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Philip L. Munday – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The epigenetic landscape of transgenerational acclimation to ocean warming
    Nature Climate Change, 2018
    Co-Authors: Taewoo Ryu, Philip L. Munday, Jennifer M. Donelson, Heather D. Veilleux, Timothy Ravasi

    Abstract:

    Epigenetic inheritance is a potential mechanism by which the environment in one generation can influence the performance of future generations1. Rapid climate change threatens the survival of many organisms; however, recent studies show that some species can adjust to climate-related stress when both parents and their offspring experience the same environmental change2,3. Whether such transgenerational acclimation could have an epigenetic basis is unknown. Here, by sequencing the liver genome, methylomes and transcriptomes of the coral reef fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, exposed to current day (+0 °C) or future ocean temperatures (+3 °C) for one generation, two generations and incrementally across generations, we identified 2,467 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and 1,870 associated genes that respond to higher temperatures within and between generations. Of these genes, 193 were significantly correlated to the transgenerationally acclimating phenotypic trait, aerobic scope, with functions in insulin response, energy homeostasis, mitochondrial activity, oxygen consumption and angiogenesis. These genes may therefore play a key role in restoring performance across generations in fish exposed to increased temperatures associated with climate change. Our study is the first to demonstrate a possible association between DNA methylation and transgenerational acclimation to climate change in a vertebrate. Transgenerational acclimation to warmer oceans has been seen for some marine species. This study shows that the coral reef fish has 193 genes correlated to such acclimation traits, suggesting an epigenetic basis of acclimation.

  • Diel CO_2 cycles do not modify juvenile growth, survival and otolith development in two coral reef fish under ocean acidification
    Marine Biology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Michael D. Jarrold, Philip L. Munday

    Abstract:

    Recent studies show that daily variation in p CO_2 levels can modify the life-history and calcification responses of marine organisms to ocean acidification. The early life stages of coral reef fish exhibit varied growth, survival and otolith development responses to elevated p CO_2, yet no studies to date have considered the substantial diel p CO_2 cycles that occur in shallow reef habitats. Here, we reared three clutches of juvenile Acanthochromis polyacanthus and Amphiprion percula under control (500 µatm), stable, elevated (1000 µatm) and diel cycling, elevated (1000 ± 300 and 1000 ± 500 µatm) p CO_2 for 11 and 6 weeks, respectively. Survival was unaffected by exposure to either elevated stable or diel cycling p CO_2 conditions in both species. For A. polyacanthus there was a non-significant trend of decreased standard length and wet weight under stable, elevated p CO_2 conditions, whereas values in both the diel cycling treatments were closer to those observed under control conditions. A similar non-significant trend was observed for Am. percula , except that exposure to stable, elevated p CO_2 conditions resulted in slightly longer and heavier fish. Finally, otolith size, shape and symmetry in both species were unaffected by exposure to either elevated stable or diel cycling p CO_2 conditions. Overall, our results suggest that the growth, survival and otolith development of juvenile coral reef fishes under ocean acidification is unlikely to be affected, in isolation, by diel cycles in p CO_2.

  • Diel CO2 cycles reduce severity of behavioural abnormalities in coral reef fish under ocean acidification.
    Scientific reports, 2017
    Co-Authors: Michael D. Jarrold, Mark I Mccormick, Craig Humphrey, Philip L. Munday

    Abstract:

    Elevated CO2 levels associated with ocean acidification (OA) have been shown to alter behavioural responses in coral reef fishes. However, all studies to date have used stable pCO2 treatments, not considering the substantial diel pCO2 variation that occurs in shallow reef habitats. Here, we reared juvenile damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, and clownfish, Amphiprion percula, at stable and diel cycling pCO2 treatments in two experiments. As expected, absolute lateralization of A. polyacanthus and response to predator cue of Am. percula were negatively affected in fish reared at stable, elevated pCO2 in both experiments. However, diel pCO2 fluctuations reduced the negative effects of OA on behaviour. Importantly, in experiment two, behavioural abnormalities that were present in fish reared at stable 750 µatm CO2 were largely absent in fish reared at 750 ± 300 µatm CO2. Overall, we show that diel pCO2 cycles can substantially reduce the severity of behavioural abnormalities caused by elevated CO2. Thus, past studies may have over-estimated the impacts of OA on the behavioural performance of coral reef fishes. Furthermore, our results suggest that diel pCO2 cycles will delay the onset of behavioural abnormalities in natural populations.

