Sweet Cherry

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Ana B. Rodríguez - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Sweet Cherry phytochemicals identification and characterization by hplc dad esi ms in six Sweet Cherry cultivars grown in valle del jerte spain
    Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2010
    Co-Authors: David Gonzalezgomez, M. Lozano, M.j. Bernalte, M.c. Ayuso, M F Fernandezleon, Ana B. Rodríguez
    Abstract:

    Abstract Individual anthocyanin pigments and phenolic compounds were isolated, identified and quantified in six different Sweet-Cherry cultivars ( Prunus avium L.) grown in Valle del Jerte area (Spain). An extractive-chromatographic method has been optimized for one-step extraction and simultaneous determination of all the studied components by HPLC/DAD-MS. The highest levels of phytochemicals were found in the autochthonous Sweet-Cherry cultivars that belong to the Protected Designation of Origin (POD) Cereza del Jerte . Van cultivar showed the lowest level of anthocyanin pigments and phenolic compounds. The most abundant anthocyanin pigment in all the studied cultivars was cyanidin-3-rutinoside (105 mg/100 g fresh weight (fwt) in Pico Negro Sweet-Cherry cultivar). The most abundant phenolic compound was the flavanol p -coumaroylquinic acid (130 mg/100 g fwt in Pico Negro Sweet-Cherry cultivar). In addition, chemical attributes (antioxidant activity, soluble solid content and pH) were also evaluated.

  • Sweet Cherry phytochemicals: Identification and characterization by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in six Sweet-Cherry cultivars grown in Valle del Jerte (Spain)
    Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2010
    Co-Authors: David González-gómez, M. Lozano, M.f. Fernández-león, M.j. Bernalte, M.c. Ayuso, Ana B. Rodríguez
    Abstract:

    Abstract Individual anthocyanin pigments and phenolic compounds were isolated, identified and quantified in six different Sweet-Cherry cultivars ( Prunus avium L.) grown in Valle del Jerte area (Spain). An extractive-chromatographic method has been optimized for one-step extraction and simultaneous determination of all the studied components by HPLC/DAD-MS. The highest levels of phytochemicals were found in the autochthonous Sweet-Cherry cultivars that belong to the Protected Designation of Origin (POD) Cereza del Jerte . Van cultivar showed the lowest level of anthocyanin pigments and phenolic compounds. The most abundant anthocyanin pigment in all the studied cultivars was cyanidin-3-rutinoside (105 mg/100 g fresh weight (fwt) in Pico Negro Sweet-Cherry cultivar). The most abundant phenolic compound was the flavanol p -coumaroylquinic acid (130 mg/100 g fwt in Pico Negro Sweet-Cherry cultivar). In addition, chemical attributes (antioxidant activity, soluble solid content and pH) were also evaluated.

Athanasios Tsaftaris - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • microsatellite high resolution melting ssr hrm analysis for authenticity testing of protected designation of origin pdo Sweet Cherry products
    Food Control, 2011
    Co-Authors: Ioannis Ganopoulos, Anagnostis Argiriou, Athanasios Tsaftaris
    Abstract:

    Abstract DNA based methods have been employed recently for plant species identification and their ingredients in the final food products. The aim of this work was to setup a microsatellite-based method not only to distinguish Sweet Cherry cultivars but also to compare different techniques for DNA isolation and DNA fragment analysis for verifying the presence of protected designation of origin (PDO) Sweet Cherry, at the cultivar level, in Sweet Cherry processed products. Thirteen microsatellites were tested and the combination of the amplification profiles of six of them, characterised by high polymorphism and simple electrophoretic patterns, enabled to distinguish and identify a PDO Sweet Cherry cultivar used for Sweet Cherry products. The obtained amplicons were all in the range of 68–258 bp, and were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis. We compare the results obtained by both methods and analyze the differences observed. Dendrograms were constructed using data from HRM analysis and fragment analysis indicating a higher resolution capacity of the HRM method compared to fragment analysis. Moreover, costs, throughput and difficulties to implement HRM analysis and CE methods in the laboratory are discussed. In conclusion HRM analysis can be a cost effective alternative method, with higher resolution, not only to genotype Sweet Cherry cultivars but also to extend the use to process Sweet Cherry products using microsatellite markers.

