the impact of US sanctions against Russia and move the venue of its council meeting, scheduled for 18–19 June, from St Petersburg to the project headquarters in Cadarache, France.

Thierry Hedde – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Radiosondes – LA Toulouse – M30, Cadarache
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Thierry Hedde


    Measurements obtained by radio-soundings with balloons of the recovery type.

    The “CRA2013monthdayhour.fil” file in each RS subfolder contains the following 19 variables:

    TempF = GPS time (s)
    AltitudF = geopotential altitude (m)
    LatitudeF = latitude (rad)
    LongitudeF = longitude (rad)
    VEstF = east component of probe velocity (m/s)
    VNordF = north component of probe velocity (m/s)
    VVertF = vertical component of probe velocity (m/s)
    VHorF = horizontal wind velocity (m/s)
    VDirF = wind direction (deg)
    TaNCalF = air temperature, uncalibrated (°C)
    TaCalF = air temperature, calibrated (°C)
    TaRadF = air temperature, calibrated and corrected for radiative effect (°C) -> recommended use
    UNCaF = relative humidity, uncalibrated (%)
    UCalF = relative humidity, calibrated (%) -> recommended use
    PressF = pressure (Pa)
    GPSAltF = raw GPS altitude (m)
    AD_OzoneF = not used
    T_OzoneF = not used
    AD_AuxF = not used

  • KASCADE2017 – An experimental study of thermal circulations and turbulence in complex terrain
    European Geosciences Union, 2017
    Co-Authors: Eric R Pardyjak, Florian Dupuy, Pierre Durand, Nipun Gunawardena, Thierry Hedde, Pierre Rubin


    The KASCADE (KAtabatic winds and Stability over Cadarache for Dispersion of Effluents) 2017 experiment was conducted during winter 2017 with the overarching objective of improving prediction of dispersion in complex terrain during stable atmospheric conditions. The experiment builds on knowledge gathered during the first KASCADE experiment conducted in 2013 (Duine et al., 2016), which provided detailed observations of the vertical structure of the atmosphere during stable conditions. In spite of this improved understanding, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the near-surface horizontal spatial and temporal variability of winds and thermodynamic variables. For this specific campaign, the general aim has been to use a large number of sensors to improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal development, evolution and breakdown of topographically driven flows. KASCADE 2017 consisted of continuous observations, which were broadened during ten Intensive Obser- vation Periods (IOPs) conducted in the Cadarache Valley located in south-eastern France from January through March 2017. The Cadarache Valley is a relatively small valley (6 km x 1 km) with modest slopes and elevation differences between the valley floor and nearby peaks (∼100 m). The valley is embedded in the larger Durance Valley drainage system leading to multi-scale flow interactions. During the winter, winds are light and stably stratified leading to thermal circulations as well as complex near-surface atmospheric layering that impacts dispersion of contaminants. The continuously operating instrumentation deployed included mean near surface (2-m) and sub-surface observations from 12 low-cost Local Energy-budget Measurement Stations (LEMS), four sonic anemometer masts, one full surface flux station, sodar measurements at two locations, wind and temperature measurements from a tall 110 m tower, and two additional met stations. During IOPs, additional deployments included a low-cost tethered balloon temperature profiler as well as regular (every 3 hours) radiosoundings (including recoverable and reusable probes). The presentation will provide an overview of the experiment and several interesting “first-results.” First results will include data characterizing highly-regular nocturnal horizontal wind meandering and associated turbulence statistics. In addition, we present data on the development of strong near surface stable stratification hours before sunset.

