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Nurdiansyah Heri - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • TRANSFORMASI NOVEL DWILOGI THE DA PECI CODE DAN ROSID & DELIA KE DALAM FILM 3 HATI DUA DUNIA SATU CINTA: Kajian Deskriptif Analitik Komparatif terhadap Proses Ekranisasi Novel dan Aplikasinya dalam Pembelajaran Sastra di Kelas VIII SMP Negeri 4 Padal
    2012
    Co-Authors: Nurdiansyah Heri
    Abstract:

    Ekranisasi novel merupakan salah satu bentuk transformasi dari novel ke dalam film. Pentransformasian tersebut selalu menimbulkan proses perubahan. Pembelajaran memahami novel untuk siswa Kelas VIII dapat memanfaatkan bahan ekranisasi novel. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, maka penelitian ini mengangkat judul Transformasi Novel Dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia ke dalam Film 3 Hati Dua Dunia Satu Cinta (Kajian Deskriptif Analitik Komparatif terhadap Proses Ekranisasi Novel dan Aplikasinya dalam Pembelajaran Sastra di Kelas VIII SMP Negeri 4 Padalarang Tahun Ajaran 2011/2012). Rumusan masalah yang terdapat dalam penelitian ini adalah: 1) bagaimanakah fakta cerita novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia karya Ben Sohib?, 2) bagaimanakah fakta cerita film 3 Hati Dua Dunia Satu Cinta karya sutradara Benni Setiawan?, 3) bagaimanakah representasi mimesis dalam novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia dan film 3 Hati Dua Dunia Satu Cinta?, 4) bagaimanakah proses ekranisasi novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia karya Ben Sohib?, dan 5) bagaimanakah aplikasi pembelajaran memahami buku novel dengan memanfaatkan bahan ekranisasi novel pada siswa Kelas VIII SMP Negeri 4 Padalarang?, sedangkan tujuan penelitian ini yaitu: 1) untuk mengetahui fakta cerita, berupa alur, tokoh dan penokohan, dan latar di dalam novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia karya Ben Sohib, 2) untuk mengetahui fakta cerita, berupa alur, tokoh dan penokohan, dan latar di dalam film 3 Hati Dua Dunia Satu Cinta karya sutradara Benni Setiawan, 3) untuk mengetahui representasi mimesis dalam novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia dan film 3 Hati Dua Dunia Satu Cinta, 4 untuk mengetahui proses ekranisasi novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia karya Ben Sohib, dan 5) untuk mengaplikasikan pembelajaran memahami buku novel dengan memanfaatkan bahan ekranisasi novel pada siswa Kelas VIII SMP Negeri 4 Padalarang. Adapun metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif analitik komparatif, yakni sebuah metode penelitian yang digunakan untuk menganalisis perbandingan dua buah objek penelitian, yaitu novel dan film melalui studi sastra bandingan, kemudian dideskripsikan dengan menggunakan bahasa si peneliti. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa: 1) fakta cerita novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia didominasi jenis sekuen peristiwa dan memberi kesan bahwa peristiwa, tokoh, dan latar mungkin ada atau pernah terjadi, 2) fakta cerita film 3 Hati Dua Dunia Satu Cinta didominasi jenis sekuen peristiwa dengan lebih mengedepankan unsur audiovisual sebagai penguat, serta memberi kesan bahwa peristiwa, tokoh, dan latar mungkin ada atau pernah terjadi, 3) mimesis novel dan film dapat mewakili representasi nilai-nilai pendidikan yang ada di dalam kehidupan manusia, 4) proses ekranisasi novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia cenderung lebih banyak melakukan penciutan dan perubahan bervariasi dibanding melakukan penambahan karena untuk menimbulkan efek yang lebih estetis dan dramatis dalam mengungkapkan setiap fakta cerita yang ada di dalam film, dan 5) hasil dari pelaksanaan pembelajaran memahami buku novel dengan memanfaatkan bahan ekranisasi novel pada siswa Kelas VIII-E SMP Negeri 4 Padalarang diperoleh nilai rata-rata kelas sebesar 77,63 dan menunjukkan nilai yang signifikan dari Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) sebesar 67. Dengan demikian, pemanfaatan bahan ekranisasi novel dalam pembelajaran memahami buku novel pada siswa kelas VIII-E SMP Negeri 4 Padalarang dinyatakan efekti

