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Alfonso Mateos – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
OR – An Ant Colony System Adaptation to Deal with Accessibility Issues After a DisasterOperations Research Proceedings, 2016Co-Authors: Héctor Muñoz, Antonio Jiménez-martín, Alfonso MateosAbstract:
One of the main problems relief teams face after a natural or man-made disaster is how to plan rural road repair work to take maximum advantage of the limited available financial and human resources. In this paper we account for the Accessibility Issue, that is, to maximize the number of survivors that reach the nearest regional center in a minimum time by planning which rural roads should be repaired given the available financial and human resources. This is a combinatorial problem and we propose a first approach to solve it using an ant colony system adaptation. The proposed algorithm is illustrated by means of an example, and its performance is compared with the combination of two metaheuristics, GRASP and VNS.
Maudez Guillossou – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Accessibility of the Nantes Trams to Persons With a Mobility Handicap, 1992Co-Authors: Maudez GuillossouAbstract:
In France, the city of Nantes has been the very first to embark on the adventure of the modern tram. Since January 1985, a first line has been crossing the city from west to east. It has been a success for all the users of the Nantes transit system. Sixty five thousand daily trips can be numbered. Nevertheless the Nantes city had to pay a heavy tribute for its pioneer position: its high-floor tram was not accessible to people with a mobility handicap and therefore a specific transit system had to be implemented. The decision of building a second tram line connecting south and north communes of the Nantes urban areas provided the opportunity to address the Accessibility Issue for people with a mobility handicap. Thus, as soon as September 1992, a central body with a low floor will be added to the currently existing bodies while increasing the car unit capacity by 40%. This new system will be accessible to everybody. In the medium term, the bus fleet will also be renewed to provided Accessibility to people with a mobility handicap.
P. G. Ramachandran – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
The Current Status of Accessibility in Mobile AppsACM Transactions on Accessible Computing, 2019Co-Authors: Shunguo Yan, P. G. RamachandranAbstract:
This study evaluated the status of Accessibility in mobile apps by investigating the graphical user interface (GUI) structures and conformance to Accessibility guidelines of 479 Android apps in 23 business categories from Google Play. An automated tool, IBM Mobile Accessibility Checker (MAC), was used to identify the Accessibility Issues, which were categorized as a violation (V), potential violation (PV), or warning (W). The results showed 94.8%, 97.5%, and 66.4% of apps studied contained Issues related to V, PV, or W, respectively. Five widget categories (TextView, ImageView, View, Button, and ImageButton) were used to create 92% of the total number of the GUI elements and caused 89%, 78%, and 86% of V, PV, and W, respectively. These Accessibility Issues were mainly caused by lack of element focus, missing element description, low text color contrast, lack of sufficient spacing between elements, and less than minimum sizes of text fonts and elements. Together, these Accessibility Issues accounted for 97.0%, 77.8%, and 94.5% of V, PV, and W, respectively.
This study proposed coverage measures to estimate the percentage of Accessibility Issues identified by an automated tool. The result showed that MAC, on average, identified about 67% of Accessibility Issues in mobile apps.
Two new Accessibility conformance measures were proposed in this study: inaccessible element rate (IAER) and Accessibility Issue rate (AIR). IAER estimates the percentage of GUI elements that are inaccessible. AIR calculates the percentage of the actual number of Accessibility Issues relative to the maximum number of Accessibility Issues. Average IAER and AIR scores were 27.3%, 19.9%, 6.3% and 20.7%, 15.0%, 5.4% for V, PV, and W, respectively, for the studied apps. The IAER score showed approximately 30% of the GUI elements had Accessibility Issues, and the AIR score indicated that 15% of the Accessibility Issues remained and need to be fixed to make the apps accessible.