Jennifer M. Donelson – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The epigenetic landscape of transgenerational acclimation to ocean warming
    Nature Climate Change, 2018
    Co-Authors: Taewoo Ryu, Philip L. Munday, Jennifer M. Donelson, Heather D. Veilleux, Timothy Ravasi

    Abstract:

    Epigenetic inheritance is a potential mechanism by which the environment in one generation can influence the performance of future generations1. Rapid climate change threatens the survival of many organisms; however, recent studies show that some species can adjust to climate-related stress when both parents and their offspring experience the same environmental change2,3. Whether such transgenerational acclimation could have an epigenetic basis is unknown. Here, by sequencing the liver genome, methylomes and transcriptomes of the coral reef fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, exposed to current day (+0 °C) or future ocean temperatures (+3 °C) for one generation, two generations and incrementally across generations, we identified 2,467 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and 1,870 associated genes that respond to higher temperatures within and between generations. Of these genes, 193 were significantly correlated to the transgenerationally acclimating phenotypic trait, aerobic scope, with functions in insulin response, energy homeostasis, mitochondrial activity, oxygen consumption and angiogenesis. These genes may therefore play a key role in restoring performance across generations in fish exposed to increased temperatures associated with climate change. Our study is the first to demonstrate a possible association between DNA methylation and transgenerational acclimation to climate change in a vertebrate. Transgenerational acclimation to warmer oceans has been seen for some marine species. This study shows that the coral reef fish has 193 genes correlated to such acclimation traits, suggesting an epigenetic basis of acclimation.

  • Thermosensitive period of sex determination in the coral-reef damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus and the implications of projected ocean warming
    Coral Reefs, 2016
    Co-Authors: G. G. Rodgers, Jennifer M. Donelson, Philip L. Munday

    Abstract:

    Higher temperatures associated with climate change have the potential to significantly alter the population sex ratio of species with temperature-dependent sex determination. Whether or not elevated temperature affects sex determination depends on both the absolute temperature experienced and the stage of development at which the thermal conditions occur. We explored the importance of exposure timing during early development in the coral reef fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, by increasing water temperature 1.5 or 3 °C above the summer average (28.5 °C) at different stages of development. We also measured the effect of treatment temperature on fish size and condition, in order to gauge how the thermal threshold for sex-ratio bias may compare with other commonly considered physiological metrics. Increasing grow-out temperature from 28.5 to 30 °C had no effect on the sex ratio of offspring, whereas an increase to 31.5 °C (+3 °C) produced a strong male bias (average ~90%). The thermosensitive period for this species lasted between 25 and 60 d post hatching, with the bias in sex ratio greater the earlier that fish experienced warm conditions. Temperatures high enough to bias the sex ratio are likely to be seen first during late summer (January and February) and would affect clutches produced late in the breeding season. There was no change to fish condition in response to temperature; however, the two higher temperature treatments produced significantly smaller fish at sampling. Clutches produced early in the season could buffer the population from a skewed sex ratio, as their development will remain below the thermal threshold; however, continued ocean warming could mean that clutches produced earlier in the breeding season would also be affected in the longer term. A skewed sex ratio could be detrimental to population viability by reducing the number of females in the breeding population.

  • Transgenerational plasticity of reproduction depends on rate of warming across generations
    Evolutionary applications, 2016
    Co-Authors: Jennifer M. Donelson, David J. Booth, Marian Y. L. Wong, Philip L. Munday

    Abstract:

    Predicting the impacts of climate change to biological systems requires an understanding of the ability for species to acclimate to the projected environmental change through phenotypic plasticity. Determining the effects of higher temperatures on individual performance is made more complex by the potential for environmental conditions experienced in previous and current generations to independently affect phenotypic responses to high temperatures. We used a model coral reef fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) to investigate the influence of thermal conditions experienced by two generations on reproductive output and the quality of offspring produced by adults. We found that more gradual warming over two generations, +1.5°C in the first generation and then +3.0°C in the second generation, resulted in greater plasticity of reproductive attributes, compared to fish that experienced the same increase in one generation. Reproduction ceased at the projected future summer temperature (31.5°C) when fish experienced +3.0°C for two generations. Additionally, we found that transgenerational plasticity to +1.5°C induced full restoration of thermally affected reproductive and offspring attributes, which was not possible with developmental plasticity alone. Our results suggest that transgenerational effects differ depending on the absolute thermal change and in which life stage the thermal change is experienced.