Moritz Knoche - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Calcium physiology of Sweet Cherry fruits
    Trees, 2020
    Co-Authors: Andreas Winkler, Bennet Fiedler, Moritz Knoche
    Abstract:

    Abstract Key message Xylem functionality is the primary determinant of the Ca relations of developing Sweet Cherry. Calcium influx is positively related to transpiration and decreases as xylem functionality is progressively lost during development. Abstract Fruit calcium (Ca) may be associated with susceptibility to rain cracking in Sweet Cherry but little background information is available on the fruits’ Ca relations. The objectives of the study were to identify the key determinants of the Ca content in developing Sweet Cherry fruit. The masses of Ca and K in the flesh (mg per fruit) increased continuously through to maturity. However, their dry mass ratios [mg per g dry mass (DM)] decreased continuously. The decrease in Ca/dry mass ratio was to about 30% of the transition stage II/III value, and for K to about 55%. These decreases occurred in all cultivars investigated. Moreover, the Ca mass per fruit and the Ca/dry mass ratio were normally distributed and wide ranging; the maximum recorded values were about twice the minimum ones. Within a fruit, the Ca/dry mass ratio was two to three times higher in the stem end than in the stylar scar end. Fruit held under low relative humidity (26.2%) contained more Ca per fruit and had a higher Ca/dry mass ratio compared with fruit held under high humidity (91.6%). There was a positive relationship between Ca mass per fruit and cumulative transpiration. Our results indicate xylem functionality is the primary determinant of the Ca relations of Sweet Cherry fruit.

  • Malic Acid Promotes Cracking of Sweet Cherry Fruit
    Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 2015
    Co-Authors: Andreas Winkler, Max Ossenbrink, Moritz Knoche
    Abstract:

    When mature Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) came into contact with Sweet Cherry juice, cracking dramatically increased. The objectives of our study were: 1) to quantify the cracking of fruit in Cherry juice, 2) to determine which constituent(s) of the juice especially promote cracking and, 3) to establish its/their mode of action in promoting cracking. Artificial juice was made up as an aqueous solution of the same five pure chemicals and at the same relative concentrations as the five major osmolytes of real Sweet Cherry juice. Artificial and real juice was used at half-isotonic concentrations as the real juice from that batch of fruit. Cracking of Sweet cherries placed in either artificial or real juice was more rapid and occurred for lower net water uptakes than of fruit placed in half-isotonic polyethylene glycol 6000. The crack-promoting component in Sweet Cherry juice was malic acid. Further tests with malic acid, and other organic acids, and with different concentrations of malic acid, with and without pH control, and with the enantiomers of malic acid, showed the effects were primarily related to the pH of the incubation solution. Leakage of anthocyanin from discs of flesh was increased in the presence of malic acid and greater in hypotonic than hypertonic solutions, suggesting that malic acid increases the permeability of the plasma membrane and tonoplast and weakens the cell walls. Malic acid may be an important link (amplifier) in a reaction chain that begins with the bursting of individual epidermal cells and ends with the formation of macroscopic skin cracks.

