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Yaling He – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Fatty Acids as phase change materials: A review
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2014
    Co-Authors: Yanping Yuan, Nan Zhang, Wenquan Tao, Xiaoling Cao, Yaling He
    Abstract:

    Fatty Acids as phase change materials have attracted much attention for their various applications in building energy efficiency, solar heating systems and air-conditioning systems. After summarizing the basic characteristics of Fatty Acids, eutectic mixtures of Fatty Acids and Fatty acid esters, as well as the preparation and characteristics of Fatty acid composites as phase change materials (PCMs), this paper analyzes the thermal reliability and stability of Fatty Acids as PCMs and their heat transfer characteristics in a unit which is followed by an introduction to the energy storage systems of three kinds of Fatty Acids as PCMs. Besides, it also points out the future research direction of Fatty Acids as PCMs as a solution of the insufficiency and flaws of current researches. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • Fatty Acids as phase change materials a review
    Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2014
    Co-Authors: Yanping Yuan, Nan Zhang, Yaling He
    Abstract:

    Fatty Acids as phase change materials have attracted much attention for their various applications in building energy efficiency, solar heating systems and air-conditioning systems. After summarizing the basic characteristics of Fatty Acids, eutectic mixtures of Fatty Acids and Fatty acid esters, as well as the preparation and characteristics of Fatty acid composites as phase change materials (PCMs), this paper analyzes the thermal reliability and stability of Fatty Acids as PCMs and their heat transfer characteristics in a unit which is followed by an introduction to the energy storage systems of three kinds of Fatty Acids as PCMs. Besides, it also points out the future research direction of Fatty Acids as PCMs as a solution of the insufficiency and flaws of current researches.

Peter J. Moate – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Milk Fatty Acids II: Prediction of the Production of Individual Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk
    Journal of Dairy Science, 2008
    Co-Authors: Peter J. Moate, William Chalupa, Raymond C. Boston, Ian J. Lean
    Abstract:

    Previously observed relationships between dietary composition and production of a small number of individual milk Fatty Acids were the motivation to examine whether equations could be developed to predict production of all the major individual milk Fatty Acids. Such equations could be incorporated into ration formulation programs and used to examine factors that influence milk fat composition. Data from 29 published experiments on Holstein cows that provided 120 dietary treatments were entered into CPM-Dairy to obtain estimates of amounts of individual long-chain Fatty Acids (LCFA) absorbed from the intestines. These derived data and other dietary and animal data including the reported Fatty acid composition of milk fat were entered into a spreadsheet. Descriptors of diet included daily intake of dry matter, total fermentable carbohydrate, total Fatty Acids, and profile of dietary Fatty Acids, intake of neutral detergent fiber, supplemental fish-oil, buffer, and magnesium oxide. Cow data included body weight and days in milk (DIM). Multiple linear regression was used to develop equations to predict the production (g/d) of each of 26 major LCFA. The equations developed generally had R(2) values in excess of 0.5. Production (g/d) of total de novo Fatty Acids (C4:0 to C15:0) (PTdenovo) was found to be positively related to the intake of fermentable carbohydrate, and negatively related to the intake of fish oil Fatty Acids and the estimated total amount of unsaturated Fatty Acids absorbed from the intestines. The PTdenovo was greater in pasture-fed cows than total mixed ration-fed cows and was negatively related to the square root of DIM. Production of each individual de novo Fatty acid was described by a fixed proportion of PTdenovo. These proportions were 0.12 +/- 0.006 (C4:0), 0.083 +/- 0.0039 (C6:0), 0.0516 +/- 0.0025 (C8:0), 0.111 +/- 0.003 (C10:0), 0.134 +/- 0.0037 (C12:0), 0.441 +/- 0.007 (C14:0), 0.046 +/- 0.0024 (C14:1), and 0.0432 +/- 0.0017 (C15:0). Separate independent equations were developed to describe the daily production of C16:0, C16:1, and the main individual preformed Fatty Acids (>C16). The productions of each of the main individual pre-formed Fatty Acids were generally strongly related to the corresponding estimated amount (g/d) of specific Fatty Acids absorbed from the intestines. Percentage estimates for the direct transfer of the major absorbed LCFA to their corresponding LCFA in milk were 42% (C16:0); 9.5% (C18:0); 47.5% (cis-9 C18:1); 16.1% (all isomers of trans-C18:1), 38% (cis-9, cis-12 C18:2); and 31% (cis-9, cis-12, cis15 C18:3). High dietary intake of fish oil Fatty Acids was negatively associated with the production of all of the major individual preformed Fatty Acids with the exception of C20:5 and C22:6. In some instances, particular dietary factors were found to have positive influences on production of one Fatty acid and negative influences on another. For example, high levels of dietary magnesium oxide were positively associated with production of C17 Fatty Acids but negatively associated with production of C18:0 and cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (conjugated linoleic acid). This analysis quantified effects of major dietary and cow factors on production of individual Fatty Acids in milk.

