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David G Bourne – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • amamp1 from Acropora millepora and damicornin define a family of coral specific antimicrobial peptides related to the shk toxins of sea anemones
    Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 2021
    Co-Authors: Benjamin Mason, David G Bourne, David C Hayward, Ira R. Cooke, Aurelie Moya, René Augustin, Mei-fang Lin, Nori Satoh, Thomas C. G. Bosch, Natalia Andrade

    Abstract:

    A candidate antimicrobial peptide (AmAMP1) was identified by searching the whole genome sequence of Acropora millepora for short (<125AA) cysteine-rich predicted proteins with an N-terminal signal peptide but lacking clear homologs in the SwissProt database. It resembled but was not closely related to damicornin, the only other known AMP from a coral, and was shown to be active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. These proteins define a family of AMPs present in corals and their close relatives, the Corallimorpharia, and are synthesised as preproproteins in which the C-terminal mature peptide contains a conserved arrangement of six cysteine residues. Consistent with the idea of a common origin for AMPs and toxins, this Cys motif is shared between the coral AMPs and the Shk neurotoxins of sea anemones. AmAMP1 is expressed at late stages of coral development, in ectodermal cells that resemble the "ganglion neurons" of Hydra, in which it has recently been demonstrated that a distinct AMP known as NDA-1 is expressed.

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  • Transcriptomic analysis reveals protein homeostasis breakdown in the coral Acropora millepora during hypo-saline stress
    BMC Genomics, 2019
    Co-Authors: Catalina Aguilar, David G Bourne, David C Hayward, Jean-baptiste Raina, Sylvain Forêt, Bruno Lapeyre, David J. Miller

    Abstract:

    Coral reefs can experience salinity fluctuations due to rainfall and runoff; these events can have major impacts on the corals and lead to bleaching and mortality. On the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), low salinity events, which occur during summer seasons and can involve salinity dropping ~ 10 PSU correlate with declines in coral cover, and these events are predicted to increase in frequency and severity under future climate change scenarios. In other marine invertebrates, exposure to low salinity causes increased expression of genes involved in proteolysis, responses to oxidative stress, and membrane transport, but the effects that changes in salinity have on corals have so far received only limited attention. To better understand the coral response to hypo-osmotic stress, here we investigated the transcriptomic response of the coral Acropora millepora in both adult and juvenile life stages to acute (1 h) and more prolonged (24 h) exposure to low salinity. Differential gene expression analysis revealed the involvement of both common and specific response mechanisms in Acropora. The general response to environmental stressors included up-regulation of genes involved in the mitigation of macromolecular and oxidative damage, while up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid metabolism and transport represent specific responses to salinity stress. This study is the first comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of the coral response to low salinity stress and provides important insights into the likely consequences of heavy rainfall and runoff events on coral reefs.

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  • Transcriptomic analysis reveals protein homeostasis breakdown in the coral Acropora millepora during hypo-saline stress
    BMC, 2019
    Co-Authors: Catalina Aguilar, David G Bourne, David C Hayward, Jean-baptiste Raina, Sylvain Forêt, Bruno Lapeyre, David J. Miller

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background Coral reefs can experience salinity fluctuations due to rainfall and runoff; these events can have major impacts on the corals and lead to bleaching and mortality. On the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), low salinity events, which occur during summer seasons and can involve salinity dropping ~ 10 PSU correlate with declines in coral cover, and these events are predicted to increase in frequency and severity under future climate change scenarios. In other marine invertebrates, exposure to low salinity causes increased expression of genes involved in proteolysis, responses to oxidative stress, and membrane transport, but the effects that changes in salinity have on corals have so far received only limited attention. To better understand the coral response to hypo-osmotic stress, here we investigated the transcriptomic response of the coral Acropora millepora in both adult and juvenile life stages to acute (1 h) and more prolonged (24 h) exposure to low salinity. Results Differential gene expression analysis revealed the involvement of both common and specific response mechanisms in Acropora. The general response to environmental stressors included up-regulation of genes involved in the mitigation of macromolecular and oxidative damage, while up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid metabolism and transport represent specific responses to salinity stress. Conclusions This study is the first comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of the coral response to low salinity stress and provides important insights into the likely consequences of heavy rainfall and runoff events on coral reefs

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David J. Miller – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Transcriptomic analysis reveals protein homeostasis breakdown in the coral Acropora millepora during hypo-saline stress
    BMC Genomics, 2019
    Co-Authors: Catalina Aguilar, David G Bourne, David C Hayward, Jean-baptiste Raina, Sylvain Forêt, Bruno Lapeyre, David J. Miller

    Abstract:

    Coral reefs can experience salinity fluctuations due to rainfall and runoff; these events can have major impacts on the corals and lead to bleaching and mortality. On the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), low salinity events, which occur during summer seasons and can involve salinity dropping ~ 10 PSU correlate with declines in coral cover, and these events are predicted to increase in frequency and severity under future climate change scenarios. In other marine invertebrates, exposure to low salinity causes increased expression of genes involved in proteolysis, responses to oxidative stress, and membrane transport, but the effects that changes in salinity have on corals have so far received only limited attention. To better understand the coral response to hypo-osmotic stress, here we investigated the transcriptomic response of the coral Acropora millepora in both adult and juvenile life stages to acute (1 h) and more prolonged (24 h) exposure to low salinity. Differential gene expression analysis revealed the involvement of both common and specific response mechanisms in Acropora. The general response to environmental stressors included up-regulation of genes involved in the mitigation of macromolecular and oxidative damage, while up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid metabolism and transport represent specific responses to salinity stress. This study is the first comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of the coral response to low salinity stress and provides important insights into the likely consequences of heavy rainfall and runoff events on coral reefs.

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  • Transcriptomic analysis reveals protein homeostasis breakdown in the coral Acropora millepora during hypo-saline stress
    BMC, 2019
    Co-Authors: Catalina Aguilar, David G Bourne, David C Hayward, Jean-baptiste Raina, Sylvain Forêt, Bruno Lapeyre, David J. Miller

    Abstract:

    Abstract Background Coral reefs can experience salinity fluctuations due to rainfall and runoff; these events can have major impacts on the corals and lead to bleaching and mortality. On the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), low salinity events, which occur during summer seasons and can involve salinity dropping ~ 10 PSU correlate with declines in coral cover, and these events are predicted to increase in frequency and severity under future climate change scenarios. In other marine invertebrates, exposure to low salinity causes increased expression of genes involved in proteolysis, responses to oxidative stress, and membrane transport, but the effects that changes in salinity have on corals have so far received only limited attention. To better understand the coral response to hypo-osmotic stress, here we investigated the transcriptomic response of the coral Acropora millepora in both adult and juvenile life stages to acute (1 h) and more prolonged (24 h) exposure to low salinity. Results Differential gene expression analysis revealed the involvement of both common and specific response mechanisms in Acropora. The general response to environmental stressors included up-regulation of genes involved in the mitigation of macromolecular and oxidative damage, while up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid metabolism and transport represent specific responses to salinity stress. Conclusions This study is the first comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of the coral response to low salinity stress and provides important insights into the likely consequences of heavy rainfall and runoff events on coral reefs

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  • Expression of the neuropeptides RFamide and LWamide during development of the coral Acropora millepora in relation to settlement and metamorphosis.
    Developmental Biology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Rosalind Attenborough, David C Hayward, David J. Miller, Sylvain Forêt, Ursula M. Wiedemann, Eldon E. Ball

    Abstract:

    Neuropeptides play critical roles in cnidarian development. However, although they are known to play key roles in settlement and metamorphosis, their temporal and spatial developmental expression has not previously been characterized in any coral. We here describe Acropora millepora LWamide and RFamide and their developmental expression from the time of their first appearance, using in situ hybridization and FMRFamide immunohistochemistry. AmRFamide transcripts first appear in the ectoderm toward the oral end of the planula larva following blastopore closure. This oral bias becomes less apparent as the planula develops. The cell bodies of AmRFamide-expressing cells are centrally located in the ectoderm, with narrow projections to the mesoglea and to the cell surface. As the planula approaches settlement, AmRFamide expression disappears and is undetectable in the newly settled polyp. Expressing cells then gradually reappear as the polyp develops, becoming particularly abundant on the tentacles. AmLWamide transcripts first appear in ectodermal cells of the developing planula, with minimal expression at its two ends. The cell bodies of expressing cells lie just above the mesoglea, in a position distinct from those of AmRFamide-expressing cells, and have a narrow projection extending across the ectoderm to its surface. AmLWamide-expressing cells persist for most of the planula stage, disappearing shortly before settlement, but later than AmRFamide-expressing cells. As is the case with AmRFamide, expressing cells are absent from the polyp immediately after settlement, reappearing later on its oral side. AmLWamide expression lags that of AmRFamide in both its disappearance and reappearance. Antibodies to FMRFamide stain cells in a pattern similar to that of the transcripts, but also cells in areas where there is no expression revealed by in situ hybridization, most notably at the aboral end of the planula and in the adult polyp. Adult polyps have numerous staining cells on the tentacles and oral discs, as well as an immunoreactive nerve ring around the mouth. There are scattered staining cells in the coenosarc between polyps and staining cells are abundant in the mesenterial filaments. The above results are discussed in the context of our knowledge of the behavior of coral planulae at the time of their settlement and metamorphosis. Corals are facing multiple environmental threats, and these results both highlight the need for, and bring us a step closer to, a mechanistic understanding of a process that is critical to their survival.