  • identification of putative candidate genes involved in cuticle formation in prunus avium Sweet Cherry fruit
    Annals of Botany, 2012
    Co-Authors: Merianne Alkio, Uwe Jonas, Thorben Sprink, Steven Van Nocker, Moritz Knoche
    Abstract:

    † Background and Aims The cuticular membrane (CM) of Prunus avium (Sweet Cherry) and other fleshy fruit is under stress. Previous research indicates that the resultant strain promotes microscopic cuticular cracking. Microcracks impair the function of the CM as a barrier against pathogens and uncontrolled water loss/uptake. Stress and strain result from a cessation of CM deposition during early development, while the fruit surface continues to expand. The cessation of CM deposition, in turn, may be related to an early downregulation of CMrelated genes. The aims of this study were to identify genes potentially involved in CM formation in Sweet Cherry fruit and to quantify their expression levels. † Methods Fruit growth and CM deposition were quantified weekly from anthesis to maturity and rates of CM deposition were calculated. Sequences of genes expressed in the Sweet Cherry fruit skin (exocarp) were generated using high-throughput sequencing of cDNA and de novo assembly and analysed using bioinformatics tools. Relative mRNA levels of selected genes were quantified in the exocarp and fruit flesh (mesocarp) weekly using reverse transcriptase-quantitative real-time PCR and compared with the calculated CM deposition rate over time. † Key Results The rate of CM deposition peaked at 93 (+5) mg per fruit d 21 about 19 d after anthesis. Based on sequence analyses, 18 genes were selected as potentially involved in CM formation. Selected Sweet Cherry genes shared up to 100 and 98 % similarity with the respective Prunus persica ( peach) and Arabidopsis thaliana genes. Expression of 13 putative CM-related genes was restricted to the exocarp and correlated positively with the CM deposition rate. † Conclusions The results support the view that the cessation of CM deposition during early Sweet Cherry fruit development is accounted for by a downregulation of genes involved in CM deposition. Genes that merit further investigation include PaWINA, PaWINB, PaLipase, PaLTPG1, PaATT1, PaLCR, PaGPAT4/8, PaLACS2, PaLACS1 and PaCER1.

  • Stress and Strain in the Sweet Cherry Skin
    Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 2012
    Co-Authors: Eckhard Grimm, Stefanie Peschel, Tobias Becker, Moritz Knoche
    Abstract:

    Rain-cracking of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit involves failure of the exocarp caused by excessive stress and strain. The objective of our study was to quantify exocarp strain in developing cherries. The release of linear elastic strain was followed in vivo using a gaping assay, whereas the release of biaxial elastic strain was followed in vitro after excision of small exocarp segments (ESs) that were submerged in silicone oil and strain release quantified by image analysis. When mature Sweet Cherry fruit were cut (by making two or more deep, longitudinal incisions parallel to the stylar/pedicel axis and on opposing sides of the fruit down to the pit), the incisions rapidly “gaped.” The gaping wounds continued to widen as they progressively released the linear elastic strain in the skin. By 24 hours the combined widths of two gapes represented 8.8% ± 0.1% of the fruit circumference. Increasing the number of cuts from two to 12 increased the cumulative gape widths to 14.9% ± 0.2%. In ES, monitoring the time course of relaxation after excision revealed a rapid release of biaxial strain, having a half-time of ≈2.7 minutes. Relaxation continued, but at a decreasing rate, for up to 48 hours. Across eight Cherry cultivars, the biaxial strain in the exocarp at maturity ranged from 18.7% ± 1.9% in ‘Lapins’ to 36.0% ± 1.8% in ‘Katalin’. Elastic strain in the ES was always lower than that measured in an isolated cuticular membrane (CM). Increasing the temperature from 2 to 35 °C increased the rate of strain release and also the total percent strain released at 96 hours. In developing ‘Hedelfinger’ Sweet Cherry fruit, there was essentially no elastic strain in the exocarp at 45 days after full bloom (DAFB). Thereafter, significant elastic strain developed, reaching a maximum of 47.6% ± 2.5% at 87 DAFB. The effect of exocarp cell turgor on strain in the ES (evidenced by the difference in the reversible strain between ES with and without turgor) was closely and positively related to the relative area growth rate of the skin (r2 = 0.957). Strain release peaked at ≈59 DAFB, and there was no effect of turgor on strain release in mature fruit. Our data demonstrated the following: 1) the exocarp is a viscoelastic material composite; 2) at maturity, plastic and elastic strain components make up 66% and 34% of the total percent strain, respectively; 3) elastic strain in the exocarp increases during Stage III development; and 4) the strain in the exocarp is unaffected by strain in the CM. Thus, the epidermis and hypodermis layers must represent the main, load-bearing structure in Sweet Cherry fruit with the cuticle making a mechanically insignificant contribution.

