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Abstinence

The Experts below are selected from a list of 327 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Antonella Zambon – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • effectiveness and safety of baclofen for maintenance of alcohol Abstinence in alcohol dependent patients with liver cirrhosis randomised double blind controlled study
    The Lancet, 2007
    Co-Authors: Giovanni Addolorato, Lorenzo Leggio, Anna Ferrulli, Silvia Cardone, Luisa Vonghia, Antonio Mirijello, Ludovico Abenavoli, Cristina Dangelo, Fabio Caputo, Antonella Zambon

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Intervention to achieve alcohol Abstinence represents the most effective treatment for alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis; however, anticraving drugs might worsen liver disease. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of baclofen in achieving and maintaining alcohol Abstinence in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Between October, 2003, and November, 2006, 148 alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis were referred to the Institute of Internal Medicine, Rome, Italy. 84 were randomly allocated either oral baclofen or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was proportion of patients achieving and maintaining alcohol Abstinence. Measures of this outcome were total alcohol Abstinence and cumulative Abstinence duration, which were assessed at outpatient visits. Relapse was defined as alcohol intake of more than four drinks per day or overall consumption of 14 or more drinks per week over a period of at least 4 weeks. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00525252. FINDINGS: Of 42 patients allocated baclofen, 30 (71%) achieved and maintained Abstinence compared with 12 (29%) of 42 assigned placebo (odds ratio 6.3 [95% CI 2.4-16.1]; p=0.0001). The number of dropouts (termination of treatment) did not differ between the baclofen (6/42 [14%]) and placebo (13/42 [31%]) groups (p=0.12). Cumulative Abstinence duration was about twofold higher in patients allocated baclofen than in those assigned placebo (mean 62.8 [SE 5.4] vs 30.8 [5.5] days; p=0.001). No hepatic side-effects were recorded. INTERPRETATION: Baclofen is effective at promoting alcohol Abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis. The drug is well tolerated and could have an important role in treatment of these individuals.

  • effectiveness and safety of baclofen for maintenance of alcohol Abstinence in alcohol dependent patients with liver cirrhosis randomised double blind controlled study
    The Lancet, 2007
    Co-Authors: Giovanni Addolorato, Lorenzo Leggio, Anna Ferrulli, Silvia Cardone, Luisa Vonghia, Antonio Mirijello, Ludovico Abenavoli, Cristina Dangelo, Fabio Caputo, Antonella Zambon

    Abstract:

    Summary Background Intervention to achieve alcohol Abstinence represents the most effective treatment for alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis; however, anticraving drugs might worsen liver disease. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of baclofen in achieving and maintaining alcohol Abstinence in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods Between October, 2003, and November, 2006, 148 alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis were referred to the Institute of Internal Medicine, Rome, Italy. 84 were randomly allocated either oral baclofen or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was proportion of patients achieving and maintaining alcohol Abstinence. Measures of this outcome were total alcohol Abstinence and cumulative Abstinence duration, which were assessed at outpatient visits. Relapse was defined as alcohol intake of more than four drinks per day or overall consumption of 14 or more drinks per week over a period of at least 4 weeks. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00525252. Findings Of 42 patients allocated baclofen, 30 (71%) achieved and maintained Abstinence compared with 12 (29%) of 42 assigned placebo (odds ratio 6·3 [95% CI 2·4–16·1]; p=0·0001). The number of dropouts (termination of treatment) did not differ between the baclofen (6/42 [14%]) and placebo (13/42 [31%]) groups (p=0·12). Cumulative Abstinence duration was about twofold higher in patients allocated baclofen than in those assigned placebo (mean 62·8 [SE 5·4] vs 30·8 [5·5] days; p=0·001). No hepatic side-effects were recorded. Interpretation Baclofen is effective at promoting alcohol Abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis. The drug is well tolerated and could have an important role in treatment of these individuals.

Giovanni Addolorato – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • effectiveness and safety of baclofen for maintenance of alcohol Abstinence in alcohol dependent patients with liver cirrhosis randomised double blind controlled study
    The Lancet, 2007
    Co-Authors: Giovanni Addolorato, Lorenzo Leggio, Anna Ferrulli, Silvia Cardone, Luisa Vonghia, Antonio Mirijello, Ludovico Abenavoli, Cristina Dangelo, Fabio Caputo, Antonella Zambon

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Intervention to achieve alcohol Abstinence represents the most effective treatment for alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis; however, anticraving drugs might worsen liver disease. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of baclofen in achieving and maintaining alcohol Abstinence in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Between October, 2003, and November, 2006, 148 alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis were referred to the Institute of Internal Medicine, Rome, Italy. 84 were randomly allocated either oral baclofen or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was proportion of patients achieving and maintaining alcohol Abstinence. Measures of this outcome were total alcohol Abstinence and cumulative Abstinence duration, which were assessed at outpatient visits. Relapse was defined as alcohol intake of more than four drinks per day or overall consumption of 14 or more drinks per week over a period of at least 4 weeks. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00525252. FINDINGS: Of 42 patients allocated baclofen, 30 (71%) achieved and maintained Abstinence compared with 12 (29%) of 42 assigned placebo (odds ratio 6.3 [95% CI 2.4-16.1]; p=0.0001). The number of dropouts (termination of treatment) did not differ between the baclofen (6/42 [14%]) and placebo (13/42 [31%]) groups (p=0.12). Cumulative Abstinence duration was about twofold higher in patients allocated baclofen than in those assigned placebo (mean 62.8 [SE 5.4] vs 30.8 [5.5] days; p=0.001). No hepatic side-effects were recorded. INTERPRETATION: Baclofen is effective at promoting alcohol Abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis. The drug is well tolerated and could have an important role in treatment of these individuals.

