Ultrastructure

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Sabine Agatha - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • ultrastructural studies on a model tintinnid schmidingerella meunieri kofoid campbell 1929 agatha struder kypke 2012 ciliophora ii the oral apparatus
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Michael Gruber, Birgit Weisenbacher, Sabine Agatha
    Abstract:

    The Ultrastructure of the oral apparatus is supposed to be significant for elucidating more recent common ancestry and might thus provide support for particular groupings of oligotrichean ciliates. The transmission electron microscopical study on mainly cryofixed Schmidingerella meunieri specimens provides the first detailed data for tintinnids and Oligotrichea in general. Ten new characters are included into the cladistic analysis. These features together with the very limited body of literature suggest that substantial changes in the oral Ultrastructure correlate only with the formation of a circular adoral zone in choreotrichids. Despite homoplasious morphological and ontogenetic adaptations to the planktonic lifestyle in halteriid hypotrichs and oligotrichids, their oral apparatuses generally retain the plesiomorphic Ultrastructure of the Perilemmaphora. The highly complex Ultrastructure of the adoral zone is thus able to accomplish an extension in the zone's functionality without obvious changes; only the position of the adoral zone at the apical cell portion together with a globular to obconical cell shape are apparently crucial. Merely, minute apomorphies characterise the Oligotrichea and tintinnids, respectively. Tintinnids with derived somatic ciliary patterns possess distinct microtubular bundles connecting the oral apparatus with the myoneme in the peduncle.

  • ultrastructural studies on a model tintinnid schmidingerella meunieri kofoid and campbell 1929 agatha and struder kypke 2012 ciliophora i somatic kinetids with unique Ultrastructure
    Acta Protozoologica, 2018
    Co-Authors: Michael Gruber, Alexandra Muhlthaler, Sabine Agatha
    Abstract:

    Molecular phylogenies of Oligotrichea currently do not contain all genera and families and display topologies which are often incongruent with morphological findings. In ciliates, the somatic kinetids are rather conserved, i.e., their Ultrastructures, particularly the fibrillar associates, often characterise the main groups, except for the choreotrichids. Four different kinetid types are found in protargol-stained choreotrichids and used for reconstructing the taxon's evolution (the "Kinetid Transformation Hypothesis"). Proof for this hypothesis requires transmission electron microscopic studies, which are very rare in the choreotrichids and oligotrichids. Such an approach provides insights into the ultrastructural variability of somatic kinetids in spirotrichs and may also detect apomorphies characterising certain choreotrichid families. In the model tintinnid Schmidingerella meunieri, the Ultrastructure of the three kinetid types in the somatic ciliature is studied in cryofixed cells. The data support the "Kinetid Transformation Hypothesis" regarding tintinnids with a ventral kinety. This first detailed study on kinetids in tintinnids and choreotrichids in general reveals totally new kinetid types in ciliates: beyond the three common associates, they are characterised by two or three conspicuous microtubular ribbons extending on the kinetids' left sides. These extraordinary ribbons form together with the overlapping postciliary ribbons a unique network in the cortex of the anterior cell portion. The evolutionary constrains which might have fostered the development of such structures are discussed for the Oligotrichea, the choreotrichids, and tintinnids as their first occurrence is currently uncertain. Additionally, the kinetids in tintinnids, aloricate choreotrichids, oligotrichids, hypotrichs, and euplotids are compared.

Jiyuan Tian - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • changes in Ultrastructure and responses of antioxidant systems of algae dunaliella salina during acclimation to enhanced ultraviolet b radiation
    Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B-biology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Jiyuan Tian, Juan Yu
    Abstract:

    Abstract Because of depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, levels of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280–315 nm), which penetrates the water column to an ecologically-significant depth, are increasing. In order to assess changes in Ultrastructure and responses of antioxidant systems of algae during acclimation to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation, Dunaliella salina was treated with higher dose of UV-B radiation (13.2 kJ m−2 d−1 dose) in this study. As compared to the control panel (8.8 kJ m−2 d−1), the treatment D. salina had many changes in Ultrastructures: (1) thylakoids became swelled, and some of them penetrated into the pyrenoid; (2) lipid globules accumulated; (3) the amounts of starch grains increased; (4) cristae of mitochondria disintegrated; (5) inclusions in vacuoles reduced; and (6) cisternae of Golgi dictyosomes became loose and swollen. Enhanced UV-B irradiation also induced different responses of the antioxidant systems in D. salina: (1) contents of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reacting substance) and H2O2 increased significantly (p   0.05). In addition, growth curve displayed that enhanced UV-B radiation prominently inhibited increase of cell concentration when compared with control panel (p

