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Acoustic Monitoring

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G. S. Schorr – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Acoustic and diving behavior of sperm whales physeter macrocephalus during natural and depredation foraging in the gulf of alaska
    Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2012
    Co-Authors: Delphine Mathias, G. S. Schorr, Aaron Thode, Janice M Straley, John Calambokidis, Kendall Folkert

    Abstract:

    Sperm whales have depredated black cod (Anoplopoma fimbria) from demersal longlines in the Gulf of Alaska for decades, but the behavior has recently spread in intensity and geographic coverage. Over a three-year period 11 bioAcoustic tags were attached to adult sperm whales off Southeast Alaska during both natural and depredation foraging conditions. Measurements of the animals’ dive profiles and their Acoustic behavior under both behavioral modes were examined for statistically significant differences. Two rough categories of depredation are identified: “deep” and “shallow.” “Deep depredating” whales consistently surface within 500 m of a hauling fishing vessel, have maximum dive depths greater than 200 m, and display significantly different Acoustic behavior than naturally foraging whales, with shorter inter-click intervals, occasional bouts of high “creak” rates, and fewer dives without creaks. “Shallow depredating” whales conduct dives that are much shorter, shallower, and more Acoustically active than both the natural and deep depredating behaviors, with median creak rates three times that of natural levels. These results suggest that depredation efforts might be measured remotely with passive Acoustic Monitoring at close ranges.

  • Near-real-time Acoustic Monitoring of beaked whales and other cetaceans using a Seaglider™
    PLoS ONE, 2012
    Co-Authors: Holger Klinck, David K. Mellinger, Karolin Klinck, Neil M. Bogue, James C. Luby, W. A. Jump, Geoffrey B. Shilling, Trina Litchendorf, Angela S. Wood, G. S. Schorr

    Abstract:

    In most areas, estimating the presence and distribution of cryptic marine mammal species, such as beaked whales, is extremely difficult using traditional observational techniques such as ship-based visual line transect surveys. Because Acoustic methods permit detection of animals underwater, at night, and in poor weather conditions, passive Acoustic observation has been used increasingly often over the last decade to study marine mammal distribution, abundance, and movements, as well as for mitigation of potentially harmful anthropogenic effects. However, there is demand for new, cost-effective tools that allow scientists to monitor areas of interest autonomously with high temporal and spatial resolution in near-real time. Here we describe an autonomous underwater vehicle–a glider–equipped with an Acoustic sensor and onboard data processing capabilities to passively scan an area for marine mammals in near-real time. The glider was tested extensively off the west coast of the Island of Hawai’i, USA. The instrument covered approximately 390 km during three weeks at sea and collected a total of 194 h of Acoustic data. Detections of beaked whales were successfully reported to shore in near-real time. Manual analysis of the recorded data revealed a high number of vocalizations of delphinids and sperm whales. Furthermore, the glider collected vocalizations of unknown origin very similar to those made by known species of beaked whales. The instrument developed here can be used to cost-effectively screen areas of interest for marine mammals for several months at a time. The near-real-time detection and reporting capabilities of the glider can help to protect marine mammals during potentially harmful anthropogenic activities such as seismic exploration for sub-sea fossil fuels or naval sonar exercises. Furthermore, the glider is capable of under-ice operation, allowing investigation of otherwise inaccessible polar environments that are critical habitats for many endangered marine mammal species.

Hjalmar S Kuhl – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • passive Acoustic Monitoring reveals group ranging and territory use a case study of wild chimpanzees pan troglodytes
    Frontiers in Zoology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Ammie K Kalan, Alex K Piel, Roger Mundry, Roman M Wittig, Christophe Boesch, Hjalmar S Kuhl

    Abstract:

    Background
    Assessing the range and territories of wild mammals traditionally requires years of data collection and often involves directly following individuals or using tracking devices. Indirect and non-invasive methods of Monitoring wildlife have therefore emerged as attractive alternatives due to their ability to collect data at large spatiotemporal scales using standardized remote sensing technologies. Here, we investigate the use of two novel passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) systems used to capture long-distance sounds produced by the same species, wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), living in two different habitats: forest (Tai, Cote d’Ivoire) and savanna-woodland (Issa valley, Tanzania).