Michael J. Kingsford – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Latitudinal and Cross-Shelf Patterns of Size, Age, Growth, and Mortality of a Tropical Damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus on the Great Barrier Reef
    Diversity, 2019
    Co-Authors: Michael J. Kingsford, David Welch, M. D. O’callaghan

    Abstract:

    Patterns of age and growth of a sedentary damsel fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus were tested over a latitudinal range of approximately 10 degrees (1200 km) on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Within latitudes, these patterns were also compared on reefs in distance strata (inner, mid, and outer) across a continental shelf that ranged in width from 52 to 128 km. Although variation in length-max (SLMAX), growth, age-max (AMAX), and the von Bertalanffy metrics of Linf and K were found within and among latitudes, the greatest variation in some demographic characteristics was found among distance strata across the shelf regardless of latitude. Fish were always relatively smaller at inner shelf reefs and grew more slowly when compared to mid and outer shelf reefs; this was true regardless of the color morph of fish. The oldest fish collected was 11 years old, and there was no consistent variation in age-max among distances from shore. On outer reefs, there was a negative linear relationship with age-max and latitude. This “tropical gradient” of age only explained 34% of the variation; furthermore, this was not found when only the oldest group of fish was considered (top 10%). Fish only reached an age-max of six years on the southernmost reefs. There was a trend for a smaller Linf with latitude but it was not significant and Linf did not vary predictably with water temperature. The sampling of marine protected areas (MPAs) and fished zones did not confound the resultant patterns in that fish were not consistently larger or older in MPAs or fished zones. Instantaneous mortality rates were 0.245–0.685; they were highest at inner reefs and also showed no consistent MPA-related patterns. Our study suggested that the mid and outer shelf waters of the GBR appeared best suited for growth of A. polyacanthus. In conclusion, the position on continental shelves dominated other geographical patterns and needs to be considered in spatial models of growth. We suggest that local environmental conditions such as turbidity and the quality and quantity of plankton likely have a strong influence on distance across the shelf-based demographic patterns of planktivores.

  • interactive effects of ontogeny food ration and temperature on elemental incorporation in otoliths of a coral reef fish
    Environmental Biology of Fishes, 2010
    Co-Authors: Michael J. Kingsford, Benjamin D Walther, M D Ocallaghan, Malcolm T Mcculloch

    Abstract:

    The potential for environmental and physiological modification of elemental incorporation in otoliths is significant and must be validated before otoliths can be used reliably to estimate water parameters over the life history of a fish. We experimentally manipulated temperature and diet quantity for juvenile, sub-adult, and adult Acanthochromis polyacanthus, a tropical damselfish of the SW Pacific. Significant interactive effects between life history stage, temperature and food quantity were observed for otolith Ba/Ca, while significant interactions between stage and food were observed for Sr/Ca. Specific growth rates were negatively correlated with DBa and DSr for juveniles and sub-adults. These interactions indicated elemental incorporation dynamics varied depending on the life history stage, suggesting variation in effects of stage-specific metabolism or reproductive status. Our results highlight complex responses of elemental incorporation to both endogenous and exogenous factors. Interpretations of life history transects across otoliths must account for these effects to avoid confounding environmental variability with ontogenetic changes in physiology.

  • Otolith chemistry of the non-dispersing reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus: cross-shelf patterns from the central Great Barrier Reef
    Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2009
    Co-Authors: Michael J. Kingsford, J. M. Hughes, Heather M. Patterson

    Abstract:

    The influence of cross-shelf gradients, within and among distance strata, on the otolith chemistry of the non-dispersing reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus was examined on the Great Barrier Reef. Most of the variation in elemental ratios (Mg/Ca, Cu/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca) was at the level of sites within reefs; some broad patterns of otolith chemistry were found cross-shelf. Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios increased with distance from shore. Highest ratios of Mn/Ca and Cu/Ca were found at the outermost shelf sites at Myrmidon Reef, but Mn levels were generally greatest within 45 km of shore. Elevated ratios of Ba/Ca at Myrmidon Reef were persistent over 3 yr and are likely indicative of upwelling, which is known to occur in the area. The Ba/Ca ratios were the highest ever reported in marine fish otoliths, and accuracy of our estimates was confirmed in a paired laboratory test. The robustness of reef-wide chemical signatures in fish was weak, but unique signatures were found within reefs. High resolution elemental records could help to identify sites affected by upwelling and the periodicity of upwelling events.