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Acidification Potential

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Reaz Hasan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Comparative LCA of technology improvement opportunities for a 1.5-MW wind turbine in the context of an onshore wind farm
    Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 2018
    Co-Authors: Matthew Ozoemena, Wai M. Cheung, Reaz Hasan

    Abstract:

    This paper presents life cycle assessment (LCA) results of design variations for a 1.5-MW wind turbine due to the Potential for advances in technology to improve their performance. Five LCAs have been conducted for design variants of a 1.5-MW wind turbine. The objective is to evaluate Potential environmental impacts per kilowatt hour of electricity generated for a 114-MW onshore wind farm. Results for the baseline turbine show that higher contributions to impacts were obtained in the categories of ozone depletion Potential, marine aquatic eco-toxicity Potential, human toxicity Potential and terrestrial eco-toxicity Potential compared to technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) 1–4. Compared to the baseline turbine, TIO 1 with advanced rotors and reduced tower mass showed increased impact contributions to abiotic depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, eutrophication Potential, global warming Potential and photochemical ozone creation Potential, and TIO 2 with a new tower concept involving improved tower height showed an increase in contributions to abiotic depletion Potential, Acidification Potential and global warming Potential. Additionally, lower contributions to all the environmental categories were observed for TIO 3 with drivetrain improvements using permanent magnet generators while increased contributions towards abiotic depletion Potential and global warming Potential were noted for TIO 4 which combines TIO 1, TIO 2 and TIO 3. A comparative LCA study of wind turbine design variations for a particular power rating has not been explored in the literature. This study presents new insight into the environmental implications related with projected wind turbine design advancements.

M Fondevila – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • In vitro Acidification Potential and fermentation pattern of cereal grains incubated with inoculum of animals given forage or concentrate-based diets
    Animal Production Science, 2017
    Co-Authors: Z Amanzougarene, S Yuste, C. Castrillo, M Fondevila

    Abstract:

    This work aimed to study the Acidification and fermentation pattern of maize (M1, M2, M3), barley (B1, B2, B3) and sorghum (S1, S2, S3) varieties depending on the rumen environment (inoculum from forage or concentrate diets, FI or CI), in 10 h incubation series with a low buffered medium. With CI, gas volume from barley was similar to maize (P > 0.05) except at 4 and 6 h, when M2 and M1 were lower. Barley or maize varieties did not differ in gas production (P > 0.05). After 10 h, barley and maize produced on average 82.5 and 73.0 mL/g organic matter (OM), whereas S1, S2 and S3 rendered 68.4, 31.1 and 39.7 mL/g. With FI, differences between barley and maize were detected after 6 h (61.0, 35.3 and 14.1 mL/g OM at 10 h for barley, maize and sorghum). Among inocula, pH with CI was lower than with FI (P < 0.001). Incubation pH at 10 h was 5.51, 5.21 and 5.00 with CI, and 5.52, 5.85 and 5.91 with FI, for sorghum, maize and barley varieties. Gas production and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration were higher (P < 0.001) with CI than FI (67.3 vs 36.8 mL/g and 31.0 vs 19.9 mmol/L at 10 and 8 h). Butyrate and valerate proportions were higher with CI (P < 0.001), whereas acetate and branched chain VFA were lower (P < 0.001). Fermentative activity against vitreous starch such as maize or sorghum was lower for forage than concentrate inoculum. Study of fermentation of starch-rich substrates in a low buffered medium gives a more realistic picture than conventionally buffered conditions.

