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Triticum

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Andrea Brandolini - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • phenolic acids composition total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of Triticum monococcum Triticum turgidum and Triticum aestivum a two years evaluation
    Journal of Cereal Science, 2013
    Co-Authors: Andrea Brandolini, Paolo Castoldi, L Plizzari, Alyssa Hidalgo
    Abstract:

    Abstract Wheat is a good source of polyphenols, plant metabolytes with beneficial effects on human health. However, little information is available on phenolic acid composition and concentration in different Triticum species, as well as on possible environmental effects. To shed some light on this issue, thirty-nine wheat accessions cropped for two years and belonging to different Triticum species (Triticum monococcum, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum, turanicum and durum, Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta and aestivum) were assessed for phenolic acids (ferulic, p-coumaric, vanillic, syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic acids and syringaldehyde), total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in soluble conjugated and insoluble bound extracts. Ferulic acid was the most abundant compound in both extracts. Insoluble bound phenolic acids represented >90% of total phenolic acids. Einkorn showed the maximum concentration of conjugated phenolic acids (50.5 mg/kg DM), while durum and bread wheats presented the highest content of bound phenolic acids (651.8 and 629.2 mg/kg DM, respectively). Cropping year influenced the concentration of conjugated but not of bound phenolic acids. A survey of phenolic acid distribution in the kernel showed that they are rare in endosperm, but abundant in germ and bran. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were highly correlated to phenolic acid content.

  • Lipoxygenase activity in wholemeal flours from Triticum monococcum, Triticum turgidum and Triticum aestivum
    Food Chemistry, 2012
    Co-Authors: Alyssa Hidalgo, Andrea Brandolini
    Abstract:

    Abstract To minimise lipid oxidation and maintain high carotenoid and tocol concentrations in wheat flours and products, fifty-seven accessions, belonging to different Triticum species ( Triticum monococcum , Triticum turgidum and Triticum aestivum ), were assessed for lipoxygenase activity. The highest enzymatic activity was observed in T. aestivum (8.02 ± 0.492 μmol/min/g DM), followed by T. turgidum (3.48 ± 0.701) and by T. monococcum (0.45 ± 0.072). While the lipoxygenase was consistently high amongst T. aestivum and steadily low amongst T. monococcum samples, the T. turgidum accessions clustered in three different groups, with low (0.12–0.91 μmol/min/g DM), medium (3.10–4.17) and high (5.57–9.51) activity. Enzymatic activity was maximum in the pH range 5–6. LOX activity was higher in the germ (206 μmol/min/g DM), than in the bran (13.4) or in the endosperm (3.1). The results demonstrate that the selection of genotypes with low LOX, a factor limiting oxidative degradation, is feasible.

Mariann Rakszegi - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Variability in xylanase and xylanase inhibition activities in different cereals in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen and contribution of environment and genotype to this variability in common wheat.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2010
    Co-Authors: Kurt Gebruers, Emmie Dornez, Zoltán Bedo, Mariann Rakszegi, Christophe M. Courtin, Jan A. Delcour
    Abstract:

    Endo-1,4-β-d-xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8, xylanases) and xylanase inhibitors, that is, TAXI (Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor), XIP (xylanase inhibiting protein), and TLXI (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor) type xylanase inhibitors, which naturally occur in cereals, are believed to be at the basis of a significant part of the variability in biotechnological functional properties of cereals. Xylanase inhibitors in particular affect grain functionality during processing and in animal feeds when xylanases are used to improve processing parameters and product quality. In the present study the variability of xylanase, TAXI, and XIP activities was quantified in different cereals, including different wheat types [common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), and emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schubler)], barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.), and the contribution of genoty...

  • Puroindoline genes and proteins in tetraploid and hexaploid species of Triticum.
    Journal of Cereal Science, 2009
    Co-Authors: Mariann Rakszegi, Zoltán Bedo, Mark D. Wilkinson, Paola Tosi, Alison Lovegrove, Géza Kovács, Peter R. Shewry
    Abstract:

    Abstract Six tetraploid (5 Triticum turgidum and 1 Triticum timopheevii ) and four hexaploid (three Triticum aestivum and one Triticum kiharae ) taxa of Triticum were studied in order to identify novel variation in Pin genes and proteins which can be exploited in the improvement of cultivated wheat. Western blotting with a highly specific antibody showed that puroindoline proteins were present in all of the hexaploid lines but were absent from the tetraploids. The immunoreactive bands differed slightly in their relative mobilities and their relative amounts, which could have resulted from variation in the allelic forms of Pin a and Pin b. This was supported by HPLC analyses which showed differences in the retention times and peaks heights of the putative puroindoline components in T. kiharae and T. timopheevii . Sequence analyses of cDNAs also showed variation in the sequences of expressed puroindoline genes. In particular, a sequence encoding a new form of Pin b was present in T. aestivum ssp. macha .

