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David Hemenway – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • intimate partner Homicide of adolescents
    JAMA Pediatrics, 2019
    Co-Authors: Avanti Adhia, David Hemenway, Mary A Kernic, Monica S Vavilala, Frederick P Rivara
    Abstract:

    Importance Intimate partner violence during adolescence is widespread, and consequences can be severe. Intimate partner Homicide (IPH) is the most extreme form of intimate partner violence, but literature on IPH has almost exclusively focused on adults. Objectives To determine the proportion of adolescent Homicides that is perpetrated by intimate partners and to describe the victim, perpetrator, and incident characteristics of these IPHs. Design, Setting, and Participants Analysis of quantitative and qualitative surveillance data from the National Violent Death Reporting System from 2003 to 2016. Data represent 32 states that contributed to the system for 1 year or longer. There were 8048 Homicides of victims aged 11 to 24 years with a known relationship between the victim and perpetrator. For persons aged 11 to 18 years, there were 2188 Homicides. Analysis began September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures An incident was identified as an IPH if the relationship between the perpetrator and victim was coded as spouse, ex-spouse, girlfriend or boyfriend, ex-girlfriend or ex-boyfriend, or girlfriend or boyfriend (unspecified current or former). Variables of interest included demographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity) for the victim and perpetrator, relationship status at time of death, Homicide-suicide, Homicide method, firearm type, and location of Homicide. Contextual categories were created from the qualitative narratives. Results Of adolescent Homicides, 150 (6.9%) were classified as IPH. A total of 135 victims (90%) were female (mean [SD] age, 16.8 [1.3] years). Overall, 102 perpetrators (77.9%) were 18 years and older (mean [SD] age, 20.6 [5.0] years), and 94 (62.7%) were current intimate partners of the victim. Firearms, specifically handguns, were the most common mechanism of injury. Compared with IPHs of young adults aged 19 to 24 years, perpetrators of adolescent victims were younger and less likely to be a current intimate partner. The most common categories of adolescent IPH Homicides were broken/desired relationship or jealousy and an altercation followed by reckless firearm behavior and pregnancy related. Conclusions and Relevance Adolescents, particularly girls, in dating relationships may face risk of Homicide, especially in circumstances of a breakup or jealousy and when perpetrators have access to firearms. Understanding Homicide in early dating relationships can inform prevention and intervention efforts tailored to adolescents.

  • Homicides by police comparing counts from the national violent death reporting system vital statistics and supplementary Homicide reports
    American Journal of Public Health, 2016
    Co-Authors: Catherine Barber, Deborah Azrael, Amy Cohen, Matthew C Miller, Deonza Thymes, David E Wang, David Hemenway
    Abstract:

    Objective. To evaluate the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) as a surveillance system for Homicides by law enforcement officers.Methods. We assessed sensitivity and positive predictive value of the NVDRS “type of death” variable against our study count of Homicides by police, which we derived from NVDRS coded and narrative data for states participating in NVDRS 2005 to 2012. We compared state counts of police Homicides from NVDRS, Vital Statistics, and Federal Bureau of Investigation Supplementary Homicide Reports.Results. We identified 1552 police Homicides in the 16 states. Positive predictive value and sensitivity of the NVDRS “type of death” variable for police Homicides were high (98% and 90%, respectively). Counts from Vital Statistics and Supplementary Homicide Reports were 58% and 48%, respectively, of our study total; gaps varied widely by state. The annual rate of police Homicide (0.24/100 000) varied 5-fold by state and 8-fold by race/ethnicity.Conclusions. NVDRS provides more com…

  • Firearm availability and female Homicide victimization rates among 25 populous high-income countries.
    Journal of the American Medical Women's Association (1972), 2002
    Co-Authors: David Hemenway, Tomoko Shinoda-tagawa, Margaret Miller
    Abstract:

    Objective: to determine the association between firearm availability and female Homicide victimization among high-income countries. Methods: Data were assembled for the most recent available year (1994-1999) from the official reports of the ministries of health for those countries that had more than 2 million inhabitants and were classified as high income by the World Bank. Twenty-five nations provided sufficient information for the analysis. Rates of female victimization from Homicide, firearm Homicide, and nonfirearm Homicide were compared with a validated proxy for household firearm ownership (the percentage of total national suicides that are committed with firearms). Possible confounding variables included in the analysis were the percentage of the population living in urban areas and income inequality. Results: The United States is an outlier. It had the highest level of household firearm ownership and the highest female Homicide rate. The United States accounted for 32% of the female population in these high-income countries, but for 70% of all female Homicides and 84% of all female firearm Homicides. Female Homicide victimization rates were significantly associated with firearm availability largely because of the United States. Conclusion: Among high-income countries, where firearms are more available, more women are Homicide victims. Women in the United States are at higher risk of Homicide victimization than are women in any other high-income country. (JAMWA.

Matthew Large – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Homicide and mental disorder in a region with a high Homicide rate.
    Asian journal of psychiatry, 2016
    Co-Authors: Andrei Golenkov, Olav Nielssen, Matthew Large, Alla Tsymbalova
    Abstract:

    There are few studies of the relationship between mental disorder and Homicide offences from regions with high rates of Homicide. We examined the characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses of Homicide offenders from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation, a region of Russia with a high total Homicide rate. In the 30 years between 1981 and 2010, 3414 Homicide offenders were the subjected to pre-trial evaluations by experienced psychiatrists, almost half of whom (1596, 46.7%) met the international classification of diseases (ICD) 10 criteria for at least one mental disorder. The six most common individual diagnoses were alcohol dependence (15.9%), acquired organic mental disorder (7.3%), personality disorder (7.1%), schizophrenia (4.4%) and intellectual disability (3.6%). More than one disorder was found in 7.4% of offenders and alcohol dependence was the most frequently diagnosed co-morbid disorder. One in ten offenders were found to be not criminally responsible for their actions. Few Homicides involved the use of substances other than alcohol, and firearms were used in 1.6% of Homicides. The finding that people with mental disorders other than psychosis committed a high proportion of Homicides in a region with a high rate of Homicide, suggests that people with mental disorders are vulnerable to similar sociological factors to those that contribute to Homicide offences by people who do not have mental disorder.

  • Homicide of strangers by people with a psychotic illness
    Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2011
    Co-Authors: Olav Nielssen, Marieke Liem, Dominique Bourget, Taina Laajasalo, Alain Labelle, Helina Hakkanennyholm, F A M M Koenraadt, Matthew Large
    Abstract:

    Background:The Homicide of strangers by people with psychosis, referred to here as ‘‘stranger Homicides,’’ are rare and tragic events that generate adverse publicity for mental health services and have resulted in significant changes in mental healhealth policy and law. Aim: To estimate the incidence of stranger Homicides, using data from previously published studies, and to compare the characteristics of psychotic offenders who killed strangers with the characteristics of those who killed a close relative. Method: Metaanalysis of the population-based studies of Homicide by persons suffering from a psychosis in which the number of subjects who killed strangers was also reported. Characteristics of stranger Homicide and family Homicide offenders were examined in a multicenter case–control study of Homicide during psychotic illness in four high-income countries. Results: A pooled estimate of 1 stranger Homicide per 14.3 million people per year (95% confidence interval, 1 in 18.9 millionto1in11.5millionpeopleperyear)wascalculatedby meta-analysis of 7 studies. The characteristics of the 42 stranger Homicide offenders from New South Wales [NSW], Quebec and Eastern Ontario, Finland, and the Netherlands were identified. Twenty seven (64%) of these had never previously received treatment with antipsychotic medication. The stranger Homicide offenders were more likely to be homeless, have exhibited antisocial conduct, and had fewer negative symptoms than those who killed family members. The victims of stranger Homicide were mostly adult males and the Homicides rarely occurred in the victim’s home or workplace. Conclusions: Stranger Homicide in psychosis is extremely rare and is even rarer for a patient who has received treatment with antipsychotic medication. A lack of distinguishing characteristics of stranger Homicide offenders and an extremely low base rate of stranger-Homicide suggests that risk assessment of patients known to have a psychotic illness will be of little assistance in the prevention of stranger Homicides.