  • milk Fatty Acids i variation in the concentration of individual Fatty Acids in bovine milk
    Journal of Dairy Science, 2007
    Co-Authors: Peter J. Moate, William Chalupa, Raymond C. Boston, Ian J. Lean
    Abstract:

    Data from 29 published experiments on Holstein cows, providing 120 dietary treatments, were collated to obtain means, standard deviations, and ranges for the concentrations (mg/g) of 26 major individual Fatty Acids in bovine milk fat. The influence of diet type (total mixed ration– vs. pasture-based diet) on concentrations of individual Fatty Acids was examined. Pairwise correlations for concentrations (g/kg) of individual Fatty Acids in milk showed that almost all of the individual de novo Fatty Acids were significantly correlated with each other and with the total concentration of de novo Fatty Acids. Concentrations of individual unsaturated preformed Fatty Acids were generally positively correlated with each other but were negatively correlated with concentrations of total de novo Fatty Acids. Substantial variation was found in the concentrations of individual milk Fatty Acids and, apart from those synthesized de novo, concentrations of individual Fatty Acids did not vary in concert. The adequacy of literature data for the development of a model to predict the production of the major individual Fatty Acids in milk is discussed. The limitations associated with the currently available studies that may be used in a predictive model are 1) failure of many publications to adequately describe dietary details, 2) reporting poorly defined milk Fatty Acids, 3) aggregating a number of closely related Fatty Acids under a single category, and 4) the selective reporting of only those Fatty Acids that are present in milk fat in appreciable quantities. Despite these limitations, the data are sufficient to enable development of a model to predict the concentrations and production of major individual Fatty Acids in milk fat. The extreme variability in concentrations of individual milk Fatty Acids and the complex matrix of positive and negative correlations among the concentrations of many individual Fatty Acids suggest that separate equations will be needed to predict the production of each individual milk Fatty acid.

Ian J. Lean – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Milk Fatty Acids II: Prediction of the Production of Individual Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk
    Journal of Dairy Science, 2008
    Co-Authors: Peter J. Moate, William Chalupa, Raymond C. Boston, Ian J. Lean
    Abstract:

    Previously observed relationships between dietary composition and production of a small number of individual milk Fatty Acids were the motivation to examine whether equations could be developed to predict production of all the major individual milk Fatty Acids. Such equations could be incorporated into ration formulation programs and used to examine factors that influence milk fat composition. Data from 29 published experiments on Holstein cows that provided 120 dietary treatments were entered into CPM-Dairy to obtain estimates of amounts of individual long-chain Fatty Acids (LCFA) absorbed from the intestines. These derived data and other dietary and animal data including the reported Fatty acid composition of milk fat were entered into a spreadsheet. Descriptors of diet included daily intake of dry matter, total fermentable carbohydrate, total Fatty Acids, and profile of dietary Fatty Acids, intake of neutral detergent fiber, supplemental fish-oil, buffer, and magnesium oxide. Cow data included body weight and days in milk (DIM). Multiple linear regression was used to develop equations to predict the production (g/d) of each of 26 major LCFA. The equations developed generally had R(2) values in excess of 0.5. Production (g/d) of total de novo Fatty Acids (C4:0 to C15:0) (PTdenovo) was found to be positively related to the intake of fermentable carbohydrate, and negatively related to the intake of fish oil Fatty Acids and the estimated total amount of unsaturated Fatty Acids absorbed from the intestines. The PTdenovo was greater in pasture-fed cows than total mixed ration-fed cows and was negatively related to the square root of DIM. Production of each individual de novo Fatty acid was described by a fixed proportion of PTdenovo. These proportions were 0.12 +/- 0.006 (C4:0), 0.083 +/- 0.0039 (C6:0), 0.0516 +/- 0.0025 (C8:0), 0.111 +/- 0.003 (C10:0), 0.134 +/- 0.0037 (C12:0), 0.441 +/- 0.007 (C14:0), 0.046 +/- 0.0024 (C14:1), and 0.0432 +/- 0.0017 (C15:0). Separate independent equations were developed to describe the daily production of C16:0, C16:1, and the main individual preformed Fatty Acids (>C16). The productions of each of the main individual pre-formed Fatty Acids were generally strongly related to the corresponding estimated amount (g/d) of specific Fatty Acids absorbed from the intestines. Percentage estimates for the direct transfer of the major absorbed LCFA to their corresponding LCFA in milk were 42% (C16:0); 9.5% (C18:0); 47.5% (cis-9 C18:1); 16.1% (all isomers of trans-C18:1), 38% (cis-9, cis-12 C18:2); and 31% (cis-9, cis-12, cis15 C18:3). High dietary intake of fish oil Fatty Acids was negatively associated with the production of all of the major individual preformed Fatty Acids with the exception of C20:5 and C22:6. In some instances, particular dietary factors were found to have positive influences on production of one Fatty acid and negative influences on another. For example, high levels of dietary magnesium oxide were positively associated with production of C17 Fatty Acids but negatively associated with production of C18:0 and cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (conjugated linoleic acid). This analysis quantified effects of major dietary and cow factors on production of individual Fatty Acids in milk.

  • milk Fatty Acids i variation in the concentration of individual Fatty Acids in bovine milk
    Journal of Dairy Science, 2007
    Co-Authors: Peter J. Moate, William Chalupa, Raymond C. Boston, Ian J. Lean
    Abstract:

    Data from 29 published experiments on Holstein cows, providing 120 dietary treatments, were collated to obtain means, standard deviations, and ranges for the concentrations (mg/g) of 26 major individual Fatty Acids in bovine milk fat. The influence of diet type (total mixed ration- vs. pasture-based diet) on concentrations of individual Fatty Acids was examined. Pairwise correlations for concentrations (g/kg) of individual Fatty Acids in milk showed that almost all of the individual de novo Fatty Acids were significantly correlated with each other and with the total concentration of de novo Fatty Acids. Concentrations of individual unsaturated preformed Fatty Acids were generally positively correlated with each other but were negatively correlated with concentrations of total de novo Fatty Acids. Substantial variation was found in the concentrations of individual milk Fatty Acids and, apart from those synthesized de novo, concentrations of individual Fatty Acids did not vary in concert. The adequacy of literature data for the development of a model to predict the production of the major individual Fatty Acids in milk is discussed. The limitations associated with the currently available studies that may be used in a predictive model are 1) failure of many publications to adequately describe dietary details, 2) reporting poorly defined milk Fatty Acids, 3) aggregating a number of closely related Fatty Acids under a single category, and 4) the selective reporting of only those Fatty Acids that are present in milk fat in appreciable quantities. Despite these limitations, the data are sufficient to enable development of a model to predict the concentrations and production of major individual Fatty Acids in milk fat. The extreme variability in concentrations of individual milk Fatty Acids and the complex matrix of positive and negative correlations among the concentrations of many individual Fatty Acids suggest that separate equations will be needed to predict the production of each individual milk Fatty acid.

