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4 Hydroxyisoleucine

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Tadigoppula Narender – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Arvind K. Srivastava – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • 4Hydroxyisoleucine attenuates the inflammation-mediated insulin resistance by the activation of AMPK and suppression of SOCS-3 coimmunoprecipitation with both the IR-β subunit as well as IRS-1
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 2016
    Co-Authors: Sudeep Gautam, Rohit Singh, Tadigoppula Narender, Nayab Ishrat, Pragya Yadav, Arvind K. Srivastava
    Abstract:

    It is known that 4Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) from seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum has beneficial effects on low-grade inflammation; therefore, the insulin signaling as well as the anti-inflammatory effects of 4-HIL in TNF-α-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes was studied with an aim to dissect out the mechanism(s) of the inflammation-mediated insulin resistance. TNF-α suppressed insulin-stimulated glucose transport rate and increased Ser-307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). However, the treatment of 4Hydroxyisoleucine enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose transport rate via the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in a dose-dependent manner. 4-HIL also increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of both IR-β and IRS-1. Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) of insulin receptor-β (IR-β) subunit with IRS-1 was found to be increased by 4Hydroxyisoleucine. Concentration of SOCS-3 protein and coimmunoprecipitation of SOCS-3 protein with both the IR-β subunit as well as IRS-1 was found to be decreased by 4-HIL. We conclude that the 4Hydroxyisoleucine reverses the insulin resistance by the activation of AMPK and suppression of SOCS-3 coimmunoprecipitation with both the IR-β subunit as well as IRS-1.

  • In vitro anti-hyperglycemic activity of 4Hydroxyisoleucine derivatives.
    Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Venkateswarlu Korthikunta, Jyotsana Pandey, Rohit Singh, Rohit Srivastava, Arvind K. Srivastava, Akhilesh K. Tamrakar, Narender Tadigoppula
    Abstract:

    Abstract The nonproteinogenic amino acid, 4Hydroxyisoleucine (1) has been isolated in large quantities from the fenugreek (T. foenum-graecum) seeds. Few novel derivatives (3–11 and 13–18) were prepared from the naturally occurring 4Hydroxyisoleucine (1) and screened for their in vitro glucose uptake stimulatory effect in L-6 skeletal muscle cells. The derivatives 6, 7, 8, 10 and 11 exhibited better glucose uptake stimulatory activity than parent compound, 4Hydroxyisoleucine at 5 and 10 µM concentrations and compounds 7 and 11 enhanced translocation of insulin sensitive glucose transporters-4 in skeletal muscle cells.

  • 4Hydroxyisoleucine improves insulin resistance by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and act through AMPK and Akt dependent pathway.
    Fitoterapia, 2014
    Co-Authors: Arun Kumar Rawat, Venkateswarlu Korthikunta, Narender Tadigoppula, Akhilesh K. Tamrakar, Sudeep Gautam, Savita Pal, Arvind K. Srivastava
    Abstract:

    4Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) is an unusual amino acid isolated from fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum L). Various studies have shown that it acts as an antidiabetic agent yet its mechanism of action is not clear. We therefore investigated the effect 4-HIL on the high fructose diet fed streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and L6 myotubes. 4-HIL (50 mg/kg) has improved blood lipid profile, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in a diabetic rat model. It has increased the glucose uptake in L6 myotubes in AMPK-dependent manner and upregulated the expression of genes (PGC-1α, PGC-1β, CPT 1 and CPT 2), which have role in mitochondrial biogbiogenesis and energy metametabolism in the liver, skeletal muscles as well as in L6 myotubes. Interestingly, it also increased the AMPK and Akt expression along with their phosphorylated forms in the liver and muscle tissues of treated animals. Altogether we concluded that 4-HIL acts to improve insulin resistance by promoting mitochondrial biogbiogenesis in high fructose diet fed STZ induced diabetic rats.

Qin Cai – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • 4 Hydroxyisoleucine improves insulin resistance in hepg2 cells by decreasing tnf α and regulating the expression of insulin signal transduction proteins
    Molecular Medicine Reports, 2015
    Co-Authors: Feng Gao, Mohammad Ishraq Zafar, Qin Cai, Liumeng Jian, Raja Adeel Shafqat
    Abstract:

    Previous studies have indicated that 4Hydroxyisoleucine (4‑HIL) improves insulin resistance, however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underlying how 4‑HIL improves insulin resistance in hepatocytes were examined. HepG2 cells were co‑cultured with insulin and a high glucose concentration to obtain insulin‑resistant (IR) HepG2 cells. Insulin sensitivity was determined by measuring the glucose uptake rate. The IR HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of 4‑HIL to determine its effect on IR Hep2 cells. The levels of tumor necrnecrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) were measured by an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay and protein levels of TNF‑α converting enzyme (TACE)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)‑1, IRS‑2, phosphorylated (p)‑IRS‑1 (Ser307) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) were measured by western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that insulin‑induced glucose uptake was reduced in IR HepG2 cells; however, this reduction was reversed by 4‑HIL in a dose‑dependent manner. 4‑HIL achieved this effect by downregulating the expression of TNF‑α and TACE, and upregulating the expression of TIMP3 in IR HepG2 cells. In addition, 4‑HIL increased the expression of the insulin transduction regulators IRS‑1 and GLUT4, and decreased the expression of p‑IRS‑1 (Ser307), without affecting the expression of IRS‑2. The present study suggests that 4‑HIL improved insulin resistance in HepG2 cells by the following mechanisms: 4‑HIL reduced TNF‑α levels by affecting the protein expression of the TACE/TIMP3 system and 4‑HIL stimulated the expression of IRS‑1 and GLUT4, but inhibited the expression of p‑IRS‑1 (Ser307).

  • 4Hydroxyisoleucine ameliorates an insulin resistant-like state in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by regulating TACE/TIMP3 expression
    Drug design development and therapy, 2015
    Co-Authors: Feng Gao, Mohammad Ishraq Zafar, Raja Adeel Shafqat, Liumeng Jian, Qin Cai
    Abstract:

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) is highly correlated with soluble tumor necrnecrosis factor-α (sTNF-α), which is released from transmembranous TNF-α by TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE). In vivo, TACE activity is suppressed by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3). Agents that can interact with TACE/TIMP3 to improve obesity-related IR would be highly valuable. In the current study, we assessed whether (2S,3R,4S)-4Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) could modulate TACE/TIMP3 and ameliorate an obesity-induced IR-like state in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated in the presence of 25 mM glucose and 0.6 nM insulin to induce an IR-like state, and were then treated with different concentrations of 4-HIL or 10 µM pioglitazone (positive control). The glucose uptake rate was determined using the 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-D-glucose method, and the levels of sTNF-α in the cell supernatant were determined using ELISA. The protein expression of TACE, TIMP3, and insulin signaling-related molecules was measured using western blotting.Exposure to high glucose and insulin for 18 hours increased the levels of sTNF-α in the cell supernatant. The phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) Ser(307) and Akt Ser(473) was increased, whereas the protein expression of IRS-1, Akt, and glucose transporter-4 was decreased. The insulin-induced glucose uptake was reduced by 67% in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which indicated the presence of an IR-like state. The above indexes, which demonstrated the successful induction of an IR-like state, were reversed by 4-HIL in a dose-dependent manner by downregulating and upregulating the protein expression of TACE and TIMP3 proteins, respectively.4-HIL improved an obesity-associated IR-like state in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by targeting TACE/TIMP3 and the insulin signaling pathway.

  • 4 Hydroxyisoleucine ameliorates an insulin resistant like state in 3t3 l1 adipocytes by regulating tace timp3 expression
    Drug Design Development and Therapy, 2015
    Co-Authors: Feng Gao, Mohammad Ishraq Zafar, Raja Adeel Shafqat, Liumeng Jian, Qin Cai
    Abstract:

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) is highly correlated with soluble tumor necrnecrosis factor-α (sTNF-α), which is released from transmembranous TNF-α by TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE). In vivo, TACE activity is suppressed by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3). Agents that can interact with TACE/TIMP3 to improve obesity-related IR would be highly valuable. In the current study, we assessed whether (2S,3R,4S)-4Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) could modulate TACE/TIMP3 and ameliorate an obesity-induced IR-like state in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated in the presence of 25 mM glucose and 0.6 nM insulin to induce an IR-like state, and were then treated with different concentrations of 4-HIL or 10 µM pioglitazone (positive control). The glucose uptake rate was determined using the 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-D-glucose method, and the levels of sTNF-α in the cell supernatant were determined using ELISA. The protein expression of TACE, TIMP3, and insulin signaling-related molecules was measured using western blotting.Exposure to high glucose and insulin for 18 hours increased the levels of sTNF-α in the cell supernatant. The phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) Ser(307) and Akt Ser(473) was increased, whereas the protein expression of IRS-1, Akt, and glucose transporter-4 was decreased. The insulin-induced glucose uptake was reduced by 67% in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which indicated the presence of an IR-like state. The above indexes, which demonstrated the successful induction of an IR-like state, were reversed by 4-HIL in a dose-dependent manner by downregulating and upregulating the protein expression of TACE and TIMP3 proteins, respectively.4-HIL improved an obesity-associated IR-like state in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by targeting TACE/TIMP3 and the insulin signaling pathway.

Feng Gao – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • 4Hydroxyisoleucine relieves inflammation through iRhom2-dependent pathway in co-cultured macrophages and adipocytes with LPS stimulation.
    BMC complementary medicine and therapies, 2020
    Co-Authors: Cong Zhou, Feng Gao, Rui Chen, Jiaoyue Zhang
    Abstract:

    4Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) is an active ingredient extracted from Trigonella foenum-graecum L., a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, which exerts the efficacy of anti-obesity and anti-diabetes. We previously reported that 4-HIL potentiates anti-inflammatory and anti-insulin resistance effects through down-regulation of TNF-α and TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 cells. In the present study, we further investigate the effects and mechanisms of 4-HIL on obesity-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages and 3 T3-L1 adipocytes co-culture system. RAW264.7 macrophages and 3 T3-L1 adipocytes were co-cultured to mimic the microenvironment of adipose tissue. siRNA-iRhom2 transfection was performed to knockdown iRhom2 expression in RAW264.2 macrophages. The mRNA and protein expression of iRhom2 and TACE were measured by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blotting. The production of tumor necrnecrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-6 and IL-10 were evaluated by ELISA. The ratio of M2/M1 was detected by flow cytometry. 4-HIL significantly repressed the mRNA and protein levels of iRhom2 and TACE in RAW264.7 macrophages after LPS stimulated. Meanwhile, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6, were substantially suppressed by 4-HIL in the co-culture system. Moreover, the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased significantly by 4-HIL in the co-culture system after LPS stimulation. Additionally, the ratio of M2/M1 was also increased by 4-HIL in the co-culture system after LPS stimulation. Finally, these effects of 4-HIL were largely enhanced by siRNA-iRhom2 transfection. Taken together, our results indicated that obesity-induced inflammation was potently relieved by 4-HIL, most likely through the iRhom2-dependent pathway.

  • 4Hydroxyisoleucine: A Potential New Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    BioDrugs : clinical immunotherapeutics biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy, 2016
    Co-Authors: Mohammad Ishraq Zafar, Feng Gao
    Abstract:

    4Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) is a compound found in Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds, which have been used as part of traditional medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. The synthesis of 4-HIL on a large scale is possible using fermentation methods (artificial synthesis) involving the isolation of the l-isoleucine dioxygenase gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, which can yield a greater quantity of 4-HIL than that produced with conventional methods (82 % attained with fermentation methods vs. 0.6–39 % attained with conventional methods). In studies of rats and humans, T. foenum-graecum improved laboratory parameters associated with renal dysfunction and dyslipidemia, increased levels of antioxidants and hormones that are altered in patients with type 2 diabdiabetes mellitus (T2DM), and decreased fasting blood glucose, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. Similarly, in in vitro and preclinical studies, 4-HIL decreased glucose levels, hepatic glucose production, glucose/insulin ratios, indicators of hepatic damage, triglycerides, and total cholesterol, and increased utilization of glucose and levels of high-density lipolipoprotein cholcholesterol. Studies in humans are needed to determine whether 4-HIL is safer and more effective than current medications for the treatment of T2DM.

  • 4 Hydroxyisoleucine improves insulin resistance in hepg2 cells by decreasing tnf α and regulating the expression of insulin signal transduction proteins
    Molecular Medicine Reports, 2015
    Co-Authors: Feng Gao, Mohammad Ishraq Zafar, Qin Cai, Liumeng Jian, Raja Adeel Shafqat
    Abstract:

    Previous studies have indicated that 4Hydroxyisoleucine (4‑HIL) improves insulin resistance, however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underlying how 4‑HIL improves insulin resistance in hepatocytes were examined. HepG2 cells were co‑cultured with insulin and a high glucose concentration to obtain insulin‑resistant (IR) HepG2 cells. Insulin sensitivity was determined by measuring the glucose uptake rate. The IR HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of 4‑HIL to determine its effect on IR Hep2 cells. The levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) were measured by an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay and protein levels of TNF‑α converting enzyme (TACE)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)‑1, IRS‑2, phosphorylated (p)‑IRS‑1 (Ser307) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) were measured by western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that insulin‑induced glucose uptake was reduced in IR HepG2 cells; however, this reduction was reversed by 4‑HIL in a dose‑dependent manner. 4‑HIL achieved this effect by downregulating the expression of TNF‑α and TACE, and upregulating the expression of TIMP3 in IR HepG2 cells. In addition, 4‑HIL increased the expression of the insulin transduction regulators IRS‑1 and GLUT4, and decreased the expression of p‑IRS‑1 (Ser307), without affecting the expression of IRS‑2. The present study suggests that 4‑HIL improved insulin resistance in HepG2 cells by the following mechanisms: 4‑HIL reduced TNF‑α levels by affecting the protein expression of the TACE/TIMP3 system and 4‑HIL stimulated the expression of IRS‑1 and GLUT4, but inhibited the expression of p‑IRS‑1 (Ser307).

Ramesh Chandra – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.