  • rates of Homicide during the first episode of psychosis and after treatment a systematic review and meta analysis
    Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2010
    Co-Authors: Olav Nielssen, Matthew Large
    Abstract:

    The observation that almost half of the Homicides committed by people with a psychotic illness occur before initial treatment suggests an increased risk of Homicide during the first episode of psychosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the rates of Homicide during the first episode of psychosis and after treatment. A systematic search located 10 studies that reported details of all the Homicide offenders with a psychotic illness within a known population during a specified period and reported the number of people who had received treatment prior to the offense. Meta-analysis of these studies showed that 38.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 31.1%–46.5%) of Homicides occurred during the first episode of psychosis, prior to initial treatment. Homicides during first-episode psychosis occurred at a rate of 1.59 Homicides per 1000 (95% CI = 1.06–2.40), equivalent to 1 in 629 presentations. The annual rate of Homicide after treatment for psychosis was 0.11 Homicides per 1000 patients (95% CI = 0.07–0.16), equivalent to 1 Homicide in 9090 patients with schizophrenia per year. The rate ratio of Homicide in the first episode of psychosis in these studies was 15.5 (95% CI = 11.0–21.7) times the annual rate of Homicide after treatment for psychosis. Hence, the rate of Homicide in the first episode of psychosis appears to be higher than previously recognized, whereas the annual rate of Homicide by patients with schizophrenia after treatment is lower than previous estimates. Earlier treatment of first-episode psychosis might prevent some Homicides.

Olav Nielssen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Homicide and mental disorder in a region with a high Homicide rate.
    Asian journal of psychiatry, 2016
    Co-Authors: Andrei Golenkov, Olav Nielssen, Matthew Large, Alla Tsymbalova
    Abstract:

    There are few studies of the relationship between mental disorder and Homicide offences from regions with high rates of Homicide. We examined the characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses of Homicide offenders from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation, a region of Russia with a high total Homicide rate. In the 30 years between 1981 and 2010, 3414 Homicide offenders were the subjected to pre-trial evaluations by experienced psychiatrists, almost half of whom (1596, 46.7%) met the international classification of diseases (ICD) 10 criteria for at least one mental disorder. The six most common individual diagnoses were alcohol dependence (15.9%), acquired organic mental disorder (7.3%), personality disorder (7.1%), schizophrenia (4.4%) and intellectual disability (3.6%). More than one disorder was found in 7.4% of offenders and alcohol dependence was the most frequently diagnosed co-morbid disorder. One in ten offenders were found to be not criminally responsible for their actions. Few Homicides involved the use of substances other than alcohol, and firearms were used in 1.6% of Homicides. The finding that people with mental disorders other than psychosis committed a high proportion of Homicides in a region with a high rate of Homicide, suggests that people with mental disorders are vulnerable to similar sociological factors to those that contribute to Homicide offences by people who do not have mental disorder.

  • Homicide of strangers by people with a psychotic illness
    Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2011
    Co-Authors: Olav Nielssen, Marieke Liem, Dominique Bourget, Taina Laajasalo, Alain Labelle, Helina Hakkanennyholm, F A M M Koenraadt, Matthew Large
    Abstract:

    Background:The Homicide of strangers by people with psychosis, referred to here as ‘‘stranger Homicides,’’ are rare and tragic events that generate adverse publicity for mental health services and have resulted in significant changes in mental health policy and law. Aim: To estimate the incidence of stranger Homicides, using data from previously published studies, and to compare the characteristics of psychotic offenders who killed strangers with the characteristics of those who killed a close relative. Method: Metaanalysis of the population-based studies of Homicide by persons suffering from a psychosis in which the number of subjects who killed strangers was also reported. Characteristics of stranger Homicide and family Homicide offenders were examined in a multicenter case–control study of Homicide during psychotic illness in four high-income countries. Results: A pooled estimate of 1 stranger Homicide per 14.3 million people per year (95% confidence interval, 1 in 18.9 millionto1in11.5millionpeopleperyear)wascalculatedby meta-analysis of 7 studies. The characteristics of the 42 stranger Homicide offenders from New South Wales [NSW], Quebec and Eastern Ontario, Finland, and the Netherlands were identified. Twenty seven (64%) of these had never previously received treatment with antipsychotic medication. The stranger Homicide offenders were more likely to be homeless, have exhibited antisocial conduct, and had fewer negative symptoms than those who killed family members. The victims of stranger Homicide were mostly adult males and the Homicides rarely occurred in the victim’s home or workplace. Conclusions: Stranger Homicide in psychosis is extremely rare and is even rarer for a patient who has received treatment with antipsychotic medication. A lack of distinguishing characteristics of stranger Homicide offenders and an extremely low base rate of stranger-Homicide suggests that risk assessment of patients known to have a psychotic illness will be of little assistance in the prevention of stranger Homicides.

  • rates of Homicide during the first episode of psychosis and after treatment a systematic review and meta analysis
    Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2010
    Co-Authors: Olav Nielssen, Matthew Large
    Abstract:

    The observation that almost half of the Homicides committed by people with a psychotic illness occur before initial treatment suggests an increased risk of Homicide during the first episode of psychosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the rates of Homicide during the first episode of psychosis and after treatment. A systematic search located 10 studies that reported details of all the Homicide offenders with a psychotic illness within a known population during a specified period and reported the number of people who had received treatment prior to the offense. Meta-analysis of these studies showed that 38.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 31.1%–46.5%) of Homicides occurred during the first episode of psychosis, prior to initial treatment. Homicides during first-episode psychosis occurred at a rate of 1.59 Homicides per 1000 (95% CI = 1.06–2.40), equivalent to 1 in 629 presentations. The annual rate of Homicide after treatment for psychosis was 0.11 Homicides per 1000 patients (95% CI = 0.07–0.16), equivalent to 1 Homicide in 9090 patients with schizophrenia per year. The rate ratio of Homicide in the first episode of psychosis in these studies was 15.5 (95% CI = 11.0–21.7) times the annual rate of Homicide after treatment for psychosis. Hence, the rate of Homicide in the first episode of psychosis appears to be higher than previously recognized, whereas the annual rate of Homicide by patients with schizophrenia after treatment is lower than previous estimates. Earlier treatment of first-episode psychosis might prevent some Homicides.

Catherine Barber – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Homicides by police comparing counts from the national violent death reporting system vital statistics and supplementary Homicide reports
    American Journal of Public Health, 2016
    Co-Authors: Catherine Barber, Deborah Azrael, Amy Cohen, Matthew C Miller, Deonza Thymes, David E Wang, David Hemenway
    Abstract:

    Objective. To evaluate the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) as a surveillance system for Homicides by law enforcement officers.Methods. We assessed sensitivity and positive predictive value of the NVDRS “type of death” variable against our study count of Homicides by police, which we derived from NVDRS coded and narrative data for states participating in NVDRS 2005 to 2012. We compared state counts of police Homicides from NVDRS, Vital Statistics, and Federal Bureau of Investigation Supplementary Homicide Reports.Results. We identified 1552 police Homicides in the 16 states. Positive predictive value and sensitivity of the NVDRS “type of death” variable for police Homicides were high (98% and 90%, respectively). Counts from Vital Statistics and Supplementary Homicide Reports were 58% and 48%, respectively, of our study total; gaps varied widely by state. The annual rate of police Homicide (0.24/100 000) varied 5-fold by state and 8-fold by race/ethnicity.Conclusions. NVDRS provides more com…

  • Homicide suicide and other violent deaths an international comparison
    Forensic Science International, 2011
    Co-Authors: Marieke Liem, Paul Nieuwbeerta, Catherine Barber, Nora Markwalder, Martin Killias
    Abstract:

    Homicides followed by the suicide of the perpetrator constitute a serious form of interpersonal violence. Until now no study has directly compared Homicide-suicides to other violent deaths from multiple countries, allowing for a better understanding of the nature of these violent acts. Using country-specific data, this study describes and compares the incidence and patterns of Homicide-suicide as well as the relationship between Homicide-suicide, Homicide, suicide and domestic Homicide in the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United States. The results indicate that cross-nationally, Homicide-suicides are more likely than other types of lethal violence to involve a female victim, multiple victims, take place in a residential setting and to be committed by a firearm. Although Homicide-suicides display many similarities across the different countries, differences exist regarding age and the use of firearms in the offence. This study indicates that Homicides followed by suicides differ from both Homicides and suicides in similar ways internationally. Cross-national differences in the availability of firearms may explain the international variation of Homicide-suicide rates and patterns.

Paul Nieuwbeerta – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Homicide suicide and other violent deaths an international comparison
    Forensic Science International, 2011
    Co-Authors: Marieke Liem, Paul Nieuwbeerta, Catherine Barber, Nora Markwalder, Martin Killias
    Abstract:

    Homicides followed by the suicide of the perpetrator constitute a serious form of interpersonal violence. Until now no study has directly compared Homicide-suicides to other violent deaths from multiple countries, allowing for a better understanding of the nature of these violent acts. Using country-specific data, this study describes and compares the incidence and patterns of Homicide-suicide as well as the relationship between Homicide-suicide, Homicide, suicide and domestic Homicide in the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United States. The results indicate that cross-nationally, Homicide-suicides are more likely than other types of lethal violence to involve a female victim, multiple victims, take place in a residential setting and to be committed by a firearm. Although Homicide-suicides display many similarities across the different countries, differences exist regarding age and the use of firearms in the offence. This study indicates that Homicides followed by suicides differ from both Homicides and suicides in similar ways internationally. Cross-national differences in the availability of firearms may explain the international variation of Homicide-suicide rates and patterns.

  • Homicide followed by suicide: a comparison with Homicide and suicide
    Suicide & life-threatening behavior, 2010
    Co-Authors: Marieke Liem, Paul Nieuwbeerta
    Abstract:

    Homicide-suicides are a rare yet very serious form of lethal violence which mainly occurs in partnerships and families. The extent to which Homicide-suicide can be understood as being primarily a Homicide or a suicide event, or rather a category of its own is examined. In total, 103 Homicide-suicides were compared to 3,203 Homicides and 17,751 suicides. These are all events that took place in the Netherlands in the period 1992 to 2006. Logistic regression analyses show that Homicide-suicides significantly differ from both Homicides and suicides with regard to sociodemographic and event characteristics. The findings suggest that Homicide-suicide might be considered as a distinct phenomenon from both Homicide and suicide.

  • Homicide studies: an interdisciplinary & international journal – Homicide-Suicide in the Netherlands: An Epidemiology
    Homicide Studies, 2009
    Co-Authors: Marieke Liem, Marieke Postulart, Paul Nieuwbeerta
    Abstract:

    Homicides followed by the suicide of the perpetrator are a rare yet very serious form of interpersonal violence that occurs mainly in partnerships and families. No systematic research on Homicide-suicide has ever been conducted in the Netherlands. This study provides an overview of the international Homicide-suicide literature. Additionally, this article describes, for the first time, the incidence and patterns of Homicide-suicide in the Netherlands and compares these to Homicides not followed by suicide. To do so, an existing record containing all Homicide cases in the Netherlands in the period 1992-2006 was used. Additional information on Homicide-suicide events was retrieved through newspaper analysis. A total of 135 people died in 103 events. Homicide-suicide occurs with an annual incidence of 0.07 to 0.02 per 100,000 persons per year. People who commit Homicide-suicide cannot be easily equated to those accused of other types of Homicide.