## Residue

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### G Power - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

• ##### bauxite Residue issues ii options for Residue utilization
Hydrometallurgy, 2011
Co-Authors: C. Klauber, Marco Grafe, G Power
Abstract:

Abstract Worldwide bauxite Residue disposal areas contain an estimated 2.7 billion tonnes of Residue, increasing by approximately 120 million tonnes per annum. The question of what to do with bauxite Residue arose with the development of the Bayer process for alumina refining and the recognition that it generated a large amount of waste material. In the subsequent 120 years, Residues have been primarily disposed into long-term storage, with a wide range of industry practice depending on local circumstances. Ideally this Residue would be utilized as an industrial by-product for other applications, leading to a zero waste situation. Despite over 50 years of research and hundreds of publications and patents on the subject, little evidence exists of any significant utilization of bauxite Residue. In this review of public domain information the reasons are examined, future opportunities are identified, and a way forward is proposed. All avenues of Residue “re-use” (or more appropriately “use”) are considered, but emphasis is on the few highest volume uses of lowest risk. Utilization is defined as taking the Residue in some non-hazardous form (as a by-product) from the alumina refinery site and then using it as feedstock for another distinct application. Although Residues from different bauxites have generic similarities, their specific make-up and Residue location can influence their suitability for a given type of use. There are four primary reasons for inaction on Residue use: volume, performance, cost and risk, with the last two probably being paramount. In terms of cost there are better options for raw material input from virgin sources (lower cost for better grades) that do not come with the same perceived risks as bauxite Residue. The risks are composition based (technical and community perception) and relate to: soda, alkalinity, heavy metals and low levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Amongst the outcomes of this review are priority research recommendations to address the knowledge gaps identified that, amongst other factors, are impeding the implementation of Residue use. This is the second in a series of four related reviews examining bauxite Residue issues in detail.

• ##### Bauxite Residue issues: II. options for Residue utilization
Hydrometallurgy, 2011
Co-Authors: C. Klauber, Marco Grafe, G Power
Abstract:

Worldwide bauxite Residue disposal areas contain an estimated 2.7 billion tonnes of Residue, increasing by approximately 120 million tonnes per annum. The question of what to do with bauxite Residue arose with the development of the Bayer process for alumina refining and the recognition that it generated a large amount of waste material. In the subsequent 120 years, Residues have been primarily disposed into long-term storage, with a wide range of industry practice depending on local circumstances. Ideally this Residue would be utilized as an industrial by-product for other applications, leading to a zero waste situation. Despite over 50 years of research and hundreds of publications and patents on the subject, little evidence exists of any significant utilization of bauxite Residue. In this review of public domain information the reasons are examined, future opportunities are identified, and a way forward is proposed. All avenues of Residue "re-use" (or more appropriately "use") are considered, but emphasis is on the few highest volume uses of lowest risk. Utilization is defined as taking the Residue in some non-hazardous form (as a by-product) from the alumina refinery site and then using it as feedstock for another distinct application. Although Residues from different bauxites have generic similarities, their specific make-up and Residue location can influence their suitability for a given type of use. There are four primary reasons for inaction on Residue use: volume, performance, cost and risk, with the last two probably being paramount. In terms of cost there are better options for raw material input from virgin sources (lower cost for better grades) that do not come with the same perceived risks as bauxite Residue. The risks are composition based (technical and community perception) and relate to: soda, alkalinity, heavy metals and low levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Amongst the outcomes of this review are priority research recommendations to address the knowledge gaps identified that, amongst other factors, are impeding the implementation of Residue use. This is the second in a series of four related reviews examining bauxite Residue issues in detail. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

### C. Klauber - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

• ##### bauxite Residue issues ii options for Residue utilization
Hydrometallurgy, 2011
Co-Authors: C. Klauber, Marco Grafe, G Power
Abstract:

Abstract Worldwide bauxite Residue disposal areas contain an estimated 2.7 billion tonnes of Residue, increasing by approximately 120 million tonnes per annum. The question of what to do with bauxite Residue arose with the development of the Bayer process for alumina refining and the recognition that it generated a large amount of waste material. In the subsequent 120 years, Residues have been primarily disposed into long-term storage, with a wide range of industry practice depending on local circumstances. Ideally this Residue would be utilized as an industrial by-product for other applications, leading to a zero waste situation. Despite over 50 years of research and hundreds of publications and patents on the subject, little evidence exists of any significant utilization of bauxite Residue. In this review of public domain information the reasons are examined, future opportunities are identified, and a way forward is proposed. All avenues of Residue “re-use” (or more appropriately “use”) are considered, but emphasis is on the few highest volume uses of lowest risk. Utilization is defined as taking the Residue in some non-hazardous form (as a by-product) from the alumina refinery site and then using it as feedstock for another distinct application. Although Residues from different bauxites have generic similarities, their specific make-up and Residue location can influence their suitability for a given type of use. There are four primary reasons for inaction on Residue use: volume, performance, cost and risk, with the last two probably being paramount. In terms of cost there are better options for raw material input from virgin sources (lower cost for better grades) that do not come with the same perceived risks as bauxite Residue. The risks are composition based (technical and community perception) and relate to: soda, alkalinity, heavy metals and low levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Amongst the outcomes of this review are priority research recommendations to address the knowledge gaps identified that, amongst other factors, are impeding the implementation of Residue use. This is the second in a series of four related reviews examining bauxite Residue issues in detail.

• ##### Bauxite Residue issues: II. options for Residue utilization
Hydrometallurgy, 2011
Co-Authors: C. Klauber, Marco Grafe, G Power
Abstract:

Worldwide bauxite Residue disposal areas contain an estimated 2.7 billion tonnes of Residue, increasing by approximately 120 million tonnes per annum. The question of what to do with bauxite Residue arose with the development of the Bayer process for alumina refining and the recognition that it generated a large amount of waste material. In the subsequent 120 years, Residues have been primarily disposed into long-term storage, with a wide range of industry practice depending on local circumstances. Ideally this Residue would be utilized as an industrial by-product for other applications, leading to a zero waste situation. Despite over 50 years of research and hundreds of publications and patents on the subject, little evidence exists of any significant utilization of bauxite Residue. In this review of public domain information the reasons are examined, future opportunities are identified, and a way forward is proposed. All avenues of Residue "re-use" (or more appropriately "use") are considered, but emphasis is on the few highest volume uses of lowest risk. Utilization is defined as taking the Residue in some non-hazardous form (as a by-product) from the alumina refinery site and then using it as feedstock for another distinct application. Although Residues from different bauxites have generic similarities, their specific make-up and Residue location can influence their suitability for a given type of use. There are four primary reasons for inaction on Residue use: volume, performance, cost and risk, with the last two probably being paramount. In terms of cost there are better options for raw material input from virgin sources (lower cost for better grades) that do not come with the same perceived risks as bauxite Residue. The risks are composition based (technical and community perception) and relate to: soda, alkalinity, heavy metals and low levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Amongst the outcomes of this review are priority research recommendations to address the knowledge gaps identified that, amongst other factors, are impeding the implementation of Residue use. This is the second in a series of four related reviews examining bauxite Residue issues in detail. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

### Xiang-gen Xia - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

• ##### Error correction in polynomial remainder codes with non-pairwise coprime moduli and robust Chinese remainder theorem for polynomials
IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2015
Co-Authors: Li Xiao, Xiang-gen Xia
Abstract:

This paper investigates polynomial remainder codes with non-pairwise coprime moduli. We first consider a robust reconstruction problem for polynomials from erroneous Residues when the degrees of all Residue errors are assumed small, namely robust Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) for polynomials. It basically says that a polynomial can be reconstructed from erroneous Residues such that the degree of the reconstruction error is upper bounded by $\tau$ whenever the degrees of all Residue errors are upper bounded by $\tau$, where a sufficient condition for $\tau$ and a reconstruction algorithm are obtained. By releasing the constraint that all Residue errors have small degrees, another robust reconstruction is then presented when there are multiple unrestricted errors and an arbitrary number of errors with small degrees in the Residues. By making full use of redundancy in moduli, we obtain a stronger Residue error correction capability in the sense that apart from the number of errors that can be corrected in the previous existing result, some errors with small degrees can be also corrected in the Residues. With this newly obtained result, improvements in uncorrected error probability and burst error correction capability in a data transmission are illustrated.

• ##### A robust Chinese Remainder Theorem with applications in error correction coding
IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory - Proceedings, 2015
Co-Authors: Li Xiao, Xiang-gen Xia
Abstract:

This paper investigates polynomial remainder codes with non-pairwise coprime moduli. We first propose a robust reconstruction for polynomials from erroneous Residues when the degrees of all Residue errors are small, namely robust Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) for polynomials. It basically says that a polynomial can be reconstructed from erroneous Residues such that the degree of the reconstruction error is upper bounded by τ whenever the degrees of all Residue errors are upper bounded by τ, where a sufficient condition for τ and a reconstruction algorithm are obtained. By relaxing the constraint that all Residue errors have small degrees, another robust reconstruction is then presented when there are multiple unrestricted errors and an arbitrary number of errors with small degrees in the Residues. By making full use of redundancy in moduli, we obtain a stronger Residue error correction capability in the sense that apart from the number of errors that can be corrected in the previous existing result, some errors with small degrees can be also corrected in the Residues. With this newly obtained result, improvements in uncorrected error probability and burst error correction capability in a data transmission are illustrated.

### Marco Grafe - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

• ##### bauxite Residue issues ii options for Residue utilization
Hydrometallurgy, 2011
Co-Authors: C. Klauber, Marco Grafe, G Power
Abstract:

Abstract Worldwide bauxite Residue disposal areas contain an estimated 2.7 billion tonnes of Residue, increasing by approximately 120 million tonnes per annum. The question of what to do with bauxite Residue arose with the development of the Bayer process for alumina refining and the recognition that it generated a large amount of waste material. In the subsequent 120 years, Residues have been primarily disposed into long-term storage, with a wide range of industry practice depending on local circumstances. Ideally this Residue would be utilized as an industrial by-product for other applications, leading to a zero waste situation. Despite over 50 years of research and hundreds of publications and patents on the subject, little evidence exists of any significant utilization of bauxite Residue. In this review of public domain information the reasons are examined, future opportunities are identified, and a way forward is proposed. All avenues of Residue “re-use” (or more appropriately “use”) are considered, but emphasis is on the few highest volume uses of lowest risk. Utilization is defined as taking the Residue in some non-hazardous form (as a by-product) from the alumina refinery site and then using it as feedstock for another distinct application. Although Residues from different bauxites have generic similarities, their specific make-up and Residue location can influence their suitability for a given type of use. There are four primary reasons for inaction on Residue use: volume, performance, cost and risk, with the last two probably being paramount. In terms of cost there are better options for raw material input from virgin sources (lower cost for better grades) that do not come with the same perceived risks as bauxite Residue. The risks are composition based (technical and community perception) and relate to: soda, alkalinity, heavy metals and low levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Amongst the outcomes of this review are priority research recommendations to address the knowledge gaps identified that, amongst other factors, are impeding the implementation of Residue use. This is the second in a series of four related reviews examining bauxite Residue issues in detail.