  • towards the automated detection and occupancy estimation of primates using passive Acoustic Monitoring
    Ecological Indicators, 2015
    Co-Authors: Ammie K Kalan, Roger Mundry, Christophe Boesch, Oliver J J Wagner, Stefanie Heinicke, Hjalmar S Kuhl

    Abstract:

    Abstract Recent advancements in technology have made possible the use of novel, cost-efficient bioMonitoring techniques which facilitate Monitoring animal populations at larger spatial and temporal scales. Here, we investigated using passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) for wild primate populations living in the forest of Tai National Park, Cote d’Ivoire. We assessed the potential of using a customized algorithm for the automated detection of multiple primate species to obtain reliable estimates of species occurrence from Acoustic data. First, we applied the algorithm on continuous rainforest recordings collected using autonomous recording units (ARUs) to detect and classify three sound signals: chimpanzee buttress drumming, and the loud calls of the diana and king colobus monkey. Using an occupancy modelling approach we then investigated to what extent the automated, probabilistic output needs to be listened to, and thus manually cleaned, by a human expert, to approach occupancy probabilities derived from ARU data fully verified by a human. To do this we explored the robustness of occupancy probability estimates by simulating ARU datasets with various degrees of cleaning for false positives and false negative detections. We further validated the approach by comparing it to data collected by human observers on point transects located within the same study area. Our study demonstrates that occurrence estimates from ARU data, combined with automated processing methods such as our algorithm, can provide results comparable to data collected by humans and require less effort. We show that occupancy probabilities are quite robust to cleaning effort, particularly when occurrence is high, and suggest that for some species even naive occupancy, as derived from ARU data without any cleaning, could provide a quick and reliable indicator to guide Monitoring efforts. We found detection probabilities to be most influenced by time of day for chimpanzee drums while temperature and, likely, poaching pressure, affected detection of diana monkey loud calls. None of the covariates investigated appeared to have strongly affected king colobus loud call detection. Finally, we conclude that the semi-automated approach presented here could be used as an early-warning system for poaching activity and suggest additional techniques for improving its performance.

Chauvaud Laure – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Propagation distances and sound properties of the antennal rasps produced by spiny lobsters (Palinurus elephas) in European coastal waters
    'Acoustical Society of America (ASA)', 2019
    Co-Authors: Jézéquel Youe, Onnel Julie, Coston-guarini Jennife, Chauvaud Laure

    Abstract:

    International audienceSpiny lobsters (Palinurus elephas) have been overfished in European waters, and adult breeders are now scarce. Our recent study highlighted the high Acoustic potential of this species, which can emit loud broadband pulse trains, called “antennal rasps,” with peak-to-peak source levels (estimated at 1 m from the source) above 160 dB re 1 μPa² [Jézéquel et al., Marine Ecology Progress Series 615 (2019)]. These Acoustic properties imply that these sounds could be detected during in situ passive Acoustic Monitoring. However, before using a such tool, we need to understand how antennal rasps propagate in situ and at what distance they could be detected above the ambient noise. To answer these questions, we recorded spiny lobster antennal rasps in the Iroise Sea (Brittany, France). We used a linear array of 8 hydrophones, with distances between animals and receivers ranging from 0.5 m to 100 m. We recorded antennal rasps from 38 individuals of various sizes. Our results demonstrate that large spiny lobsters can be detected at 100 m, and that sound properties might be directly influenced by the size of the individuals

  • Propagation distances and sound properties of the antennal rasps produced by spiny lobsters (Palinurus elephas) in European coastal waters
    HAL CCSD, 2019
    Co-Authors: Jézéquel Youe, Onnel Julie, Coston-guarini Jennife, Chauvaud Laure

    Abstract:

    Spiny lobsters (Palinurus elephas) have been overfished in European waters, and adult breeders are now scarce. Our recent study highlighted the high Acoustic potential of this species, which can emit loud broadband pulse trains, called “antennal rasps,” with peak-to-peak source levels (estimated at 1 m from the source) above 160 dB re 1 μPa² [Jézéquel et al., Marine Ecology Progress Series 615 (2019)]. These Acoustic properties imply that these sounds could be detected during in situ passive Acoustic Monitoring. However, before using a such tool, we need to understand how antennal rasps propagate in situ and at what distance they could be detected above the ambient noise. To answer these questions, we recorded spiny lobster antennal rasps in the Iroise Sea (Brittany, France). We used a linear array of 8 hydrophones, with distances between animals and receivers ranging from 0.5 m to 100 m. We recorded antennal rasps from 38 individuals of various sizes. Our results demonstrate that large spiny lobsters can be detected at 100 m, and that sound properties might be directly influenced by the size of the individuals