  • analysing fruit shape in Sweet Cherry prunus avium l
    Scientia Horticulturae, 2002
    Co-Authors: Marco Beyer, R Hahn, Stefanie Peschel, M Harz, Moritz Knoche
    Abstract:

    Abstract Fruit shape in Sweet Cherry ( Prunus avium L.) was described using an objective procedure based on image and regression analysis. Digitised images of individual fruit in front view (onto ventral suture) and side view were obtained by image analysis, the Cartesian coordinates of the fruit contour extracted and subsequently normalised for differing fruit size by dividing by fruit height. Normalised fruit contour data of 40 mature cv. Sam fruit were transformed into polar coordinates and a third-order polynomial was fitted. Coefficients of determination ( r 2 ) were r 2 =0.98 and 0.99 for front and side view, respectively. Statistical analysis of regression coefficients revealed symmetry of left and right half of fruit contour in front view, but asymmetry in side view. There was no significant change in fruit shape in front view between 57 and 71 days after full bloom (DAFB; cv. Sam). Fruit contour of 24 Sweet Cherry cultivars in front view was equally well-described by the third-order polynomial with a mean r 2 =0.98 (range 0.96–1.00). By cluster analysis of regression coefficients cultivars were grouped according to fruit shape. There was little similarity between cluster membership of cultivars and their respective fruit shape rating in the cultivar description or the five standard fruit shape categories (FSCs) (FSC1: kidney-shaped; FSC2: flat-round; FSC3: round; FSC4: oblong; FSC5: cordate) that are used as a reference for rating fruit shape in Sweet Cherry cultivars. Principle component analysis identified the ratio of fruit height to width and the depth of pedicel cavity relative to fruit height as two important determinants of fruit shape. The procedure described maybe useful in analysing effects of environmental and genetic factors on fruit shape in Sweet Cherry fruit.

M.j. Bernalte - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Sweet Cherry phytochemicals identification and characterization by hplc dad esi ms in six Sweet Cherry cultivars grown in valle del jerte spain
    Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2010
    Co-Authors: David Gonzalezgomez, M. Lozano, M.j. Bernalte, M.c. Ayuso, M F Fernandezleon, Ana B. Rodríguez
    Abstract:

    Abstract Individual anthocyanin pigments and phenolic compounds were isolated, identified and quantified in six different Sweet-Cherry cultivars ( Prunus avium L.) grown in Valle del Jerte area (Spain). An extractive-chromatographic method has been optimized for one-step extraction and simultaneous determination of all the studied components by HPLC/DAD-MS. The highest levels of phytochemicals were found in the autochthonous Sweet-Cherry cultivars that belong to the Protected Designation of Origin (POD) Cereza del Jerte . Van cultivar showed the lowest level of anthocyanin pigments and phenolic compounds. The most abundant anthocyanin pigment in all the studied cultivars was cyanidin-3-rutinoside (105 mg/100 g fresh weight (fwt) in Pico Negro Sweet-Cherry cultivar). The most abundant phenolic compound was the flavanol p -coumaroylquinic acid (130 mg/100 g fwt in Pico Negro Sweet-Cherry cultivar). In addition, chemical attributes (antioxidant activity, soluble solid content and pH) were also evaluated.