  • effectiveness and safety of baclofen for maintenance of alcohol Abstinence in alcohol dependent patients with liver cirrhosis randomised double blind controlled study
    The Lancet, 2007
    Co-Authors: Giovanni Addolorato, Lorenzo Leggio, Anna Ferrulli, Silvia Cardone, Luisa Vonghia, Antonio Mirijello, Ludovico Abenavoli, Cristina Dangelo, Fabio Caputo, Antonella Zambon

    Abstract:

    Summary Background Intervention to achieve alcohol Abstinence represents the most effective treatment for alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis; however, anticraving drugs might worsen liver disease. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of baclofen in achieving and maintaining alcohol Abstinence in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods Between October, 2003, and November, 2006, 148 alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis were referred to the Institute of Internal Medicine, Rome, Italy. 84 were randomly allocated either oral baclofen or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was proportion of patients achieving and maintaining alcohol Abstinence. Measures of this outcome were total alcohol Abstinence and cumulative Abstinence duration, which were assessed at outpatient visits. Relapse was defined as alcohol intake of more than four drinks per day or overall consumption of 14 or more drinks per week over a period of at least 4 weeks. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00525252. Findings Of 42 patients allocated baclofen, 30 (71%) achieved and maintained Abstinence compared with 12 (29%) of 42 assigned placebo (odds ratio 6·3 [95% CI 2·4–16·1]; p=0·0001). The number of dropouts (termination of treatment) did not differ between the baclofen (6/42 [14%]) and placebo (13/42 [31%]) groups (p=0·12). Cumulative Abstinence duration was about twofold higher in patients allocated baclofen than in those assigned placebo (mean 62·8 [SE 5·4] vs 30·8 [5·5] days; p=0·001). No hepatic side-effects were recorded. Interpretation Baclofen is effective at promoting alcohol Abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis. The drug is well tolerated and could have an important role in treatment of these individuals.

Caryn Lerman – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • neural substrates of Abstinence induced cigarette cravings in chronic smokers
    The Journal of Neuroscience, 2007
    Co-Authors: Ze Wang, M. Faith, F. Patterson, K. Kerrin, John A Detre, Kathy Z Tang, Paul E Wileyto, Caryn Lerman

    Abstract:

    Craving is a hallmark of drug dependence, including dependence on nicotine. Many studies have examined the neural substrates of cravings elicited by smoking-related cues. Less is known about the neural basis of unprovoked, Abstinence-induced cravings, despite the contributions of such cravings to smoking relapse. To fill this gap, we used arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI to characterize the neural substrates of Abstinence-induced cravings to smoke. Fifteen chronic smokers were scanned during a resting state on two separate occasions: (1) smoking satiety and (2) Abstinence (following ≥ 12 hours of smoking deprivation), in counterbalanced order. Smoking Abstinence state (vs. satiety) was associated with increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and left OFC. Abstinence-induced cravings to smoke were predicted by CBF increases (Abstinence minus satiety) in: right OFC, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), occipital cortex, ACC, ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens, thalamus, amygdala, bilateral hippocampus, left caudate, and right insula. These data suggest that increased activation in the brain’s visuospatial and reward circuitry underlies Abstinence-induced cravings to smoke, and thereby, may be important in relapse.

  • Neural Substrates of Abstinence-Induced Cigarette Cravings in Chronic Smokers
    Journal of Neuroscience, 2007
    Co-Authors: Zhen Wang, M. Faith, F. Patterson, K Tang, K. Kerrin, E. Paul Wileyto, John A Detre, Caryn Lerman

    Abstract:

    Craving is a hallmark of drug dependence, including dependence on nicotine. Many studies have examined the neural substrates of cravings elicited by smoking-related cues. Less is known about the neural basis of unprovoked, Abstinence-induced cravings, despite the contributions of such cravings to smoking relapse. To fill this gap, we used arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging to characterize the neural substrates of Abstinence-induced cravings to smoke. Fifteen chronic smokers were scanned during a resting state on two separate occasions: (1) smoking satiety and (2) Abstinence (after > or = 12 h of smoking deprivation), in counterbalanced order. Smoking Abstinence state (vs satiety) was associated with increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and left OFC. Abstinence-induced cravings to smoke were predicted by CBF increases (Abstinence minus satiety) in the right OFC, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, occipital cortex, ACC, ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens, thalamus, amygdala, bilateral hippocampus, left caudate, and right insula. These data suggest that increased activation in the brain’s visuospatial and reward circuitry underlies Abstinence-induced cravings to smoke, and thereby, may be important in relapse.