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Paul Schnitzler – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Efficacy of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against thymidine-kinase-positive and thymidine-kinase-negative herpesviruses
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Christine Koch, Jurgen Reichling, Roland Kehm, Mona M. Sharaf, Hanswalter Zentgraf, Jurgen Schneele, Paul Schnitzler
    Abstract:

    The effect of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against different thymidine-kinase-positive (Aciclovir-sensitive) and thymidine-kinase-negative (Aciclovir-resistant) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains was examined. Clinical HSV-1 isolates containing frameshift mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene, an insertion or a deletion, yield a non-functional thymidine kinase enzyme resulting in phenotypical resistance against Aciclovir. The inhibitory activity of three different essential oils against herpes simplex virus isolates was tested in-vitro using a plaque reduction assay. All essential oils exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against Aciclovir-sensitive HSV strain KOS and Aciclovir-resistant clinical HSV isolates as well as Aciclovir-resistant strain Angelotti. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the plant oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 96.6-99.9%, when herpesviruses were preincubated with drugs before attachment to host cells. No significant effect on viral infectivity could be achieved by adding these compounds during the replication phase. These results indicate that anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil affected the virus by interrupting adsorption of herpesviruses and in a different manner than Aciclovir, which is effective after attachment inside the infected cells. Thus the investigated essential oils are capable of exerting a direct effect on HSV and might be useful in the treatment of drug-resistant viruses. Chamomile oil did not reveal any irritating potential on hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane, demonstrated the highest selectivity index among the oils tested and was highly active against clinically relevant Aciclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains.

  • Efficacy of anise oil, dwarf‐pine oil and chamomile oil against thymidine‐kinase‐positive and thymidine‐kinase‐negative herpesviruses
    The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Christine Koch, Jurgen Reichling, Roland Kehm, Mona M. Sharaf, Hanswalter Zentgraf, Jurgen Schneele, Paul Schnitzler
    Abstract:

    The effect of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against different thymidine-kinase-positive (Aciclovir-sensitive) and thymidine-kinase-negative (Aciclovir-resistant) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains was examined. Clinical HSV-1 isolates containing frameshift mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene, an insertion or a deletion, yield a non-functional thymidine kinase enzyme resulting in phenotypical resistance against Aciclovir. The inhibitory activity of three different essential oils against herpes simplex virus isolates was tested in-vitro using a plaque reduction assay. All essential oils exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against Aciclovir-sensitive HSV strain KOS and Aciclovir-resistant clinical HSV isolates as well as Aciclovir-resistant strain Angelotti. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the plant oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 96.6-99.9%, when herpesviruses were preincubated with drugs before attachment to host cells. No significant effect on viral infectivity could be achieved by adding these compounds during the replication phase. These results indicate that anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil affected the virus by interrupting adsorption of herpesviruses and in a different manner than Aciclovir, which is effective after attachment inside the infected cells. Thus the investigated essential oils are capable of exerting a direct effect on HSV and might be useful in the treatment of drug-resistant viruses. Chamomile oil did not reveal any irritating potential on hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane, demonstrated the highest selectivity index among the oils tested and was highly active against clinically relevant Aciclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains.

Christine Koch – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Efficacy of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against thymidine-kinase-positive and thymidine-kinase-negative herpesviruses
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Christine Koch, Jurgen Reichling, Roland Kehm, Mona M. Sharaf, Hanswalter Zentgraf, Jurgen Schneele, Paul Schnitzler
    Abstract:

