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Acetobacteraceae

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Adrian M. Zelazny – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Granulibacter bethesdensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a distinctive pathogenic acetic acid bacterium in the family Acetobacteraceae.
    International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: David E. Greenberg, Frida Stock, Alexandra Wong, Stephen F Porcella, Patricia S Conville, Patrick R Murray, Steven M Holland, Adrian M. Zelazny

    Abstract:

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, coccobacillus to rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from three patients with chronic granulomatous disease. The organism was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the RecA protein demonstrated that the organism belongs to a new sublineage within the acetic acid bacteria in the family Acetobacteraceae. Phenotypic features are summarized as follows: the organism grew at an optimum temperature of 35-37 degrees C and optimum pH of 5.0-6.5. It produced a yellow pigment, oxidized lactate and acetate, the latter weakly, produced little acetic acid from ethanol and could use methanol as a sole carbon source. The two major fatty acids were a straight-chain unsaturated acid (C18:1omega7c) and C16:0. The DNA base composition was 59.1 mol% G+C. The very weak production of acetic acid from ethanol, the ability to use methanol, the yellow pigmentation and high optimum temperature for growth distinguished this organism from other acetic acid bacteria. The unique phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics suggest that the bacterium should be classified within a separate genus, for which the name Granulibacter bethesdensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CGDNIH1T (=ATCC BAA-1260T=DSM 17861T).

  • Acidomonas Methanolica-Associated Necrotizing Lymphadenitis in a Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease
    Journal of Clinical Immunology, 2012
    Co-Authors: John M. Chase, David E. Greenberg, Adrian M. Zelazny, Steven M Holland, Kimberly Marshall-batty, Joseph A. Church

    Abstract:

    Purpose Adenitis for which no causative organism can be isolated is a common occurrence in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Here we identify Acidomonas methanolica as a pathogen associated with adenitis in a patient with CGD. Methods The causative pathogen was obtained after prolonged incubation of an excised lymph node in thioglycolate broth. Identification was carried out by sequencing the 16s rRNA. Immunoblots were prepared utilizing protein extracts from the case patient’s A. methanolica isolate, an ATCC type strain of A. methanolica and G. bethesdensis . Results Fastidious gram-negative rods grew after prolonged incubation of an excised lymph node in thioglycolate broth. Sequencing of the 16s rRNA identified the organism as A. methanolica . Immunoblot confirmed the pathogen’s role in the patient’s adenitis by showing the patient’s specific immune response to the organism. Conclusions A. methanolica is the second member of the family, Acetobacteaceae to be associated with adenitis in patients with CGD.

  • Genome Sequence Analysis of the Emerging Human Pathogenic Acetic Acid Bacterium Granulibacter bethesdensis
    Journal of Bacteriology, 2007
    Co-Authors: David E. Greenberg, Adrian M. Zelazny, Stephen F Porcella, Kimmo Virtaneva, Dan E. Sturdevant, John J. Kupko, Kent D. Barbian, Amenah Babar, David W. Dorward, Steven M Holland

    Abstract:

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immune deficiency characterized by increased susceptibility to infection with Staphylococcus, certain gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. Granulibacter bethesdensis, a newly described genus and species within the family Acetobacteraceae, was recently isolated from four CGD patients residing in geographically distinct locales who presented with fever and lymphadenitis. We sequenced the genome of the reference strain of Granulibacter bethesdensis, which was isolated from lymph nodes of the original patient. The genome contains 2,708,355 base pairs in a single circular chromosome, in which 2,437 putative open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, 1,470 of which share sequence similarity with ORFs in the nonpathogenic but related Gluconobacter oxydans genome. Included in the 967 ORFs that are unique to G. bethesdensis are ORFs potentially important for virulence, adherence, DNA uptake, and methanol utilization. GC% values and best BLAST analysis suggested that some of these unique ORFs were recently acquired. Comparison of G. bethesdensis to other known CGD pathogens demonstrated conservation of some putative virulence factors, suggesting possible common mechanisms involved in pathogenesis in CGD. Genotyping of the four patient isolates by use of a custom microarray demonstrated genome-wide variations in regions encoding DNA uptake systems and transcriptional regulators and in hypothetical ORFs. G. bethesdensis is a genetically diverse emerging human pathogen that may have recently acquired virulence factors new to this family of organisms.

Markus Riegler – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Diet and irradiation effects on the bacterial community composition and structure in the gut of domesticated teneral and mature Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    BMC Microbiology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Deane N. Woruba, Jennifer L. Morrow, Olivia L. Reynolds, Toni A. Chapman, Damian P. Collins, Markus Riegler

    Abstract:

    Background Mass-rearing, domestication and gamma irradiation of tephritid fruit flies used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes can negatively impact fly quality and performance. Symbiotic bacteria supplied as probiotics to mass-reared fruit flies may help to overcome some of these issues. However, the effects of tephritid ontogeny, sex, diet and irradiation on their microbiota are not well known. Results We have used next-generation sequencing to characterise the bacterial community composition and structure within Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) , by generating 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries derived from the guts of 58 individual teneral and mature, female and male, sterile and fertile adult flies reared on artificial larval diets in a laboratory or mass-rearing environment, and fed either a full adult diet (i.e. sugar and yeast hydrolysate) or a sugar only adult diet. Overall, the amplicon sequence read volume in tenerals was low and smaller than in mature adult flies. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to the families Enterobacteriaceae (8 OTUs) and Acetobacteraceae (1 OTU) were most prevalent. Enterobacteriaceae dominated laboratory-reared tenerals from a colony fed a carrot-based larval diet, while Acetobacteraceae dominated mass-reared tenerals from a production facility colony fed a lucerne chaff based larval diet. As adult flies matured, Enterobacteriaceae became dominant irrespective of larval origin. The inclusion of yeast in the adult diet strengthened this shift away from Acetobacteraceae towards Enterobacteriaceae. Interestingly, irradiation increased 16S rRNA gene sequence read volume. Conclusions Our findings suggest that bacterial populations in fruit flies experience significant bottlenecks during metamorphosis. Gut bacteria in teneral flies were less abundant and less diverse, and impacted by colony origin. In contrast, mature adult flies had selectively increased abundances for some gut bacteria, or acquired these bacteria from the adult diet and environment. Furthermore, irradiation augmented bacterial abundance in mature flies. This implies that either some gut bacteria were compensating for damage caused by irradiation or irradiated flies had lost their ability to regulate bacterial load. Our findings suggest that the adult stage prior to sexual maturity may be ideal to target for probiotic manipulation of fly microbiota to increase fly performance in SIT programmes.

  • Diet and irradiation effects on the bacterial community composition and structure in the gut of domesticated teneral and mature Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).
    BMC microbiology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Deane N. Woruba, Jennifer L. Morrow, Olivia L. Reynolds, Toni A. Chapman, Damian P. Collins, Markus Riegler

    Abstract:

    Mass-rearing, domestication and gamma irradiation of tephritid fruit flies used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes can negatively impact fly quality and performance. Symbiotic bacteria supplied as probiotics to mass-reared fruit flies may help to overcome some of these issues. However, the effects of tephritid ontogeny, sex, diet and irradiation on their microbiota are not well known.
    We have used next-generation sequencing to characterise the bacterial community composition and structure within Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), by generating 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries derived from the guts of 58 individual teneral and mature, female and male, sterile and fertile adult flies reared on artificial larval diets in a laboratory or mass-rearing environment, and fed either a full adult diet (i.e. sugar and yeast hydrolysate) or a sugar only adult diet. Overall, the amplicon sequence read volume in tenerals was low and smaller than in mature adult flies. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to the families Enterobacteriaceae (8 OTUs) and Acetobacteraceae (1 OTU) were most prevalent. Enterobacteriaceae dominated laboratory-reared tenerals from a colony fed a carrot-based larval diet, while Acetobacteraceae dominated mass-reared tenerals from a production facility colony fed a lucerne chaff based larval diet. As adult flies matured, Enterobacteriaceae became dominant irrespective of larval origin. The inclusion of yeast in the adult diet strengthened this shift away from Acetobacteraceae towards Enterobacteriaceae. Interestingly, irradiation increased 16S rRNA gene sequence read volume.
    Our findings suggest that bacterial populations in fruit flies experience significant bottlenecks during metamorphosis. Gut bacteria in teneral flies were less abundant and less diverse, and impacted by colony origin. In contrast, mature adult flies had selectively increased abundances for some gut bacteria, or acquired these bacteria from the adult diet and environment. Furthermore, irradiation augmented bacterial abundance in mature flies. This implies that either some gut bacteria were compensating for damage caused by irradiation or irradiated flies had lost their ability to regulate bacterial load. Our findings suggest that the adult stage prior to sexual maturity may be ideal to target for probiotic manipulation of fly microbiota to increase fly performance in SIT programmes.

David E. Greenberg – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Granulibacter bethesdensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a distinctive pathogenic acetic acid bacterium in the family Acetobacteraceae.
    International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: David E. Greenberg, Frida Stock, Alexandra Wong, Stephen F Porcella, Patricia S Conville, Patrick R Murray, Steven M Holland, Adrian M. Zelazny

    Abstract:

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, coccobacillus to rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from three patients with chronic granulomatous disease. The organism was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the RecA protein demonstrated that the organism belongs to a new sublineage within the acetic acid bacteria in the family Acetobacteraceae. Phenotypic features are summarized as follows: the organism grew at an optimum temperature of 35-37 degrees C and optimum pH of 5.0-6.5. It produced a yellow pigment, oxidized lactate and acetate, the latter weakly, produced little acetic acid from ethanol and could use methanol as a sole carbon source. The two major fatty acids were a straight-chain unsaturated acid (C18:1omega7c) and C16:0. The DNA base composition was 59.1 mol% G+C. The very weak production of acetic acid from ethanol, the ability to use methanol, the yellow pigmentation and high optimum temperature for growth distinguished this organism from other acetic acid bacteria. The unique phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics suggest that the bacterium should be classified within a separate genus, for which the name Granulibacter bethesdensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CGDNIH1T (=ATCC BAA-1260T=DSM 17861T).

  • Acidomonas Methanolica-Associated Necrotizing Lymphadenitis in a Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease
    Journal of Clinical Immunology, 2012
    Co-Authors: John M. Chase, David E. Greenberg, Adrian M. Zelazny, Steven M Holland, Kimberly Marshall-batty, Joseph A. Church

    Abstract:

    Purpose Adenitis for which no causative organism can be isolated is a common occurrence in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Here we identify Acidomonas methanolica as a pathogen associated with adenitis in a patient with CGD. Methods The causative pathogen was obtained after prolonged incubation of an excised lymph node in thioglycolate broth. Identification was carried out by sequencing the 16s rRNA. Immunoblots were prepared utilizing protein extracts from the case patient’s A. methanolica isolate, an ATCC type strain of A. methanolica and G. bethesdensis . Results Fastidious gram-negative rods grew after prolonged incubation of an excised lymph node in thioglycolate broth. Sequencing of the 16s rRNA identified the organism as A. methanolica . Immunoblot confirmed the pathogen’s role in the patient’s adenitis by showing the patient’s specific immune response to the organism. Conclusions A. methanolica is the second member of the family, Acetobacteaceae to be associated with adenitis in patients with CGD.

  • Serologic Reactivity to the Emerging Pathogen Granulibacter bethesdensis
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2012
    Co-Authors: David E. Greenberg, Adam R. Shoffner, Kimberly R. Marshall-batty, Kriti Arora, Ming Zhao, Raynaldo Martin, Li Ding, Carl H. Hammer, Pamela A. Shaw, Douglas B. Kuhns

    Abstract:

    Background. Granulibacter bethesdensis is a recently described member of the Acetobacteraceae family that has been isolated from patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Its pathogenesis, environmental reservoir(s), and incidence of infection among CGD patients and the general population are unknown.

    Methods. Detected antigens were identified by mass spectroscopy after 2-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoaffinity chromatography. The prevalence of Granulibacter immunoreactivity was assessed through immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Results. Methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) and formaldehyde-activating enzyme were recognized during analysis of sera from infected patients. Unique patterns of immunoreactive bands were identified in Granulibacter extracts, compared with extracts of other Acetobacteraceae species. By use of criteria based on these specific bands, specimens from 79 of 175 CGD patients (45.1%) and 23 of 93 healthy donors (24.7%) reacted to all 11 bands. An ELISA that used native MDH to capture and detect immunoglobulin G was developed and revealed high-titer MDH seroreactivity in culture-confirmed cases and 5 additional CGD patients. Testing of samples collected prior to culture-confirmed infection demonstrated instances of recent seroconversion, as well as sustained seropositivity. Infection of CGD mice with G. bethesdensis confirmed acquisition of high-titer antibody-recognizing MDH.

    Conclusions. These serologic tests suggest that Granulibacter immunoreactivity is more common among CGD patients and, perhaps, among healthy donors than was previously suspected. This finding raises the possibility that clinical presentations of Granulibacter infection may be underappreciated.