  • variation in the content of dietary fiber and components thereof in wheats in the healthgrain diversity screen
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2008
    Co-Authors: Kurt Gebruers, Emmie Dornez, Zoltán Bedo, Mariann Rakszegi, Jan A. Delcour, Danuta Boros, Anna Fras, Wioletta Dynkowska, Christophe M. Courtin
    Abstract:

    Within the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screening program, the variation in the content of dietary fiber and components thereof in different types of wheat was studied. The wheat types were winter (131 varieties) and spring (20 varieties) wheats (both Triticum aestivum L., also referred to as common wheats), durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., 10 varieties), spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L., 5 varieties), einkorn wheat (T. monococcum L., 5 varieties), and emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schubler, 5 varieties). Common wheats contained, on average, the highest level of dietary fiber [11.5−18.3% of dry matter (dm)], whereas einkorn and emmer wheats contained the lowest level (7.2−12.8% of dm). Intermediate levels were measured in durum and spelt wheats (10.7−15.5% of dm). Also, on the basis of the arabinoxylan levels in bran, the different wheat types could be divided this way, with ranges of 12.7−22.1% of dm for common wheats, 6.1−14.4% of dm for einkorn and emmer wheats, and 10.9−13.9% of dm for durum and spelt whea...

Alyssa Hidalgo - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • phenolic acids composition total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of Triticum monococcum Triticum turgidum and Triticum aestivum a two years evaluation
    Journal of Cereal Science, 2013
    Co-Authors: Andrea Brandolini, Paolo Castoldi, L Plizzari, Alyssa Hidalgo
    Abstract:

    Abstract Wheat is a good source of polyphenols, plant metabolytes with beneficial effects on human health. However, little information is available on phenolic acid composition and concentration in different Triticum species, as well as on possible environmental effects. To shed some light on this issue, thirty-nine wheat accessions cropped for two years and belonging to different Triticum species (Triticum monococcum, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum, turanicum and durum, Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta and aestivum) were assessed for phenolic acids (ferulic, p-coumaric, vanillic, syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic acids and syringaldehyde), total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in soluble conjugated and insoluble bound extracts. Ferulic acid was the most abundant compound in both extracts. Insoluble bound phenolic acids represented >90% of total phenolic acids. Einkorn showed the maximum concentration of conjugated phenolic acids (50.5 mg/kg DM), while durum and bread wheats presented the highest content of bound phenolic acids (651.8 and 629.2 mg/kg DM, respectively). Cropping year influenced the concentration of conjugated but not of bound phenolic acids. A survey of phenolic acid distribution in the kernel showed that they are rare in endosperm, but abundant in germ and bran. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were highly correlated to phenolic acid content.

  • Lipoxygenase activity in wholemeal flours from Triticum monococcum, Triticum turgidum and Triticum aestivum
    Food Chemistry, 2012
    Co-Authors: Alyssa Hidalgo, Andrea Brandolini
    Abstract:

    Abstract To minimise lipid oxidation and maintain high carotenoid and tocol concentrations in wheat flours and products, fifty-seven accessions, belonging to different Triticum species ( Triticum monococcum , Triticum turgidum and Triticum aestivum ), were assessed for lipoxygenase activity. The highest enzymatic activity was observed in T. aestivum (8.02 ± 0.492 μmol/min/g DM), followed by T. turgidum (3.48 ± 0.701) and by T. monococcum (0.45 ± 0.072). While the lipoxygenase was consistently high amongst T. aestivum and steadily low amongst T. monococcum samples, the T. turgidum accessions clustered in three different groups, with low (0.12–0.91 μmol/min/g DM), medium (3.10–4.17) and high (5.57–9.51) activity. Enzymatic activity was maximum in the pH range 5–6. LOX activity was higher in the germ (206 μmol/min/g DM), than in the bran (13.4) or in the endosperm (3.1). The results demonstrate that the selection of genotypes with low LOX, a factor limiting oxidative degradation, is feasible.

Zoltán Bedo - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Variability in xylanase and xylanase inhibition activities in different cereals in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen and contribution of environment and genotype to this variability in common wheat.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2010
    Co-Authors: Kurt Gebruers, Emmie Dornez, Zoltán Bedo, Mariann Rakszegi, Christophe M. Courtin, Jan A. Delcour
    Abstract:

    Endo-1,4-β-d-xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8, xylanases) and xylanase inhibitors, that is, TAXI (Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor), XIP (xylanase inhibiting protein), and TLXI (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor) type xylanase inhibitors, which naturally occur in cereals, are believed to be at the basis of a significant part of the variability in biotechnological functional properties of cereals. Xylanase inhibitors in particular affect grain functionality during processing and in animal feeds when xylanases are used to improve processing parameters and product quality. In the present study the variability of xylanase, TAXI, and XIP activities was quantified in different cereals, including different wheat types [common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), and emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schubler)], barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.), and the contribution of genoty...