    The effect of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against different thymidine-kinase-positive (Aciclovir-sensitive) and thymidine-kinase-negative (Aciclovir-resistant) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains was examined. Clinical HSV-1 isolates containing frameshift mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene, an insertion or a deletion, yield a non-functional thymidine kinase enzyme resulting in phenotypical resistance against Aciclovir. The inhibitory activity of three different essential oils against herpes simplex virus isolates was tested in-vitro using a plaque reduction assay. All essential oils exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against Aciclovir-sensitive HSV strain KOS and Aciclovir-resistant clinical HSV isolates as well as Aciclovir-resistant strain Angelotti. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the plant oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 96.6-99.9%, when herpesviruses were preincubated with drugs before attachment to host cells. No significant effect on viral infectivity could be achieved by adding these compounds during the replication phase. These results indicate that anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil affected the virus by interrupting adsorption of herpesviruses and in a different manner than Aciclovir, which is effective after attachment inside the infected cells. Thus the investigated essential oils are capable of exerting a direct effect on HSV and might be useful in the treatment of drug-resistant viruses. Chamomile oil did not reveal any irritating potential on hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane, demonstrated the highest selectivity index among the oils tested and was highly active against clinically relevant Aciclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains.

  • Efficacy of anise oil, dwarf‐pine oil and chamomile oil against thymidine‐kinase‐positive and thymidine‐kinase‐negative herpesviruses
    The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Christine Koch, Jurgen Reichling, Roland Kehm, Mona M. Sharaf, Hanswalter Zentgraf, Jurgen Schneele, Paul Schnitzler
    Abstract:

    The effect of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against different thymidine-kinase-positive (Aciclovir-sensitive) and thymidine-kinase-negative (Aciclovir-resistant) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains was examined. Clinical HSV-1 isolates containing frameshift mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene, an insertion or a deletion, yield a non-functional thymidine kinase enzyme resulting in phenotypical resistance against Aciclovir. The inhibitory activity of three different essential oils against herpes simplex virus isolates was tested in-vitro using a plaque reduction assay. All essential oils exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against Aciclovir-sensitive HSV strain KOS and Aciclovir-resistant clinical HSV isolates as well as Aciclovir-resistant strain Angelotti. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the plant oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 96.6-99.9%, when herpesviruses were preincubated with drugs before attachment to host cells. No significant effect on viral infectivity could be achieved by adding these compounds during the replication phase. These results indicate that anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil affected the virus by interrupting adsorption of herpesviruses and in a different manner than Aciclovir, which is effective after attachment inside the infected cells. Thus the investigated essential oils are capable of exerting a direct effect on HSV and might be useful in the treatment of drug-resistant viruses. Chamomile oil did not reveal any irritating potential on hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane, demonstrated the highest selectivity index among the oils tested and was highly active against clinically relevant Aciclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains.

Diana Faulds – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • ganciclovir an update of its use in the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in transplant recipients
    Drugs, 1998
    Co-Authors: Stuart Noble, Diana Faulds
    Abstract:

    Ganciclovir is a nucleoside analogue which is used to treat and prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Most recent clinical studies of ganciclovir in transplant recipients have focused on preventive approaches. When ganciclovir was last reviewed in Drugs in 1994, substantial data on post-transplantation CMV prophylaxis with this drug were available only for patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow trantransplantation (BMT). Two strategies had emerged: prophylaxis for all patients or early treatment started after detection of asymptomatic CMV infection. Subsequently, a large double-blind study has shown that ganciclovir prophylaxis is more effective than early treatment in preventing early CMV disease after allogeneic BMT and is not associated with an increased incidence ofneutropenia. However, mortality for the 2 strategies was similar. The efficacy of prophylactic intravenous ganciclovir in liver transplant recipients [including high risk donor seropositive/recipient seronegative (D+/R-) or antilymphocyte-treated patients] is now well established. Prophylaxis with oral ganciclovir was effective both overall and in D+/R- patients in a large placebocontrolled study, and prolonged intravenous ganciclovir prophylaxis was significantly more effective than high dose Aciclovir (acyclovir) in seropositive liver recipients. Early treatment with ganciclovir has also proved useful in this setting. More limited data indicate that CMV prophylaxis with intravenous ganciclovir may be useful after heart or lung transplantation but its value in D+/R- patients remains unclear. Combined chemoimmunotherapy may be valuable in these high risk patients but controlled data are lacking. Targeted prophylaxis with intravenous ganciclovir is effective in renal transplant recipients receiving antilymphocyte therapy; the role of oral ganciclovir in this setting is less clear. The value of ganciclovir in D+/R- renal transplant recipients and its efficacy compared with high dose Aciclovir have not been determined. Conclusions: Ganciclovir is the only antiviral chemotherapy which reduces the risk of CMV infection or disease after most types of major transplantation. Unresolved issues include the best (and most cost-effective) use of ganciclovir and Aciclovir after allogeneic BMT, the efficacy of oral ganciclovir compared with other anti-CMV regimens, the potential clinical effect of viral resistance during prolonged ganciclovir exposure and the value of ganciclovir in certain high risk transplant populations. In the meantime, ganciclovir has an important role in the prevention of CMV infection and disease after bone marrow and liver trantransplantation and is likely to gain wider clinical use in heart, lung and kidney transplant recipients.