Philip C Calder – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and inflammation
    Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 2006
    Co-Authors: Philip C Calder
    Abstract:

    Abstract The n-6 polyunsaturated Fatty acid arachidonic acid gives rise to the eicosanoid family of mediators (prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes and related metabolites). These have inflammatory actions in their own right and also regulate the production of other mediators including inflammatory cytokines. Consumption of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated Fatty Acids decreases the amount of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and so available for eicosanoid production. Thus, n-3 polyunsaturated Fatty Acids decrease production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. These Fatty Acids also decrease the production of the classic inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 and the expression of adhesion molecules involved in inflammatory interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells. These latter effects may occur by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms including modulation of the activation of transcription factors involved in inflammatory processes. The anti-inflammatory actions of long chain n-3 Fatty acid-induced effects may be of therapeutic use in conditions with an acute or chronic inflammatory component.

  • polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and inflammation
    Biochemical Society Transactions, 2005
    Co-Authors: Philip C Calder
    Abstract:

    The n –6 polyunsaturated Fatty acid, arachidonic acid, is a precursor of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and related compounds that have important roles as mediators and regulators of inflammation. Consuming increased amounts of long chain n –3 polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (found in oily fish and fish oils) results in a partial replacement of the arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic Acids. This leads to decreased production of arachidonic acid-derived mediators. This alone is a potentially beneficial anti-inflammatory effect of n –3 Fatty Acids. However, n –3 Fatty Acids have a number of other effects that might occur downstream of altered eicosanoid production or are independent of this. For example, they result in suppressed production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and can modulate adhesion molecule expression. These effects occur at the level of altered gene expression.

  • polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and inflammation
    Oléagineux Corps gras Lipides, 2004
    Co-Authors: Philip C Calder
    Abstract:

    The n-6 polyunsaturated Fatty acid arachidonic acid gives rise to the eicosanoid family of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and related metabolites) and through these regulates the activities of inflammatory cells, the production of cytokines and the various balances within the immune system. Fish oil and oily fish are good sources of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Consumption of these Fatty Acids decreases the amount of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and so available for eicosanoid production. Thus, n-3 polyunsaturated Fatty Acids act as arachidonic acid antagonists. Components of both natural and acquired immunity, including the production of key inflammatory cytokines, can be affected by n-3 polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Although some of the effects of n-3 Fatty Acids may be brought about by modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids made, it is possible that these Fatty Acids might elicit some of their effects by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms. Such n-3 Fatty acid-induced effects may be of use as a therapy for acute and chronic inflinflammation, and for disorders that involve an inappropriately-activated immune response.

Yanping Yuan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Fatty Acids as phase change materials: A review
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2014
    Co-Authors: Yanping Yuan, Nan Zhang, Wenquan Tao, Xiaoling Cao, Yaling He
    Abstract:

    Fatty Acids as phase change materials have attracted much attention for their various applications in building energy efficiency, solar heating systems and air-conditioning systems. After summarizing the basic characteristics of Fatty Acids, eutectic mixtures of Fatty Acids and Fatty acid esters, as well as the preparation and characteristics of Fatty acid composites as phase change materials (PCMs), this paper analyzes the thermal reliability and stability of Fatty Acids as PCMs and their heat transfer characteristics in a unit which is followed by an introduction to the energy storage systems of three kinds of Fatty Acids as PCMs. Besides, it also points out the future research direction of Fatty Acids as PCMs as a solution of the insufficiency and flaws of current researches. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • Fatty Acids as phase change materials a review
    Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2014
    Co-Authors: Yanping Yuan, Nan Zhang, Yaling He
    Abstract:

    Fatty Acids as phase change materials have attracted much attention for their various applications in building energy efficiency, solar heating systems and air-conditioning systems. After summarizing the basic characteristics of Fatty Acids, eutectic mixtures of Fatty Acids and Fatty acid esters, as well as the preparation and characteristics of Fatty acid composites as phase change materials (PCMs), this paper analyzes the thermal reliability and stability of Fatty Acids as PCMs and their heat transfer characteristics in a unit which is followed by an introduction to the energy storage systems of three kinds of Fatty Acids as PCMs. Besides, it also points out the future research direction of Fatty Acids as PCMs as a solution of the insufficiency and flaws of current researches.