  • changes in Ultrastructure and responses of antioxidant systems of algae dunaliella salina during acclimation to enhanced ultraviolet b radiation
    Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B-biology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Jiyuan Tian
    Abstract:

    Because of depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, levels of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm), which penetrates the water column to an ecologically-significant depth, are increasing. In order to assess changes in Ultrastructure and responses of antioxidant systems of algae during acclimation to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation, Dunaliella salina was treated with higher dose of UV-B radiation (13.2 kJm(-2) d(-1) dose) in this study. As compared to the control panel (8.8 kJm(-2) d(-1)), the treatment D. salina had many changes in Ultrastructures: (1) thylakoids became swelled, and some of them penetrated into the pyrenoid; (2) lipid globules accumulated; (3) the amounts of starch grains increased; (4) cristae of mitochondria disintegrated; (5) inclusions in vacuoles reduced; and (6) cisternae of Golgi dictyosomes became loose and swollen. Enhanced UV-B irradiation also induced different responses of the antioxidant systems in D. salina: (1) contents of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reacting substance) and H(2)O(2) increased significantly (p 0.05). In addition, growth curve displayed that enhanced UV-B radiation prominently inhibited increase of cell concentration when compared with control panel (p<0.05). Our results indicated that enhanced UV-B radiation caused ultrastructural changes of D. salina and induced different responses of antioxidant systems in D. salina.

Masanori Uemura - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • correlative analysis of immunoreactivity in confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam milling
    Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 2013
    Co-Authors: Takahiro Sonomura, Takahiro Furuta, Ikuko Nakatani, Yo Yamamoto, Tomo Unzai, Wakoto Matsuda, Haruki Iwai, Atsushi Yamanaka, Masanori Uemura
    Abstract:

    Recently, three-dimensional reconstruction of Ultrastructure of the brain has been realized with minimal effort by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with focused ion beam (FIB) milling (FIB-SEM). Application of immunohistochemical staining in electron microscopy (EM) provides a great advantage in that molecules of interest are specifically localized in Ultrastructures. Thus, we applied immunocytochemistry for FIB-SEM and correlated this immunoreactivity with that in confocal laser-scanning microcopy (CF-LSM). Dendrites of medium-sized spiny neurons in the rat neostriatum were visualized using a recombinant viral vector, which labeled the infected neurons with membrane-targeted GFP in a Golgi stain-like fashion. Moreover, the thalamostriatal afferent terminals were immunolabeled with Cy5 fluorescence for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2). After detection of the sites of terminals apposed to the dendrites by using CF-LSM, GFP and VGluT2 immunoreactivities were further developed for EM by using immunogold/silver enhancement and immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine (DAB) methods, respectively. In contrast-inverted FIB-SEM images, silver precipitations and DAB deposits were observed as fine dark grains and diffuse dense profiles, respectively, indicating that these immunoreactivities were as easily recognizable as those in the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Furthermore, in the sites of interest, some appositions displayed synaptic specializations of an asymmetric type. Thus, the present method was useful in the three-dimensional analysis of immunocytochemically differentiated synaptic connections in the central neural circuit.

Michael Gruber - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • ultrastructural studies on a model tintinnid schmidingerella meunieri kofoid campbell 1929 agatha struder kypke 2012 ciliophora ii the oral apparatus
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Michael Gruber, Birgit Weisenbacher, Sabine Agatha
    Abstract:

    The Ultrastructure of the oral apparatus is supposed to be significant for elucidating more recent common ancestry and might thus provide support for particular groupings of oligotrichean ciliates. The transmission electron microscopical study on mainly cryofixed Schmidingerella meunieri specimens provides the first detailed data for tintinnids and Oligotrichea in general. Ten new characters are included into the cladistic analysis. These features together with the very limited body of literature suggest that substantial changes in the oral Ultrastructure correlate only with the formation of a circular adoral zone in choreotrichids. Despite homoplasious morphological and ontogenetic adaptations to the planktonic lifestyle in halteriid hypotrichs and oligotrichids, their oral apparatuses generally retain the plesiomorphic Ultrastructure of the Perilemmaphora. The highly complex Ultrastructure of the adoral zone is thus able to accomplish an extension in the zone's functionality without obvious changes; only the position of the adoral zone at the apical cell portion together with a globular to obconical cell shape are apparently crucial. Merely, minute apomorphies characterise the Oligotrichea and tintinnids, respectively. Tintinnids with derived somatic ciliary patterns possess distinct microtubular bundles connecting the oral apparatus with the myoneme in the peduncle.

  • ultrastructural studies on a model tintinnid schmidingerella meunieri kofoid and campbell 1929 agatha and struder kypke 2012 ciliophora i somatic kinetids with unique Ultrastructure
    Acta Protozoologica, 2018
    Co-Authors: Michael Gruber, Alexandra Muhlthaler, Sabine Agatha
    Abstract:

    Molecular phylogenies of Oligotrichea currently do not contain all genera and families and display topologies which are often incongruent with morphological findings. In ciliates, the somatic kinetids are rather conserved, i.e., their Ultrastructures, particularly the fibrillar associates, often characterise the main groups, except for the choreotrichids. Four different kinetid types are found in protargol-stained choreotrichids and used for reconstructing the taxon's evolution (the "Kinetid Transformation Hypothesis"). Proof for this hypothesis requires transmission electron microscopic studies, which are very rare in the choreotrichids and oligotrichids. Such an approach provides insights into the ultrastructural variability of somatic kinetids in spirotrichs and may also detect apomorphies characterising certain choreotrichid families. In the model tintinnid Schmidingerella meunieri, the Ultrastructure of the three kinetid types in the somatic ciliature is studied in cryofixed cells. The data support the "Kinetid Transformation Hypothesis" regarding tintinnids with a ventral kinety. This first detailed study on kinetids in tintinnids and choreotrichids in general reveals totally new kinetid types in ciliates: beyond the three common associates, they are characterised by two or three conspicuous microtubular ribbons extending on the kinetids' left sides. These extraordinary ribbons form together with the overlapping postciliary ribbons a unique network in the cortex of the anterior cell portion. The evolutionary constrains which might have fostered the development of such structures are discussed for the Oligotrichea, the choreotrichids, and tintinnids as their first occurrence is currently uncertain. Additionally, the kinetids in tintinnids, aloricate choreotrichids, oligotrichids, hypotrichs, and euplotids are compared.

Tomo Unzai - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • correlative analysis of immunoreactivity in confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam milling
    Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 2013
    Co-Authors: Takahiro Sonomura, Takahiro Furuta, Ikuko Nakatani, Yo Yamamoto, Tomo Unzai, Wakoto Matsuda, Haruki Iwai, Atsushi Yamanaka, Masanori Uemura
    Abstract:

    Recently, three-dimensional reconstruction of Ultrastructure of the brain has been realized with minimal effort by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with focused ion beam (FIB) milling (FIB-SEM). Application of immunohistochemical staining in electron microscopy (EM) provides a great advantage in that molecules of interest are specifically localized in Ultrastructures. Thus, we applied immunocytochemistry for FIB-SEM and correlated this immunoreactivity with that in confocal laser-scanning microcopy (CF-LSM). Dendrites of medium-sized spiny neurons in the rat neostriatum were visualized using a recombinant viral vector, which labeled the infected neurons with membrane-targeted GFP in a Golgi stain-like fashion. Moreover, the thalamostriatal afferent terminals were immunolabeled with Cy5 fluorescence for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2). After detection of the sites of terminals apposed to the dendrites by using CF-LSM, GFP and VGluT2 immunoreactivities were further developed for EM by using immunogold/silver enhancement and immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine (DAB) methods, respectively. In contrast-inverted FIB-SEM images, silver precipitations and DAB deposits were observed as fine dark grains and diffuse dense profiles, respectively, indicating that these immunoreactivities were as easily recognizable as those in the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Furthermore, in the sites of interest, some appositions displayed synaptic specializations of an asymmetric type. Thus, the present method was useful in the three-dimensional analysis of immunocytochemically differentiated synaptic connections in the central neural circuit.