  • Puroindoline genes and proteins in tetraploid and hexaploid species of Triticum.
    Journal of Cereal Science, 2009
    Co-Authors: Mariann Rakszegi, Zoltán Bedo, Mark D. Wilkinson, Paola Tosi, Alison Lovegrove, Géza Kovács, Peter R. Shewry
    Abstract:

    Abstract Six tetraploid (5 Triticum turgidum and 1 Triticum timopheevii ) and four hexaploid (three Triticum aestivum and one Triticum kiharae ) taxa of Triticum were studied in order to identify novel variation in Pin genes and proteins which can be exploited in the improvement of cultivated wheat. Western blotting with a highly specific antibody showed that puroindoline proteins were present in all of the hexaploid lines but were absent from the tetraploids. The immunoreactive bands differed slightly in their relative mobilities and their relative amounts, which could have resulted from variation in the allelic forms of Pin a and Pin b. This was supported by HPLC analyses which showed differences in the retention times and peaks heights of the putative puroindoline components in T. kiharae and T. timopheevii . Sequence analyses of cDNAs also showed variation in the sequences of expressed puroindoline genes. In particular, a sequence encoding a new form of Pin b was present in T. aestivum ssp. macha .

  • variation in the content of dietary fiber and components thereof in wheats in the healthgrain diversity screen
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2008
    Co-Authors: Kurt Gebruers, Emmie Dornez, Zoltán Bedo, Mariann Rakszegi, Jan A. Delcour, Danuta Boros, Anna Fras, Wioletta Dynkowska, Christophe M. Courtin
    Abstract:

    Within the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screening program, the variation in the content of dietary fiber and components thereof in different types of wheat was studied. The wheat types were winter (131 varieties) and spring (20 varieties) wheats (both Triticum aestivum L., also referred to as common wheats), durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., 10 varieties), spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L., 5 varieties), einkorn wheat (T. monococcum L., 5 varieties), and emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schubler, 5 varieties). Common wheats contained, on average, the highest level of dietary fiber [11.5−18.3% of dry matter (dm)], whereas einkorn and emmer wheats contained the lowest level (7.2−12.8% of dm). Intermediate levels were measured in durum and spelt wheats (10.7−15.5% of dm). Also, on the basis of the arabinoxylan levels in bran, the different wheat types could be divided this way, with ranges of 12.7−22.1% of dm for common wheats, 6.1−14.4% of dm for einkorn and emmer wheats, and 10.9−13.9% of dm for durum and spelt whea...

Jan A. Delcour - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Variability in xylanase and xylanase inhibition activities in different cereals in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen and contribution of environment and genotype to this variability in common wheat.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2010
    Co-Authors: Kurt Gebruers, Emmie Dornez, Zoltán Bedo, Mariann Rakszegi, Christophe M. Courtin, Jan A. Delcour
    Abstract:

    Endo-1,4-β-d-xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8, xylanases) and xylanase inhibitors, that is, TAXI (Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor), XIP (xylanase inhibiting protein), and TLXI (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor) type xylanase inhibitors, which naturally occur in cereals, are believed to be at the basis of a significant part of the variability in biotechnological functional properties of cereals. Xylanase inhibitors in particular affect grain functionality during processing and in animal feeds when xylanases are used to improve processing parameters and product quality. In the present study the variability of xylanase, TAXI, and XIP activities was quantified in different cereals, including different wheat types [common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), and emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schubler)], barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.), and the contribution of genoty...

  • variation in the content of dietary fiber and components thereof in wheats in the healthgrain diversity screen
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2008
    Co-Authors: Kurt Gebruers, Emmie Dornez, Zoltán Bedo, Mariann Rakszegi, Jan A. Delcour, Danuta Boros, Anna Fras, Wioletta Dynkowska, Christophe M. Courtin
    Abstract:

    Within the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screening program, the variation in the content of dietary fiber and components thereof in different types of wheat was studied. The wheat types were winter (131 varieties) and spring (20 varieties) wheats (both Triticum aestivum L., also referred to as common wheats), durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., 10 varieties), spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L., 5 varieties), einkorn wheat (T. monococcum L., 5 varieties), and emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schubler, 5 varieties). Common wheats contained, on average, the highest level of dietary fiber [11.5−18.3% of dry matter (dm)], whereas einkorn and emmer wheats contained the lowest level (7.2−12.8% of dm). Intermediate levels were measured in durum and spelt wheats (10.7−15.5% of dm). Also, on the basis of the arabinoxylan levels in bran, the different wheat types could be divided this way, with ranges of 12.7−22.1% of dm for common wheats, 6.1−14.4% of dm for einkorn and emmer wheats, and 10.9−13.9% of dm for durum and spelt whea...