  • in vitro fermentation pattern and Acidification Potential of different sources of carbohydrates for ruminants given high concentrate diets
    Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 2017
    Co-Authors: Z Amanzougarene, S Yuste, Antonio De Vega, M Fondevila

    Abstract:

    The in vitro fermentation pattern of five sources of carbohydrates of differing nature (maize grain, MZ; sucrose, SU; wheat bran, WB; sugarbeet pulp, BP; and citrus pulp, CT) under conditions of high concentrate diets for ruminants was studied. A first 8 h incubation trial was performed under optimal pH using inoculum from ewes given a fibrous diet, to compare fermentative characteristics of substrates. As planned, incubation pH ranged within 6.3 to 6.6. The gas produced from CT was higher than MZ, SU and BP from 4 and 6 h onwards, and at 8 h, respectively ( p 0.05) on total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, nor on acetate or propionate proportions, but butyrate was lowest ( p< 0.05) with CT and BP. The second incubation trial was performed in a poorly-buffered medium, with inoculum from ewes given a concentrate diet. All substrates showed a gradual drop of pH, being lowest with SU after 4 h ( p <0.05). Throughout the incubation, gas production was highest with CT and lowest with MZ and BP ( p <0.05). Total 8 h VFA concentration was higher with CT than BP, SU and MZ ( p <0.05). Acetate proportion was higher, and that of propionate lower, with BP than WB ( p <0.05), butyrate proportion being higher with MZ and WB than with BP and CT ( p <0.05). Lactic acid concentration was higher ( p <0.05) with SU than WB and BP. Fermentation characteristics and Acidification Potential of feeds depend on the nature of their carbohydrate fraction, and must be considered for practical applications.

  • In vitro fermentation pattern and Acidification Potential of different sources of carbohydrates for ruminants given high concentrate diets
    Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 2017
    Co-Authors: Z Amanzougarene, S Yuste, Antonio De Vega, M Fondevila

    Abstract:

    The in vitro fermentation pattern of five sources of carbohydrates of differing nature (maize grain, MZ; sucrose, SU; wheat bran, WB; sugarbeet pulp, BP; and citrus pulp, CT) under conditions of high concentrate diets for ruminants was studied. A first 8 h incubation trial was performed under optimal pH using inoculum from ewes given a fibrous diet, to compare fermentative characteristics of substrates. As planned, incubation pH ranged within 6.3 to 6.6. The gas produced from CT was higher than MZ, SU and BP from 4 and 6 h onwards, and at 8 h, respectively ( p 0.05) on total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, nor on acetate or propionate proportions, but butyrate was lowest ( p< 0.05) with CT and BP. The second incubation trial was performed in a poorly-buffered medium, with inoculum from ewes given a concentrate diet. All substrates showed a gradual drop of pH, being lowest with SU after 4 h ( p

Matthew Ozoemena – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Comparative LCA of technology improvement opportunities for a 1.5-MW wind turbine in the context of an onshore wind farm
    Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 2018
    Co-Authors: Matthew Ozoemena, Wai M. Cheung, Reaz Hasan

    Abstract:

    This paper presents life cycle assessment (LCA) results of design variations for a 1.5-MW wind turbine due to the Potential for advances in technology to improve their performance. Five LCAs have been conducted for design variants of a 1.5-MW wind turbine. The objective is to evaluate Potential environmental impacts per kilowatt hour of electricity generated for a 114-MW onshore wind farm. Results for the baseline turbine show that higher contributions to impacts were obtained in the categories of ozone depletion Potential, marine aquatic eco-toxicity Potential, human toxicity Potential and terrestrial eco-toxicity Potential compared to technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) 1–4. Compared to the baseline turbine, TIO 1 with advanced rotors and reduced tower mass showed increased impact contributions to abiotic depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, eutrophication Potential, global warming Potential and photochemical ozone creation Potential, and TIO 2 with a new tower concept involving improved tower height showed an increase in contributions to abiotic depletion Potential, Acidification Potential and global warming Potential. Additionally, lower contributions to all the environmental categories were observed for TIO 3 with drivetrain improvements using permanent magnet generators while increased contributions towards abiotic depletion Potential and global warming Potential were noted for TIO 4 which combines TIO 1, TIO 2 and TIO 3. A comparative LCA study of wind turbine design variations for a particular power rating has not been explored in the literature. This study presents new insight into the environmental implications related with projected wind turbine design advancements.