Heri Nurdiansyah - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • transformasi novel dwilogi the da peci code dan rosid delia ke dalam film 3 hati dua dunia satu cinta kajian deskriptif analitik komparatif terhadap proses ekranisasi novel dan aplikasinya dalam pembelajaran sastra di kelas viii smp negeri 4 padalara
    2012
    Co-Authors: Heri Nurdiansyah
    Abstract:

    Ekranisasi novel merupakan salah satu bentuk transformasi dari novel ke dalam film. Pentransformasian tersebut selalu menimbulkan proses perubahan. Pembelajaran memahami novel untuk siswa Kelas VIII dapat memanfaatkan bahan ekranisasi novel. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, maka penelitian ini mengangkat judul Transformasi Novel Dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia ke dalam Film 3 Hati Dua Dunia Satu Cinta (Kajian Deskriptif Analitik Komparatif terhadap Proses Ekranisasi Novel dan Aplikasinya dalam Pembelajaran Sastra di Kelas VIII SMP Negeri 4 Padalarang Tahun Ajaran 2011/2012). Rumusan masalah yang terdapat dalam penelitian ini adalah: 1) bagaimanakah fakta cerita novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia karya Ben Sohib?, 2) bagaimanakah fakta cerita film 3 Hati Dua Dunia Satu Cinta karya sutradara Benni Setiawan?, 3) bagaimanakah representasi mimesis dalam novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia dan film 3 Hati Dua Dunia Satu Cinta?, 4) bagaimanakah proses ekranisasi novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia karya Ben Sohib?, dan 5) bagaimanakah aplikasi pembelajaran memahami buku novel dengan memanfaatkan bahan ekranisasi novel pada siswa Kelas VIII SMP Negeri 4 Padalarang?, sedangkan tujuan penelitian ini yaitu: 1) untuk mengetahui fakta cerita, berupa alur, tokoh dan penokohan, dan latar di dalam novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia karya Ben Sohib, 2) untuk mengetahui fakta cerita, berupa alur, tokoh dan penokohan, dan latar di dalam film 3 Hati Dua Dunia Satu Cinta karya sutradara Benni Setiawan, 3) untuk mengetahui representasi mimesis dalam novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia dan film 3 Hati Dua Dunia Satu Cinta, 4 untuk mengetahui proses ekranisasi novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia karya Ben Sohib, dan 5) untuk mengaplikasikan pembelajaran memahami buku novel dengan memanfaatkan bahan ekranisasi novel pada siswa Kelas VIII SMP Negeri 4 Padalarang. Adapun metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif analitik komparatif, yakni sebuah metode penelitian yang digunakan untuk menganalisis perbandingan dua buah objek penelitian, yaitu novel dan film melalui studi sastra bandingan, kemudian dideskripsikan dengan menggunakan bahasa si peneliti. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa: 1) fakta cerita novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia didominasi jenis sekuen peristiwa dan memberi kesan bahwa peristiwa, tokoh, dan latar mungkin ada atau pernah terjadi, 2) fakta cerita film 3 Hati Dua Dunia Satu Cinta didominasi jenis sekuen peristiwa dengan lebih mengedepankan unsur audiovisual sebagai penguat, serta memberi kesan bahwa peristiwa, tokoh, dan latar mungkin ada atau pernah terjadi, 3) mimesis novel dan film dapat mewakili representasi nilai-nilai pendidikan yang ada di dalam kehidupan manusia, 4) proses ekranisasi novel dwilogi The Da Peci Code dan Rosid & Delia cenderung lebih banyak melakukan penciutan dan perubahan bervariasi dibanding melakukan penambahan karena untuk menimbulkan efek yang lebih estetis dan dramatis dalam mengungkapkan setiap fakta cerita yang ada di dalam film, dan 5) hasil dari pelaksanaan pembelajaran memahami buku novel dengan memanfaatkan bahan ekranisasi novel pada siswa Kelas VIII-E SMP Negeri 4 Padalarang diperoleh nilai rata-rata kelas sebesar 77,63 dan menunjukkan nilai yang signifikan dari Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) sebesar 67. Dengan demikian, pemanfaatan bahan ekranisasi novel dalam pembelajaran memahami buku novel pada siswa kelas VIII-E SMP Negeri 4 Padalarang dinyatakan efektif

Richard Reinhardt - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet beta vulgaris
    Nature, 2014
    Co-Authors: Juliane C Dohm, Daniela Holtgrawe, Thomas Rosleff Sorensen, Andre E Minoche, Salvador Capellagutierrez, Falk Zakrzewski, Hakim Tafer, Oliver Rupp, Ralf Stracke, Richard Reinhardt
    Abstract:

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world's annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714-758 megabases and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and Rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from Rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant's potential in energy biotechnology.

  • the genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet beta vulgaris
    Nature, 2014
    Co-Authors: Juliane C Dohm, Daniela Holtgrawe, Thomas Rosleff Sorensen, Andre E Minoche, Salvador Capellagutierrez, Falk Zakrzewski, Hakim Tafer, Oliver Rupp, Ralf Stracke, Richard Reinhardt
    Abstract:

    A full genome sequence is presented of sugar beet Beta vulgaris, the first plant belonging to Caryophyllales to have its genome sequenced; spinach was sequenced to enable inter-clade comparisons, and intraspecific variation was analysed by comparative genomics of a progenitor of all beet crops and additional sugar beet accessions. Industrial production of sugar from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) began in Europe in the early nineteenth century, and in the intervening 200 years the sugar content of the commonly used cultivars has increased from 8% to 18%. A high-quality reference genome sequence for sugar beet is published in this issue, together with that of the related spinach plant (Spinacia oleracea) and assembled genomes from four additional sugar beet breeding lines. Information held in these genome sequences will be useful for the characterization of genes involved in sugar production and identification of targets for breeding efforts, as well as towards its application as a sustainable energy crop. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world’s annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714–758 megabases1 and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants2. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet3. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated4 to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and Rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from Rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant’s potential in energy biotechnology.

Juliane C Dohm - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet beta vulgaris
    Nature, 2014
    Co-Authors: Juliane C Dohm, Daniela Holtgrawe, Thomas Rosleff Sorensen, Andre E Minoche, Salvador Capellagutierrez, Falk Zakrzewski, Hakim Tafer, Oliver Rupp, Ralf Stracke, Richard Reinhardt
    Abstract:

    A full genome sequence is presented of sugar beet Beta vulgaris, the first plant belonging to Caryophyllales to have its genome sequenced; spinach was sequenced to enable inter-clade comparisons, and intraspecific variation was analysed by comparative genomics of a progenitor of all beet crops and additional sugar beet accessions. Industrial production of sugar from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) began in Europe in the early nineteenth century, and in the intervening 200 years the sugar content of the commonly used cultivars has increased from 8% to 18%. A high-quality reference genome sequence for sugar beet is published in this issue, together with that of the related spinach plant (Spinacia oleracea) and assembled genomes from four additional sugar beet breeding lines. Information held in these genome sequences will be useful for the characterization of genes involved in sugar production and identification of targets for breeding efforts, as well as towards its application as a sustainable energy crop. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world’s annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714–758 megabases1 and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants2. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet3. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated4 to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and Rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from Rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant’s potential in energy biotechnology.

  • the genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet beta vulgaris
    Nature, 2014
    Co-Authors: Juliane C Dohm, Daniela Holtgrawe, Thomas Rosleff Sorensen, Andre E Minoche, Salvador Capellagutierrez, Falk Zakrzewski, Hakim Tafer, Oliver Rupp, Ralf Stracke, Richard Reinhardt
    Abstract:

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world's annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714-758 megabases and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and Rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from Rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant's potential in energy biotechnology.

  • palaeohexaploid ancestry for caryophyllales inferred from extensive gene based physical and genetic mapping of the sugar beet genome beta vulgaris
    Plant Journal, 2012
    Co-Authors: Juliane C Dohm, Cornelia Lange, Daniela Holtgrawe, Thomas Rosleff Sorensen, Dietrich C Borchardt, Britta Schulz, Hans Lehrach, Bernd Weisshaar, Heinz Himmelbauer
    Abstract:

    *SUMMARY Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is an important crop plant that accounts for 30% of the world’s sugar production annually. The genus Beta is a distant relative of currently sequenced taxa within the core eudicotyledons; the genomic characterization of sugar beet is essential to make its genome accessible to molecular dissection. Here, we present comprehensive genomic information in genetic and physical maps that cover all nine chromosomes. Based on this information we identified the proposed ancestral linkage groups of Rosids and asterids within the sugar beet genome. We generated an extended genetic map that comprises 1127 single nucleotide polymorphism markers prepared from expressed sequence tags and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences. To construct a genome-wide physical map, we hybridized gene-derived oligomer probes against two BAC libraries with 9.5-fold cumulative coverage of the 758 Mbp genome. More than 2500 probes and clones were integrated both in genetic maps and the physical data. The final physical map encompasses 535 chromosomally anchored contigs that contains 8361 probes and 22 815 BAC clones. By using the gene order established with the physical map, we detected regions of synteny between sugar beet (order Caryophyllales) and rosid species that involves 1400–2700 genes in the sequenced genomes of Arabidopsis, poplar, grapevine, and cacao. The data suggest that Caryophyllales share the palaeohexaploid ancestor proposed for Rosids and asterids. Taken together, we here provide extensive molecular resources for sugar beet and enable future high-resolution trait mapping, gene identification, and cross-referencing to regions sequenced in other plant species.

Thomas Rosleff Sorensen - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet beta vulgaris
    Nature, 2014
    Co-Authors: Juliane C Dohm, Daniela Holtgrawe, Thomas Rosleff Sorensen, Andre E Minoche, Salvador Capellagutierrez, Falk Zakrzewski, Hakim Tafer, Oliver Rupp, Ralf Stracke, Richard Reinhardt
    Abstract:

    A full genome sequence is presented of sugar beet Beta vulgaris, the first plant belonging to Caryophyllales to have its genome sequenced; spinach was sequenced to enable inter-clade comparisons, and intraspecific variation was analysed by comparative genomics of a progenitor of all beet crops and additional sugar beet accessions. Industrial production of sugar from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) began in Europe in the early nineteenth century, and in the intervening 200 years the sugar content of the commonly used cultivars has increased from 8% to 18%. A high-quality reference genome sequence for sugar beet is published in this issue, together with that of the related spinach plant (Spinacia oleracea) and assembled genomes from four additional sugar beet breeding lines. Information held in these genome sequences will be useful for the characterization of genes involved in sugar production and identification of targets for breeding efforts, as well as towards its application as a sustainable energy crop. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world’s annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714–758 megabases1 and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants2. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet3. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated4 to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and Rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from Rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant’s potential in energy biotechnology.

  • the genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet beta vulgaris
    Nature, 2014
    Co-Authors: Juliane C Dohm, Daniela Holtgrawe, Thomas Rosleff Sorensen, Andre E Minoche, Salvador Capellagutierrez, Falk Zakrzewski, Hakim Tafer, Oliver Rupp, Ralf Stracke, Richard Reinhardt
    Abstract:

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world's annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714-758 megabases and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and Rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from Rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant's potential in energy biotechnology.

  • palaeohexaploid ancestry for caryophyllales inferred from extensive gene based physical and genetic mapping of the sugar beet genome beta vulgaris
    Plant Journal, 2012
    Co-Authors: Juliane C Dohm, Cornelia Lange, Daniela Holtgrawe, Thomas Rosleff Sorensen, Dietrich C Borchardt, Britta Schulz, Hans Lehrach, Bernd Weisshaar, Heinz Himmelbauer
    Abstract:

    *SUMMARY Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is an important crop plant that accounts for 30% of the world’s sugar production annually. The genus Beta is a distant relative of currently sequenced taxa within the core eudicotyledons; the genomic characterization of sugar beet is essential to make its genome accessible to molecular dissection. Here, we present comprehensive genomic information in genetic and physical maps that cover all nine chromosomes. Based on this information we identified the proposed ancestral linkage groups of Rosids and asterids within the sugar beet genome. We generated an extended genetic map that comprises 1127 single nucleotide polymorphism markers prepared from expressed sequence tags and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences. To construct a genome-wide physical map, we hybridized gene-derived oligomer probes against two BAC libraries with 9.5-fold cumulative coverage of the 758 Mbp genome. More than 2500 probes and clones were integrated both in genetic maps and the physical data. The final physical map encompasses 535 chromosomally anchored contigs that contains 8361 probes and 22 815 BAC clones. By using the gene order established with the physical map, we detected regions of synteny between sugar beet (order Caryophyllales) and rosid species that involves 1400–2700 genes in the sequenced genomes of Arabidopsis, poplar, grapevine, and cacao. The data suggest that Caryophyllales share the palaeohexaploid ancestor proposed for Rosids and asterids. Taken together, we here provide extensive molecular resources for sugar beet and enable future high-resolution trait mapping, gene identification, and cross-referencing to regions sequenced in other plant species.