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David C Hayward – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • amamp1 from Acropora millepora and damicornin define a family of coral specific antimicrobial peptides related to the shk toxins of sea anemones
    Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 2021
    Co-Authors: Benjamin Mason, David G Bourne, David C Hayward, Ira R. Cooke, Aurelie Moya, René Augustin, Mei-fang Lin, Nori Satoh, Thomas C. G. Bosch, Natalia Andrade

    Abstract:

    A candidate antimicrobial peptide (AmAMP1) was identified by searching the whole genome sequence of Acropora millepora for short (<125AA) cysteine-rich predicted proteins with an N-terminal signal peptide but lacking clear homologs in the SwissProt database. It resembled but was not closely related to damicornin, the only other known AMP from a coral, and was shown to be active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. These proteins define a family of AMPs present in corals and their close relatives, the Corallimorpharia, and are synthesised as preproproteins in which the C-terminal mature peptide contains a conserved arrangement of six cysteine residues. Consistent with the idea of a common origin for AMPs and toxins, this Cys motif is shared between the coral AMPs and the Shk neurotoxins of sea anemones. AmAMP1 is expressed at late stages of coral development, in ectodermal cells that resemble the "ganglion neurons" of Hydra, in which it has recently been demonstrated that a distinct AMP known as NDA-1 is expressed.

    Free Register to Access Article

  • Transcriptomic analysis reveals protein homeostasis breakdown in the coral Acropora millepora during hypo-saline stress
    BMC Genomics, 2019
    Co-Authors: Catalina Aguilar, David G Bourne, David C Hayward, Jean-baptiste Raina, Sylvain Forêt, Bruno Lapeyre, David J. Miller

    Abstract:

    Coral reefs can experience salinity fluctuations due to rainfall and runoff; these events can have major impacts on the corals and lead to bleaching and mortality. On the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), low salinity events, which occur during summer seasons and can involve salinity dropping ~ 10 PSU correlate with declines in coral cover, and these events are predicted to increase in frequency and severity under future climate change scenarios. In other marine invertebrates, exposure to low salinity causes increased expression of genes involved in proteolysis, responses to oxidative stress, and membrane transport, but the effects that changes in salinity have on corals have so far received only limited attention. To better understand the coral response to hypo-osmotic stress, here we investigated the transcriptomic response of the coral Acropora millepora in both adult and juvenile life stages to acute (1 h) and more prolonged (24 h) exposure to low salinity. Differential gene expression analysis revealed the involvement of both common and specific response mechanisms in Acropora. The general response to environmental stressors included up-regulation of genes involved in the mitigation of macromolecular and oxidative damage, while up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid metabolism and transport represent specific responses to salinity stress. This study is the first comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of the coral response to low salinity stress and provides important insights into the likely consequences of heavy rainfall and runoff events on coral reefs.

    Free Register to Access Article

  • Expression of the neuropeptides RFamide and LWamide during development of the coral Acropora millepora in relation to settlement and metamorphosis.
    Developmental Biology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Rosalind Attenborough, David C Hayward, David J. Miller, Sylvain Forêt, Ursula M. Wiedemann, Eldon E. Ball

    Abstract:

    Neuropeptides play critical roles in cnidarian development. However, although they are known to play key roles in settlement and metamorphosis, their temporal and spatial developmental expression has not previously been characterized in any coral. We here describe Acropora millepora LWamide and RFamide and their developmental expression from the time of their first appearance, using in situ hybridization and FMRFamide immunohistochemistry. AmRFamide transcripts first appear in the ectoderm toward the oral end of the planula larva following blastopore closure. This oral bias becomes less apparent as the planula develops. The cell bodies of AmRFamide-expressing cells are centrally located in the ectoderm, with narrow projections to the mesoglea and to the cell surface. As the planula approaches settlement, AmRFamide expression disappears and is undetectable in the newly settled polyp. Expressing cells then gradually reappear as the polyp develops, becoming particularly abundant on the tentacles. AmLWamide transcripts first appear in ectodermal cells of the developing planula, with minimal expression at its two ends. The cell bodies of expressing cells lie just above the mesoglea, in a position distinct from those of AmRFamide-expressing cells, and have a narrow projection extending across the ectoderm to its surface. AmLWamide-expressing cells persist for most of the planula stage, disappearing shortly before settlement, but later than AmRFamide-expressing cells. As is the case with AmRFamide, expressing cells are absent from the polyp immediately after settlement, reappearing later on its oral side. AmLWamide expression lags that of AmRFamide in both its disappearance and reappearance. Antibodies to FMRFamide stain cells in a pattern similar to that of the transcripts, but also cells in areas where there is no expression revealed by in situ hybridization, most notably at the aboral end of the planula and in the adult polyp. Adult polyps have numerous staining cells on the tentacles and oral discs, as well as an immunoreactive nerve ring around the mouth. There are scattered staining cells in the coenosarc between polyps and staining cells are abundant in the mesenterial filaments. The above results are discussed in the context of our knowledge of the behavior of coral planulae at the time of their settlement and metamorphosis. Corals are facing multiple environmental threats, and these results both highlight the need for, and bring us a step closer to, a mechanistic understanding of a process that is critical to their survival.

    Free Register to Access Article