Tabulating Machine

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W Kistermannfriedrich - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

F W Kistermann - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • hollerith punched card system development 1905 1913
    IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 2005
    Co-Authors: F W Kistermann
    Abstract:

    The author traces the development of the Hollerith Tabulating Machine, what is part of the Hollerith punched card system during the years 1905 until 1913, and describes the Machine's applications of most interest to customers at that time. Hollerith added the plugboard for flexible wiring to his Tabulating Machine for different applications, as a result of customer demand.

Gerard O’regan - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Hollerith’s Tabulating Machines and the Birth of IBM
    The Innovation in Computing Companion, 2018
    Co-Authors: Gerard O’regan
    Abstract:

    Hollerith’s punch card Tabulating Machine was designed to process the results of the 1890 census in the United States. It used an electric current to sense holes in punched cards, and it kept a running total of the data. The statistics could be recorded by electrically reading and sorting the punched cards, and the results of the census were available in a couple of months rather than years. Hollerith formed the Tabulating Machine Company (the first electric Tabulating-Machine company) in 1896, and it merged with the International Time Recording Company to form the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) in 1911. Thomas Watson joined the company in 1914, and the company changed its name to International Business Machines (IBM) in 1924. IBM has been in business for over 100 years and remains a respected leader in the computing field.

K C Tsien - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The application of automatic computing Machines to radiation treatment planning. 1954.
    The British journal of radiology, 1995
    Co-Authors: K C Tsien
    Abstract:

    A new method of determining the dose distribution required in treatment planning has been developed by using punched cards, and sorting and Tabulating Machines instead of isodose charts. The percentage depth doses produced by an X-ray field are first recorded on several sets of punched cards. The number of sets required for one field depends upon the distances used from the cross point of the multifield axes to the point of entry. Each set consists of 36 cards, with each card recording the percentage depth doses of 15 points in one radial line, taking the cross points of central axes of the fields as the origin. In all cases the points are taken at the distances 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24 cm from the origin and along radial lines 10 deg. apart. A special polar co-ordinate dose distribution sheet has been designed, and the contour of the patient's body and the position of the fields designated for treatment are drawn on this sheet. Instead of putting the isodose charts at the proper positions of the fields, the sets of punched cards for the fields to be applied are automatically arranged in the right order. Instead of the time-consuming process of reading off the percentage depth doses from the overlapping isodose charts and adding them up for selected points, the cards are fed into the automatic Tabulating Machine, which makes the summation of data for all the points mentioned above and tabulates the results. The whole operation is done in 10 to 15 minutes. The tabulated results are then plotted on the special dose distribution sheet. A generalised mathematical treatment of the dose at any point in the irradiated region is discussed, and an equation of "point-tumour dose ratio" is derived. Further application of this equation is made to special cases for treatment using equal maximum doses, equal tumour doses and rotation therapy. The geometrical principles involved are also indicated.

P. Wallich - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The ghosts of computers past
    IEEE Spectrum, 2002
    Co-Authors: P. Wallich
    Abstract:

    A silicon valley museum-in-the-making showcases a half-century of innovation in computing. The museum at Moffett contains perhaps the most complete collection of groundbreaking hardware and software in the world-from the Hollerith punch-card Tabulating Machine that rescued the 1890 US census to the LINC laboratory minicomputer to a prototype of the Palm Pilot PDA and an early copy of IBM's gigabyte credit-card-sized disk drive. Preserving all these artifacts is quite an achievement in a field where last year's top-secret supercomputer is next year's scrap.