## Longitude

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### Jeanloup Bertaux - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

• ##### solar related variations of the cloud top circulation above aphrodite terra from vmc venus express wind fields
Journal of Geophysical Research, 2019
Co-Authors: Marina V Patsaeva, Igor Khatuntsev, Ludmila Zasova, Alain Hauchecorne, Dima Titov, Jeanloup Bertaux
Abstract:

Winds derived by a digital tracking technique from UV (365 nm) images captured by the Venus Monitoring Camera onboard the Venus Express spacecraft from 2006 through 2013 were used to study the atmospheric circulation at cloud top level (70±2 km). This data set allows variations of the wind speed with both latitude and Longitude to be studied and establishes their correlation with surface topography as well as local time dependence. Both zonal and meridional wind components show some correlation with topography. The minimum zonal wind speed was found at noon above Ovda Regio (10° S, 93° E), the highest region of Aphrodite Terra, one of the largest highlands in the equatorial region. The area of slow zonal wind extends to at least 30° S and shifts in the direction of superrotation in the afternoon and with increasing latitude (poleward). The observed deceleration of cloud top wind was recently attributed to the interaction of the gravity (mountain) waves generated by Aphrodite Terra with the atmospheric circulation. The present study was performed for different local time over the mountainous Longitudes. The deceleration pattern in the zonal wind field is mainly conserved within a few hours around noon. Systematic Longitude shift is observed in the afternoon in the direction of the evening terminator. Another area of perturbation of both zonal and meridional wind components is observed in the equatorial region around LT=13‐14 h and may be explained by the solar tide.

### H S Hudson - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

• ##### the association of the hale sector boundary with rhessi solar flares and active Longitudes
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2018
Co-Authors: K Loumou, I G Hannah, H S Hudson
Abstract:

Context: The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is structured into large sectors of positive and negative polarity. The parts of the boundary between these sectors where the change in polarity matches that of the leading-to-following sunspot polarity in that solar hemisphere, are called Hale sector boundaries (HSB). Aims: We investigate the flare occurrence rate near HSBs and the association between HSBs and active Longitudes. Methods: Previous work determined the times HSBs were at solar central meridian, using the detection of the HMF sector boundary crossing at the Earth. In addition to this, we use a new approach which finds the HSB locations at all times by determining them from potential field source surface (PFSS) extrapolations of photospheric magnetograms. We use the RHESSI X-ray flare list for comparison to the HSB as it provides accurate flare locations over 14 years, from February 2002 to February 2016, covering both Cycles 23 and 24. For the active Longitude positions we use previously published work based on sunspot observations. Results: We find that the two methods of determining the HSB generally agree and that 41% (Cycle 23) and 47% (Cycle 24) of RHESSI flares occur within 30° of the PFSS determined-HSB. The behaviour of the HSBs varies over the two Cycles studied, and as expected they swap in hemisphere as the Cycles change. The HSBs and active Longitudes do overlap but not consistently. They often move at different rates relative to each other (and the Carrington solar rotation rate) and these vary over each Cycle. The HSBs provide a useful additional activity indicator, particularly during periods when active Longitudes are difficult to determine.

• ##### the association of the hale sector boundary with rhessi solar flares and active Longitudes
arXiv: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics, 2018
Co-Authors: K Loumou, I G Hannah, H S Hudson
Abstract:

The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is structured into large sectors of positive and negative polarity. The parts of the boundary between these sectors where the change in polarity matches that of the leading-to-following sunspot polarity in that solar hemisphere, are called Hale Sector Boundaries (HSB). We investigate the flare occurrence rate near HSBs and the association between HSBs and active Longitudes. Previous work determined the times HSBs were at solar central meridian, using the detection of the HMF sector boundary crossing at the Earth. In addition to this, we use a new approach which finds the HSB locations at all times by determining them from Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) extrapolations of photospheric magnetograms. We use the RHESSI X-ray flare list for comparison to the HSB as it provides accurate flare locations over 14 years, from February 2002 to February 2016, covering both Cycles 23 and 24. For the active Longitude positions we use previously published work based on sunspot observations. We find that the two methods of determining the HSB generally agree and that 41% (Cycle 23) and 47% (Cycle 24) of RHESSI flares occur within $30^\circ$ of the PFSS determined-HSB. The behaviour of the HSBs varies over the two Cycles studied, and as expected they swap in hemisphere as the Cycles change. The HSBs and active Longitudes do overlap but not consistently. They often move at different rates relative to each other (and the Carrington solar rotation rate) and these vary over each Cycle. The HSBs provide a useful additional activity indicator, particularly during periods when active Longitudes are difficult to determine.

### M A Abdu - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

• ##### longitudinal characteristics of spread f backscatter plumes observed with the ear and sanya vhf radar in southeast asia
Journal of Geophysical Research, 2013
Co-Authors: Baiqi Ning, M A Abdu, Yuchi Otsuka, Tatsuhiro Yokoyama, Masayuki Yamamoto, Libo Liu
Abstract:

• ##### on the occurrence of postmidnight equatorial f region irregularities during the june solstice
Journal of Geophysical Research, 2011
Co-Authors: Guozhu Li, Baiqi Ning, M A Abdu, Lianhuan Hu
Abstract:

[1] Postmidnight equatorial F region irregularities (EFIs) are known to develop mainly during the solstitial months. However, it is not well understood whether they occur at all Longitudes and what process causes their occurrence at different Longitude sectors. In this study, we use the GPS total electron content (TEC) fluctuations obtained from a global GPS network and spread F in ionograms from Jicamarca (283°E, 12°S, Dip 1°N) in the American Longitude sector and Kwajalein (167°E, 9°N, Dip 4°N), Bac Lieu (106°E, 9°N, Dip 2°N), and Chumphon (99°E, 11°N, Dip 3°N) in the Pacific and Asian Longitude sectors during 2000–2009, to investigate the EFI characteristics during June solstice. Results from global TEC fluctuations show that at solar maximum, the occurrence rate of postmidnight EFIs is high in African and Pacific regions, moderate in the Southeast Asian region, and low in the Peruvian region and that most postmidnight EFIs are the continuation of postsunset EFIs. During solar minimum the postmidnight EFIs were rarely observed in TEC but were very frequent in ionograms. The latter had more frequent postmidnight onsets over Peru, whereas they were initiated during late postsunset hours in Pacific and Southeast Asian Longitudes. In both Longitudes the postsunset layer rise occurred with some delay. The layer rise was more prominent on spread F nights over Jicamarca and less so over Pacific Longitudes. The results showing different degrees of association at the different Longitudes between the postsunset/postmidnight EFIs and F layer heights highlight the influence of other factors in the late-night EFI development. Perturbation seeds and plasma drifts/neutral winds, in particular, are discussed as strong candidates for causing these irregularities in the June solstitial months of solar minimum years.

• ##### ionospheric responses to the october 2003 superstorm Longitude local time effects over equatorial low and middle latitudes
Journal of Geophysical Research, 2007
Co-Authors: M A Abdu, I S Batista, Takashi Maruyama, Susumo Saito, Maho Nakamura
Abstract:

[1] Ionospheric responses to the major magnetic storm disturbances of October 2003 are investigated using database selected in the Brazilian and Japanese-Asian Longitude sectors. Data obtained from latitudinally spaced digisondes in the equatorial and low-latitude sites in Brazil and from the Asian and Japanese ionosonde network, the total electron content data from the extensive Japanese GPS receiver chain, and magnetometer data from the Pacific equatorial electrojet stations are analyzed during the period 28–31 October. Prompt penetrating (PP) dawn-dusk polar cap electric fields produce large F region plasma uplift on the dayside and eveningside, while the associated westward electric field on the nightside produces large downdraft of the F region plasma, and causes development of westward electrojet current, observed for the first time. Episodes of PP electric field effects appear to be of larger intensity over Brazil than over Asian Longitudes. Equatorial anomaly, development due to undershielding as well as overshielding electric fields, was observed in the Brazilian and in the Asian sectors. Disturbance dynamo electric field causes large nighttime F layer uplifts that are modulated by strong meridional winds in both sectors. The disturbance electric field local time variation patterns are compared with the results of recent global model (MTIEGCM) simulation by Richmond et al. (2003) and validated in some cases. Transients of transequatorial winds, flipping direction from southward to northward, in the widely separated Longitude sectors, were diagnosed to be present toward the final recovery phase of the storm. These results are presented and discussed in this paper.

### A S Bonomo - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

• ##### magnetic activity in the photosphere of corot exo 2a active Longitudes and short term spot cycle in a young sun like star
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2009
Co-Authors: A F Lanza, I Pagano, G Leto, S Messina, S Aigrain, R Alonso, M Auvergne, A Baglin, P Barge, A S Bonomo
Abstract:

Context. The space experiment CoRoT has recently detected transits by a hot Jupiter across the disk of an active G7V star (CoRoTExo-2a) that can be considered as a good proxy for the Sun at an age of approximately 0.5 Gyr. Aims. We present a spot modelling of the optical variability of the star during 142 days of uninterrupted observations performed by CoRoT with unprecedented photometric precision. Methods. We apply spot modelling approaches previously tested in the case of the Sun by modelling total solar irradiance variatio ns, a good proxy for the optical flux variations of the Sun as a star . The best results in terms of mapping of the surface brightness inhomogeneities are obtained by means of maximum entropy regularized models. To model the light curve of CoRoT-Exo-2a, we take into account both the photometric effects of cool spots as well as those of solar-like faculae, ado pting solar analogy. Results. Two active Longitudes initially on opposite hemispheres are found on the photosphere of CoRoT-Exo-2a with a rotation period of 4.522± 0.024 days. Their separation changes by≈ 80 ◦ during the time span of the observations. From this variation, a relative amplitude of the surface differential rotation lower than ∼ 1 percent is estimated. Individual spots form within the act ive Longitudes and show an angular velocity about∼ 1 percent smaller than that of the Longitude pattern. The tot al spotted area shows a cyclic oscillation with a period of 28.9± 4.3 days, which is close to 10 times the synodic period of the planet as seen by the rotating active Longitudes. We discuss the effects of solar-like faculae on our models, finding indication of a facular contribution to the optical flux variations of CoRoT-Exo-2a being significantly smaller than in the present Sun. Conclusions. The implications of such results for the internal rotation o f CoRoT-Exo-2a are discussed on the basis of solar analogy. A possible magnetic star-planet interaction is suggested by the cyclic variation of the spotted area. Alternatively, t he 28.9-d cycle may be related to Rossby-type waves propagating in the subphotospheric layers of the star.

• ##### magnetic activity in the photosphere of corot exo 2a active Longitudes and short term spot cycle in a young sun like star
arXiv: Astrophysics, 2008
Co-Authors: A F Lanza, I Pagano, G Leto, S Messina, S Aigrain, R Alonso, M Auvergne, A Baglin, P Barge, A S Bonomo
Abstract:

The space experiment CoRoT has recently detected transits by a hot Jupiter across the disc of an active G7V star (CoRoT-Exo-2a) that can be considered as a good proxy for the Sun at an age of approximately 0.5 Gyr. We present a spot modelling of the optical variability of the star during 142 days of uninterrupted observations performed by CoRoT with unprecedented photometric precision. We apply spot modelling approaches previously tested in the case of the Sun by modelling total solar irradiance variations. To model the light curve of CoRoT-Exo-2a, we take into account both the photometric effects of cool spots as well as those of solar-like faculae, adopting solar analogy. Two active Longitudes initially on opposite hemispheres are found on the photosphere of CoRoT-Exo-2a with a rotation period of 4.522 $\pm$ 0.024 days. Their separation changes by approximately 80 degrees during the time span of the observations. From this variation, a relative amplitude of the surface differential rotation lower than about 1 percent is estimated. Individual spots form within the active Longitudes and show an angular velocity about 1 percent smaller than that of the Longitude pattern. The total spotted area shows a cyclic oscillation with a period of 28.9 $\pm$ 4.3 days, which is close to 10 times the synodic period of the planet as seen by the rotating active Longitudes. The implications of such results for the internal rotation of CoRoT-Exo-2a are discussed on the basis of solar analogy. A possible magnetic star-planet interaction is suggested by the cyclic variation of the spotted area. Alternatively, the 28.9-d cycle may be related to Rossby-type waves propagating in the subphotospheric layers of the star.

### K Loumou - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

• ##### the association of the hale sector boundary with rhessi solar flares and active Longitudes
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2018
Co-Authors: K Loumou, I G Hannah, H S Hudson
Abstract:

Context: The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is structured into large sectors of positive and negative polarity. The parts of the boundary between these sectors where the change in polarity matches that of the leading-to-following sunspot polarity in that solar hemisphere, are called Hale sector boundaries (HSB). Aims: We investigate the flare occurrence rate near HSBs and the association between HSBs and active Longitudes. Methods: Previous work determined the times HSBs were at solar central meridian, using the detection of the HMF sector boundary crossing at the Earth. In addition to this, we use a new approach which finds the HSB locations at all times by determining them from potential field source surface (PFSS) extrapolations of photospheric magnetograms. We use the RHESSI X-ray flare list for comparison to the HSB as it provides accurate flare locations over 14 years, from February 2002 to February 2016, covering both Cycles 23 and 24. For the active Longitude positions we use previously published work based on sunspot observations. Results: We find that the two methods of determining the HSB generally agree and that 41% (Cycle 23) and 47% (Cycle 24) of RHESSI flares occur within 30° of the PFSS determined-HSB. The behaviour of the HSBs varies over the two Cycles studied, and as expected they swap in hemisphere as the Cycles change. The HSBs and active Longitudes do overlap but not consistently. They often move at different rates relative to each other (and the Carrington solar rotation rate) and these vary over each Cycle. The HSBs provide a useful additional activity indicator, particularly during periods when active Longitudes are difficult to determine.

• ##### the association of the hale sector boundary with rhessi solar flares and active Longitudes
arXiv: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics, 2018
Co-Authors: K Loumou, I G Hannah, H S Hudson
Abstract:

The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is structured into large sectors of positive and negative polarity. The parts of the boundary between these sectors where the change in polarity matches that of the leading-to-following sunspot polarity in that solar hemisphere, are called Hale Sector Boundaries (HSB). We investigate the flare occurrence rate near HSBs and the association between HSBs and active Longitudes. Previous work determined the times HSBs were at solar central meridian, using the detection of the HMF sector boundary crossing at the Earth. In addition to this, we use a new approach which finds the HSB locations at all times by determining them from Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) extrapolations of photospheric magnetograms. We use the RHESSI X-ray flare list for comparison to the HSB as it provides accurate flare locations over 14 years, from February 2002 to February 2016, covering both Cycles 23 and 24. For the active Longitude positions we use previously published work based on sunspot observations. We find that the two methods of determining the HSB generally agree and that 41% (Cycle 23) and 47% (Cycle 24) of RHESSI flares occur within $30^\circ$ of the PFSS determined-HSB. The behaviour of the HSBs varies over the two Cycles studied, and as expected they swap in hemisphere as the Cycles change. The HSBs and active Longitudes do overlap but not consistently. They often move at different rates relative to each other (and the Carrington solar rotation rate) and these vary over each Cycle. The HSBs provide a useful additional activity indicator, particularly during periods when active Longitudes are difficult to determine.