  • Sweet Cherry phytochemicals: Identification and characterization by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in six Sweet-Cherry cultivars grown in Valle del Jerte (Spain)
    Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2010
    Co-Authors: David González-gómez, M. Lozano, M.f. Fernández-león, M.j. Bernalte, M.c. Ayuso, Ana B. Rodríguez
    Abstract:

    Abstract Individual anthocyanin pigments and phenolic compounds were isolated, identified and quantified in six different Sweet-Cherry cultivars ( Prunus avium L.) grown in Valle del Jerte area (Spain). An extractive-chromatographic method has been optimized for one-step extraction and simultaneous determination of all the studied components by HPLC/DAD-MS. The highest levels of phytochemicals were found in the autochthonous Sweet-Cherry cultivars that belong to the Protected Designation of Origin (POD) Cereza del Jerte . Van cultivar showed the lowest level of anthocyanin pigments and phenolic compounds. The most abundant anthocyanin pigment in all the studied cultivars was cyanidin-3-rutinoside (105 mg/100 g fresh weight (fwt) in Pico Negro Sweet-Cherry cultivar). The most abundant phenolic compound was the flavanol p -coumaroylquinic acid (130 mg/100 g fwt in Pico Negro Sweet-Cherry cultivar). In addition, chemical attributes (antioxidant activity, soluble solid content and pH) were also evaluated.

M.c. Ayuso - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Sweet Cherry phytochemicals identification and characterization by hplc dad esi ms in six Sweet Cherry cultivars grown in valle del jerte spain
    Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2010
    Co-Authors: David Gonzalezgomez, M. Lozano, M.j. Bernalte, M.c. Ayuso, M F Fernandezleon, Ana B. Rodríguez
    Abstract:

    Abstract Individual anthocyanin pigments and phenolic compounds were isolated, identified and quantified in six different Sweet-Cherry cultivars ( Prunus avium L.) grown in Valle del Jerte area (Spain). An extractive-chromatographic method has been optimized for one-step extraction and simultaneous determination of all the studied components by HPLC/DAD-MS. The highest levels of phytochemicals were found in the autochthonous Sweet-Cherry cultivars that belong to the Protected Designation of Origin (POD) Cereza del Jerte . Van cultivar showed the lowest level of anthocyanin pigments and phenolic compounds. The most abundant anthocyanin pigment in all the studied cultivars was cyanidin-3-rutinoside (105 mg/100 g fresh weight (fwt) in Pico Negro Sweet-Cherry cultivar). The most abundant phenolic compound was the flavanol p -coumaroylquinic acid (130 mg/100 g fwt in Pico Negro Sweet-Cherry cultivar). In addition, chemical attributes (antioxidant activity, soluble solid content and pH) were also evaluated.

  • Sweet Cherry phytochemicals: Identification and characterization by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in six Sweet-Cherry cultivars grown in Valle del Jerte (Spain)
    Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2010
    Co-Authors: David González-gómez, M. Lozano, M.f. Fernández-león, M.j. Bernalte, M.c. Ayuso, Ana B. Rodríguez
    Abstract:

    Abstract Individual anthocyanin pigments and phenolic compounds were isolated, identified and quantified in six different Sweet-Cherry cultivars ( Prunus avium L.) grown in Valle del Jerte area (Spain). An extractive-chromatographic method has been optimized for one-step extraction and simultaneous determination of all the studied components by HPLC/DAD-MS. The highest levels of phytochemicals were found in the autochthonous Sweet-Cherry cultivars that belong to the Protected Designation of Origin (POD) Cereza del Jerte . Van cultivar showed the lowest level of anthocyanin pigments and phenolic compounds. The most abundant anthocyanin pigment in all the studied cultivars was cyanidin-3-rutinoside (105 mg/100 g fresh weight (fwt) in Pico Negro Sweet-Cherry cultivar). The most abundant phenolic compound was the flavanol p -coumaroylquinic acid (130 mg/100 g fwt in Pico Negro Sweet-Cherry cultivar). In addition, chemical attributes (antioxidant activity, soluble solid content and pH) were also evaluated.