• ##### Bauxite Residue issues: II. options for Residue utilization
Hydrometallurgy, 2011
Co-Authors: C. Klauber, Marco Grafe, G Power
Abstract:

Worldwide bauxite Residue disposal areas contain an estimated 2.7 billion tonnes of Residue, increasing by approximately 120 million tonnes per annum. The question of what to do with bauxite Residue arose with the development of the Bayer process for alumina refining and the recognition that it generated a large amount of waste material. In the subsequent 120 years, Residues have been primarily disposed into long-term storage, with a wide range of industry practice depending on local circumstances. Ideally this Residue would be utilized as an industrial by-product for other applications, leading to a zero waste situation. Despite over 50 years of research and hundreds of publications and patents on the subject, little evidence exists of any significant utilization of bauxite Residue. In this review of public domain information the reasons are examined, future opportunities are identified, and a way forward is proposed. All avenues of Residue "re-use" (or more appropriately "use") are considered, but emphasis is on the few highest volume uses of lowest risk. Utilization is defined as taking the Residue in some non-hazardous form (as a by-product) from the alumina refinery site and then using it as feedstock for another distinct application. Although Residues from different bauxites have generic similarities, their specific make-up and Residue location can influence their suitability for a given type of use. There are four primary reasons for inaction on Residue use: volume, performance, cost and risk, with the last two probably being paramount. In terms of cost there are better options for raw material input from virgin sources (lower cost for better grades) that do not come with the same perceived risks as bauxite Residue. The risks are composition based (technical and community perception) and relate to: soda, alkalinity, heavy metals and low levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Amongst the outcomes of this review are priority research recommendations to address the knowledge gaps identified that, amongst other factors, are impeding the implementation of Residue use. This is the second in a series of four related reviews examining bauxite Residue issues in detail. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

### Li Xiao - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

• ##### Error correction in polynomial remainder codes with non-pairwise coprime moduli and robust Chinese remainder theorem for polynomials
IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2015
Co-Authors: Li Xiao, Xiang-gen Xia
Abstract:

This paper investigates polynomial remainder codes with non-pairwise coprime moduli. We first consider a robust reconstruction problem for polynomials from erroneous Residues when the degrees of all Residue errors are assumed small, namely robust Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) for polynomials. It basically says that a polynomial can be reconstructed from erroneous Residues such that the degree of the reconstruction error is upper bounded by $\tau$ whenever the degrees of all Residue errors are upper bounded by $\tau$, where a sufficient condition for $\tau$ and a reconstruction algorithm are obtained. By releasing the constraint that all Residue errors have small degrees, another robust reconstruction is then presented when there are multiple unrestricted errors and an arbitrary number of errors with small degrees in the Residues. By making full use of redundancy in moduli, we obtain a stronger Residue error correction capability in the sense that apart from the number of errors that can be corrected in the previous existing result, some errors with small degrees can be also corrected in the Residues. With this newly obtained result, improvements in uncorrected error probability and burst error correction capability in a data transmission are illustrated.

• ##### A robust Chinese Remainder Theorem with applications in error correction coding
IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory - Proceedings, 2015
Co-Authors: Li Xiao, Xiang-gen Xia
Abstract:

This paper investigates polynomial remainder codes with non-pairwise coprime moduli. We first propose a robust reconstruction for polynomials from erroneous Residues when the degrees of all Residue errors are small, namely robust Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) for polynomials. It basically says that a polynomial can be reconstructed from erroneous Residues such that the degree of the reconstruction error is upper bounded by τ whenever the degrees of all Residue errors are upper bounded by τ, where a sufficient condition for τ and a reconstruction algorithm are obtained. By relaxing the constraint that all Residue errors have small degrees, another robust reconstruction is then presented when there are multiple unrestricted errors and an arbitrary number of errors with small degrees in the Residues. By making full use of redundancy in moduli, we obtain a stronger Residue error correction capability in the sense that apart from the number of errors that can be corrected in the previous existing result, some errors with small degrees can be also corrected in the Residues. With this newly obtained result, improvements in uncorrected error probability and burst error correction capability in a data transmission are illustrated.