  • valAciclovir a review of its antiviral activity pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy in herpesvirus infections
    Drugs, 1996
    Co-Authors: Caroline M. Perry, Diana Faulds
    Abstract:

    : ValAciclovir, the L-valyl ester of Aciclovir (acyclovir), is an oral prodrug that undergoes rapid and extensive first-pass metabolism to yield Aciclovir and the essential amino acid L-valivaline. Aciclovir, the active antiviral component of valAciclovir, shows good in vitro activity against the herpesviruses herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2 and varicella zoster virus. The bioavailability of Aciclovir from oral valAciclovir is considerably greater than that achieved after oral Aciclovir administration. Thus, valAciclovir delivers therapeutic Aciclovir concentrations when administered in a less frequent oral dosage regimen than is required for Aciclovir. ValAciclovir is an effective treatment for herpes zoster in immunocompetent adults. In a large comparative study that included patients > or = 50 years of age, valAciclovir (1000mg 3 times daily for 7 or 14 days) and oral Aciclovir (800mg 5 times daily) were equally effective in achieving resolution of cutaneous zoster lesions. Importantly, valAciclovir was significantly more effective than Aciclovir in reducing the duration of zoster-associated pain. Preliminary results of several studies indicate that valAciclovir (500 to 1000mg twice daily for 5 to 10 days) is as effective as Aciclovir (200mg 5 times a day for 5 to 10 days) in the treatment of genital herpherpes. In patients with first or recurrent episodes of genital herpherpes, valAciclovir reduced the duration of viral shedding, hastened lesion healing and decreased lesion-associated pain. ValAciclovir was also effective in suppressing recurrent episodes of genital herpherpes and significantly prolonged the time to a recurrent episode of infection compared with placebo. ValAciclovir is a well tolerated drug; in herpes zoster and HSV studies its tolerability profile was similar to that of Aciclovir or placebo. ValAciclovir represents and advance in antiherpes drug therapy and is a useful treatment option for patients with herpes zoster or genital herpherpes. It is at least as effective as Aciclovir and is administered in a more convenient oral dosage regimen. Thus, valAciclovir may ultimately succeed Aciclovir as a first-line treatment for genital herpherpes or herpes zoster.

  • Aciclovir a reappraisal of its antiviral activity pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy
    Drugs, 1994
    Co-Authors: Antona J. Wagstaff, Diana Faulds
    Abstract:

    : Aciclovir (acyclovir) is a nucleoside analogue with antiviral activity in vitro against the herpes simplex viruses (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). Topical, oral or intravenous Aciclovir is well established in the treatment of ophthalmic, mucocutaneous and other HSV infections, with intravenous Aciclovir the accepted treatment of choice in herpes simplex encephalitis. The efficacy of Aciclovir is increased with early (preferably during the prodromal period) initiation of treatment but, despite significant clinical benefit, viral latency is not eradicated, and pretreatment frequencies of recurrence usually continue after episodic acute treatment is completed. Intravenous administration has also shown benefit in the treatment of severe complications of HSV infection in pregnancy, and neonatal HSV infections. Recurrence of HSV has been completely prevented or significantly reduced during suppressive therapy with oral Aciclovir in immunocompetent patients. Use of oral Aciclovir is effective but controversial in the treatment of otherwise healthy individuals with varicella (chickenpox), and in some countries it has been recommended for use only in cases which may be potentially severe. The development of rash and pain associated with herpes zoster (shingles) is attenuated with oral or intravenous Aciclovir therapy, ocular involvement is prevented, and post-herpetic neuralgia appears to be decreased. Similarly, in a few patients with zoster ophthalmicus, oral Aciclovir has reduced the frequency and severity of long term ocular complications and post-herpetic neuralgia, and herpes zoster oticus is improved with intravenous Aciclovir. Oral Aciclovir has prevented recurrence of HSV genital or orofacial infections during suppressive therapy in > 70% of immunocompetent patients in most clinical trials. Suppression of latent HSV, VZV and CMV infections has been achieved in many immunocompromised patients receiving the oral or intravenous formulations. Aciclovir also appears to offer partial protection from invasive CMV disease in CMV-seropositive bone marrow transplant recipients. The few comparative trials published have shown Aciclovir to be at least as effective as other investigated antivirals in the treatment of HSV infections in immunocompetent patients, and more effective than inosine pranobex in the prophylaxis of genital herpherpes. Similarly, in isolated clinical trials, oral Aciclovir appears as effective as topical idoxuridine and oral brivudine in some parameters in immunocompetent patients with VZV infections, and the intravenous formulation appears at least as effective as oral brivudine and intravenous vidarabine in treating these infections in immunocompromised patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Hanswalter Zentgraf – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Efficacy of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against thymidine-kinase-positive and thymidine-kinase-negative herpesviruses
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Christine Koch, Jurgen Reichling, Roland Kehm, Mona M. Sharaf, Hanswalter Zentgraf, Jurgen Schneele, Paul Schnitzler
    Abstract:

    The effect of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against different thymidine-kinase-positive (Aciclovir-sensitive) and thymidine-kinase-negative (Aciclovir-resistant) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains was examined. Clinical HSV-1 isolates containing frameshift mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene, an insertion or a deletion, yield a non-functional thymidine kinase enzyme resulting in phenotypical resistance against Aciclovir. The inhibitory activity of three different essential oils against herpes simplex virus isolates was tested in-vitro using a plaque reduction assay. All essential oils exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against Aciclovir-sensitive HSV strain KOS and Aciclovir-resistant clinical HSV isolates as well as Aciclovir-resistant strain Angelotti. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the plant oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 96.6-99.9%, when herpesviruses were preincubated with drugs before attachment to host cells. No significant effect on viral infectivity could be achieved by adding these compounds during the replication phase. These results indicate that anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil affected the virus by interrupting adsorption of herpesviruses and in a different manner than Aciclovir, which is effective after attachment inside the infected cells. Thus the investigated essential oils are capable of exerting a direct effect on HSV and might be useful in the treatment of drug-resistant viruses. Chamomile oil did not reveal any irritating potential on hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane, demonstrated the highest selectivity index among the oils tested and was highly active against clinically relevant Aciclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains.

  • Efficacy of anise oil, dwarf‐pine oil and chamomile oil against thymidine‐kinase‐positive and thymidine‐kinase‐negative herpesviruses
    The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Christine Koch, Jurgen Reichling, Roland Kehm, Mona M. Sharaf, Hanswalter Zentgraf, Jurgen Schneele, Paul Schnitzler
    Abstract:

    The effect of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against different thymidine-kinase-positive (Aciclovir-sensitive) and thymidine-kinase-negative (Aciclovir-resistant) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains was examined. Clinical HSV-1 isolates containing frameshift mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene, an insertion or a deletion, yield a non-functional thymidine kinase enzyme resulting in phenotypical resistance against Aciclovir. The inhibitory activity of three different essential oils against herpes simplex virus isolates was tested in-vitro using a plaque reduction assay. All essential oils exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against Aciclovir-sensitive HSV strain KOS and Aciclovir-resistant clinical HSV isolates as well as Aciclovir-resistant strain Angelotti. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the plant oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 96.6-99.9%, when herpesviruses were preincubated with drugs before attachment to host cells. No significant effect on viral infectivity could be achieved by adding these compounds during the replication phase. These results indicate that anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil affected the virus by interrupting adsorption of herpesviruses and in a different manner than Aciclovir, which is effective after attachment inside the infected cells. Thus the investigated essential oils are capable of exerting a direct effect on HSV and might be useful in the treatment of drug-resistant viruses. Chamomile oil did not reveal any irritating potential on hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane, demonstrated the highest selectivity index among the oils tested and was highly active against clinically relevant Aciclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains.

Jurgen Schneele – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Efficacy of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against thymidine-kinase-positive and thymidine-kinase-negative herpesviruses
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Christine Koch, Jurgen Reichling, Roland Kehm, Mona M. Sharaf, Hanswalter Zentgraf, Jurgen Schneele, Paul Schnitzler
    Abstract:

    The effect of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against different thymidine-kinase-positive (Aciclovir-sensitive) and thymidine-kinase-negative (Aciclovir-resistant) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains was examined. Clinical HSV-1 isolates containing frameshift mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene, an insertion or a deletion, yield a non-functional thymidine kinase enzyme resulting in phenotypical resistance against Aciclovir. The inhibitory activity of three different essential oils against herpes simplex virus isolates was tested in-vitro using a plaque reduction assay. All essential oils exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against Aciclovir-sensitive HSV strain KOS and Aciclovir-resistant clinical HSV isolates as well as Aciclovir-resistant strain Angelotti. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the plant oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 96.6-99.9%, when herpesviruses were preincubated with drugs before attachment to host cells. No significant effect on viral infectivity could be achieved by adding these compounds during the replication phase. These results indicate that anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil affected the virus by interrupting adsorption of herpesviruses and in a different manner than Aciclovir, which is effective after attachment inside the infected cells. Thus the investigated essential oils are capable of exerting a direct effect on HSV and might be useful in the treatment of drug-resistant viruses. Chamomile oil did not reveal any irritating potential on hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane, demonstrated the highest selectivity index among the oils tested and was highly active against clinically relevant Aciclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains.

  • Efficacy of anise oil, dwarf‐pine oil and chamomile oil against thymidine‐kinase‐positive and thymidine‐kinase‐negative herpesviruses
    The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Christine Koch, Jurgen Reichling, Roland Kehm, Mona M. Sharaf, Hanswalter Zentgraf, Jurgen Schneele, Paul Schnitzler
    Abstract:

    The effect of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against different thymidine-kinase-positive (Aciclovir-sensitive) and thymidine-kinase-negative (Aciclovir-resistant) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains was examined. Clinical HSV-1 isolates containing frameshift mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene, an insertion or a deletion, yield a non-functional thymidine kinase enzyme resulting in phenotypical resistance against Aciclovir. The inhibitory activity of three different essential oils against herpes simplex virus isolates was tested in-vitro using a plaque reduction assay. All essential oils exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against Aciclovir-sensitive HSV strain KOS and Aciclovir-resistant clinical HSV isolates as well as Aciclovir-resistant strain Angelotti. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the plant oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 96.6-99.9%, when herpesviruses were preincubated with drugs before attachment to host cells. No significant effect on viral infectivity could be achieved by adding these compounds during the replication phase. These results indicate that anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil affected the virus by interrupting adsorption of herpesviruses and in a different manner than Aciclovir, which is effective after attachment inside the infected cells. Thus the investigated essential oils are capable of exerting a direct effect on HSV and might be useful in the treatment of drug-resistant viruses. Chamomile oil did not reveal any irritating potential on hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane, demonstrated the highest selectivity index among the oils tested and was highly active against clinically relevant Aciclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains.