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Acanthaster Planci

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Jairo Rivera-posada – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • De novo assembly of the transcriptome of Acanthaster Planci testes
    Molecular ecology resources, 2014
    Co-Authors: Michael J. Stewart, Praphaporn Stewart, Jairo Rivera-posada

    Abstract:

    A key strategy to reduce coral loss is the development of effective control method for the corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star (Acanthaster Planci), an omnipresent scourge and threat to the biodiversity of reefs in the Indo-Pacific region. Limited genetic resources are available for this highly fecund species. In this study, we explored one aspect at the heart of A. Planci outbreaks, the male reproductive system. Using high-throughput sequencing technology, we report for first time the production of a comprehensive transcriptomic data set for the testes of A. placni that can aid in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in A. Planci spermatogenesis and fertilization. Through de novo transcriptome sequencing, we produced 52 965 998 raw reads corresponding to 4.76 Gb clean read data. From this, 243 870 contigs were assembled with Trinity and used to construct 92 792 unigenes. Distinct genes were then annotated with blastx yielding 30 810 unigenes above the cut-off E-value set at 10−5, with ESTScan database query analyses yielding up to 5366 unigenes to known hits. The identification of genes directly involved in sperm development (DEAD-box family proteins), motility, fertilization and signalling (Bindin/Speract receptor) are also discussed.

  • Osmotic shock as alternative method to control Acanthaster Planci
    Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 2014
    Co-Authors: Jairo Rivera-posada, Leigh Owens

    Abstract:

    Objective: To test six osmotic stressors as alternative methods to control Acanthaster Planci (A. Planci) outbreaks by exploiting their incapacity to tolerate drastic changes in osmolarity. Finding more effective ways to control A. Planci outbreaks is one of the most immediate and effective ways by which to reverse rapid declines in the abundance of live coral cover in the Indo-Pacific. Methods: A total of 10 mL of each of the following chemicals: sodium chloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium carbonate, sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate, urea and mannitol were injected into individual healthy sea stars to examine which chemicals induced disease and death. Results: Four out of six chemicals used in this study induced disease. Sodium chloride, sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid are capable of inducing death in injected sea stars offering an alternative option to control A. Planci outbreaks. Conclusions: Hyperosmotic stress is a viable alternative to control A. Planci outbreaks as massive cell death results when acute hypertonicity exceeds a certain level.

  • Injection of Acanthaster Planci with thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS). I. Disease induction.
    Diseases of aquatic organisms, 2011
    Co-Authors: Jairo Rivera-posada, Morgan S. Pratchett, Ana Cano-gómez, J. D. Arango-gómez, Leigh Owens

    Abstract:

    This is the first report of the successful induction of a transmissible disease in the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster Planci (COTS). Injection of thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS) culture medium into COTS induced a disease characterized by discoloured and necrotic skin, ulcerations, loss of body turgor, accumulation of colourless mucus on many spines especially at their tip, and loss of spines. Blisters on the dorsal integument broke through the skin surface and resulted in large, open sores that exposed the internal organs. Oedema and reddened digestive tissues and destruction of connective fibers were common. Moreover, healthy COTS in contact with these infected animals also displayed signs of disease and died within 24 h. TCBS induced 100% mortality in injected starfish. There was no intro­duction of new pathogens into the marine environment. TCBS promoted the growth of COTS’ naturally occurring Vibrionales to high densities with subsequent symbiont imbalance followed by disease and death.

Scott F. Cummins – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Putative chemosensory receptors are differentially expressed in the sensory organs of male and female crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster Planci.
    BMC genomics, 2018
    Co-Authors: Rebecca Roberts, Daniel Powell, Tianfang Wang, M H Hall, Cherie A. Motti, Scott F. Cummins

    Abstract:

    Background
    Chemosensation is a critical signalling process for all organisms and is achieved through the interaction between chemosensory receptors and their ligands. The Crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster Planci species complex (COTS), is a predator of coral polyps and Acanthaster cf. solaris is currently considered to be one of the main drivers of coral loss on the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland, Australia.

  • The neuropeptidome of the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish, Acanthaster Planci.
    Journal of proteomics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Meaghan K. Smith, Michael R. Hall, Tianfang Wang, Cherie A. Motti, Saowaros Suwansa-ard, Abigail Elizur, Min Zhao, Matthew L. Rowe, Maurice R. Elphick, Scott F. Cummins

    Abstract:

    Abstract Outbreaks of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (COTS; Acanthaster Planci ) are a major cause of destruction of coral communities on the Australian Great Barrier Reef. While factors relating to population explosions and the social interactions of COTS have been well studied, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying COTS physiology and behaviour. One of the major classes of chemical messengers that regulate physiological and behavioural processes in animals is the neuropeptides. Here, we have analysed COTS genome and transcriptome sequence data to identify neuropeptide precursor proteins in this species. A total of 48 neuropeptide precursors were identified, including homologs of neuropeptides that are evolutionarily conserved throughout the Bilateria, and others that are novel. Proteomic mass spectrometry was employed to confirm the presence of neuropeptides in extracts of radial nerve cords. These transcriptomic and proteomic resources provide a foundation for functional studies that will enable a better understanding of COTS physiology and behaviour, and may facilitate development of novel population biocontrol methods. Significance The Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (COTS) is one of the primary factors leading to coral loss on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Our combined gene and proteomic findings of this study reveal the COTS neuropeptidome, including both echinoderm-like neuropeptides and novel putative neuropeptides. This represents the most comprehensive neuropeptidome for an echinoderm, contributing to the evolving knowledge of the COTS molecular neurobiology that may assist towards the development of biocontrol methods.

  • Identification of putative olfactory G-protein coupled receptors in Crown-of-Thorns starfish, Acanthaster Planci
    BMC genomics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Rebecca Roberts, Kenneth W. Baughman, Michael R. Hall, Cherie A. Motti, Noriyuki Satoh, Scott F. Cummins

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background In marine organisms, and in particular for benthic invertebrates including echinoderms, olfaction is a dominant sense with chemosensation being a critical signalling process. Until recently natural product chemistry was the primary investigative approach to elucidate the nature of chemical signals but advances in genomics and transcriptomics over the last decade have facilitated breakthroughs in understanding not only the chemistry but also the molecular mechanisms underpinning chemosensation in aquatic environments. Integration of these approaches has the potential to reveal the fundamental elements influencing community structure of benthic ecosystems as chemical signalling modulates intra- and inter-species interactions. Such knowledge also offers avenues for potential development of novel biological control methods for pest species such as the predatory Crown-of-Thorns starfish (COTS), Acanthaster Planci which are the primary biological cause of coral cover loss in the Indo-Pacific. Results In this study, we have analysed the COTS sensory organs through histological and electron microscopy. We then investigated key elements of the COTS molecular olfactory toolkit, the putative olfactory rhodopsin-like G protein-protein receptors (GPCRs) within its genome and olfactory organ transcriptomes. Many of the identified Acanthaster Planci olfactory receptors ( ApORs ) genes were found to cluster within the COTS genome, indicating rapid evolution and replication from an ancestral olfactory GPCR sequence. Tube feet and terminal sensory tentacles contain the highest proportion of ApORs . In situ hybridisation confirmed the presence of four ApORs , ApOR15, 18, 25 and 43 within COTS sensory organs, however expression of these genes was not specific to the adhesive epidermis, but also within the nerve plexus of tube feet stems and within the myomesothelium. G alpha subunit proteins were also identified in the sensory organs, and we report the spatial localisation of Gαi within the tube foot and sensory tentacle. Conclusions We have identified putative COTS olfactory receptors that localise to sensory organs. These results provide a basis for future studies that may enable the development of a biological control not only for COTS, but also other native pest or invasive starfish.

Kazuo Nadaoka – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • seven new microsatellite markers for crown of thorns starfish Acanthaster Planci
    Plankton and Benthos Research, 2007
    Co-Authors: Nina Yasuda, Satoshi Nagai, Masami Hamaguchi, Kazuo Nadaoka

    Abstract:

    We isolated seven additional polymorphic microsatellites from the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster Planci. These loci provide one class of highly variable genetic markers, as the number of alleles ranged from 5 to 13 and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.083 to 0.957 and from 0.082 to 0.872, respectively. After Mann-Whitney test, there was no significant difference in the number of alleles, the PCR efficiency, and the observed and expected heterozygosities between the newly developed 7 markers and the previously reported markers. We consider that these loci are potentially useful for detailing the genetic structure and gene flow among A. Planci populations.

  • development of microsatellite markers for the crown of thorns starfish Acanthaster Planci
    Molecular Ecology Notes, 2006
    Co-Authors: Nina Yasuda, Satoshi Nagai, Masami Hamaguchi, C. L. Lian, Kazuo Nadaoka

    Abstract:

    We isolated nine polymorphic microsatellites from the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster Planci. These loci provide one class of highly variable genetic marker as the number of alleles ranged from three to 12 and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.130 to 0.783 and from 0.163 to 0.862, respectively. We consider that these loci are potentially useful for detailing the genetic structure and gene flow among A. Planci populations.

  • Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for Crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster Planci and Acanthaster brevispinus.
    BMC genomics, 2006
    Co-Authors: Nina Yasuda, Satoshi Nagai, Masami Hamaguchi, Miho Sasaki, Masaki Saba, Kazuo Nadaoka

    Abstract:

    Background
    The crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster Planci (L.), has been blamed for coral mortality in a large number of coral reef systems situated in the Indo-Pacific region. Because of its high fecundity and the long duration of the pelagic larval stage, the mechanism of outbreaks may be related to its meta-population dynamics, which should be examined by larval sampling and population genetic analysis. However, A. Planci larvae have undistinguished morphological features compared with other asteroid larvae, hence it has been difficult to discriminate A. Planci larvae in plankton samples without species-specific markers. Also, no tools are available to reveal the dispersal pathway of A. Planci larvae. Therefore the development of highly polymorphic genetic markers has the potential to overcome these difficulties. To obtain genomic information for these purposes, the complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genome of A. Planci and its putative sibling species, A. brevispinus were determined and their characteristics discussed.