  • A Simple Method Based on Routine Observations to Nowcast Down-Valley Flows in Shallow, Narrow Valleys
    Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Gert-jan Duine, Thierry Hedde, Pierre Roubin, Pierre Durand


    AbstractA simple relation to diagnose the existence of a thermally driven down-valley wind in a shallow (100 m deep) and narrow (1–2 km wide) valley based on routine weather measurements has been determined. The relation is based on a method that has been derived from a forecast verification principle. It consists of optimizing a threshold of permanently measured quantities to nowcast the thermally driven Cadarache (southeastern France) down-valley wind. Three parameters permanently observed at a 110-m-high tower have been examined: the potential temperature difference between the heights of 110 and 2 m, the wind speed at 110 m, and a bulk Richardson number. The thresholds are optimized using the wind observations obtained within the valley during the Katabatic Winds and Stability over Cadarache for the Dispersion of Effluents (KASCADE) field experiment, which was conducted in the winter of 2013. The highest predictability of the down-valley wind at the height of 10 m (correct nowcasting ratio of 0.90) wa…

L Svensson – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • experimental results from the Cadarache 1 mv test bed with singap accelerators
    Nuclear Fusion, 2006
    Co-Authors: L Svensson, H P L De Esch, D Boilson, R Hemsworth, A Krylov


    A prototype negative ion accelerator, based on a pre-accelerator normally used for positive ion acceleration, was used on the Cadarache MV negative ion beam facility up to 2004. Even though this accelerator demonstrated the feasibility of SINgle GAP, SINGle APerture (SINGAP) accelerators it was not possible to produce beams with the optical quality required for ITER. A new ‘ITER-like’ accelerator, which is a scaled down version of the ITER SINGAP accelerator, has been built and installed on the Cadarache 1 MV test bed. The objective of the ‘ITER-like’ is to demonstrate reliable D− beam acceleration as close as possible to 1 MeV with a current density j− ≈ 200 A m−2 with the beam optics required for ITER, i.e. a beamlet divergence of ≤7 mrad and beamlet steering within ±2 mrad of that specified. High voltage hold-off tests have been performed and 940 kV has been held without breakdowns. Beams up to 850 keV (D−, 15 A m−2) were obtained after four weeks of experiments and the highest current density that has been obtained so far is 150 A m−2 (D−, 580 keV, 23 mA for one beamlet). The required beam optics for ITER has been obtained at near perveance match (at 120 A m−2 D−, 727 keV, 18.5 mA for one beamlet), but a larger than expected halo has been measured.

  • first simulations of the Cadarache singap experiments
    PRODUCTION AND NEUTRALIZATION OF NEGATIVE IONS AND BEAMS: Ninth International Symposium on the Production and Neutralization of Negative Ions and Beam, 2002
    Co-Authors: H P L De Esch, P Massmann, D Boilson, R Hemsworth, L Svensson


    The SINGAP (SINGle APerture ‐ SINgle GAP) acceleration concept is a simplified alternative to the multi‐aperture, multi‐grid acceleration of the ITER Neutral Beam reference design. Our project aims to demonstrate reliable multi‐second acceleration of a D− beam to 1 MeV (∼100 mA, 200 A/m2), relevant to the ITER Neutral Beam Injection requirements and to validate the predictions of the simulation codes used to design the SINGAP accelerator for ITER. The present campaign achieved (911 keV, 30A/m2) and (600 keV, 60 A/m2) D− beams. The highest space charge effects have been obtained with 400 keV, 50 A/m2 D−, which, although still a factor of 2.5 below the ITER value for space charge, is beginning to test the space charge aspects of the codes. Simulation results are compared with the experimental data for a variety of cases.

  • the Cadarache 1 mv porcelain singap bushing
    Symposium On Fusion Technology, 2001
    Co-Authors: P Massmann, H P L De Esch, R Hemsworth, T Inoue, L Svensson


    The 1 MV bushing is considered as one of the most technically challenging components of the ITER neutral beam injectors, necessitating the design and manufacture of large ceramic insulators beyond the range of current industrial production. The ITER radiation environment and the fact that the bushing forms part of the tritium barrier demand a component of great reliability and safety. An R&D task has been launched for the fabrication of a prototype bushing based on the SINgle GAP, SINGle APerture (SINGAP) 1 MeV accelerator being developed in the EU. We present the design of this prototype, which is to be tested at Cadarache, and compare it with the SINGAP bushing proposed for the ITER injectors.