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Acute-Phase Protein

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Peter M. H. Heegaard – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • primary infection protects pigs against re infection with lawsonia intracellularis in experimental challenge studies
    Veterinary Microbiology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Ulla Riber, Peter M. H. Heegaard, Henriette Cordes, Torsten Snogdal Boutrup, Tim Kare Jensen, Gregers Jungersen

    Abstract:

    In two separate trials pigs were experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis at 5-6 weeks of age followed by antibiotic treatment and resolution of the primary infection and then re-inoculated at 12-13 weeks of age. A treatment-control group of pigs received the primary infection and antibiotic treatment only, and served as control for the antibiotic treatment of the primary infection. A challenge-control group of pigs received the second inoculation dose only at 12-13 weeks of age to control infectivity of the challenge-dose and susceptibility of pigs to L. intracellularis at this age. Pigs were monitored for shedding of L. intracellularis in faeces by PCR, and for the development of antibodies and responses of acute phase Proteins in serum. The presence of L. intracellularis antigen in the intestinal mucosa was examined in post mortem samples by immunohistochemistry. In both trials primary infected pigs were protected from infection after challenge inoculation as evidenced by absence of faecal shedding of L. intracellularis, lack of changes in acute phase Protein concentrations after challenge and with low levels of bacterial antigen in the intestinal mucosa of re-inoculated pigs comparable to that of the treatment-control pigs. In contrast, challenge-control pigs shed L. intracellularis in faeces, had L. intracellularis antigen extensively present within all layers of the intestinal mucosa and developed a significant acute phase Protein response in serum after the experimental infection. The acute phase Protein response to L. intracellularis infection was detected as an increased rise in the serum concentrations of C-reactive Protein and haptoglobin from day-6 post infection, and increased serum concentrations of haptoglobin were generally seen 2-3 weeks after inoculation both at 5-6 and 12-13 weeks of age. In conclusion substantial protection against L. intracellularis infection was found in the re-inoculated pigs in contrast to the development of infection in age-matched control pigs. The acute phase Protein responses reflected both the observed protection against L. intracellularis infection upon secondary challenge and that increased resistance to the infection develops with age.

  • Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase Protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs
    Veterinary Research, 2009
    Co-Authors: Kerstin Skovgaard, P. David Eckersall, Shila Mortensen, Mette Boye, Karin T. Poulsen, Fiona M. Campbell, Peter M. H. Heegaard

    Abstract:

    The acute phase Protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum Proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14-18 h after lung infection in pigs. The lung infection was established with the pig specific respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Quantitative real-time PCR based expression analysis were performed on samples from liver, tracheobronchial lymph node, tonsils, spleen and on blood leukocytes, supplemented with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase Proteins in serum. C-reactive Protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase Proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase Protein response occurring concomitantly with the hepatic response. This suggests that the acute phase Protein response is a more disseminated systemic response than previously thought. The current study provides to our knowledge the first example of porcine extrahepatic expression and regulation of C-reactive Protein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, pig major acute phase Protein, and transferrin in peripheral lymphoid tissues.

  • The porcine acute phase Protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 2006
    Co-Authors: Nanna Skall Sørensen, Conny Tegtmeier, Lars Ole Andresen, Matilde Piñeiro, M J M Toussaint, Fiona Margaret Campbell, Fermin Lampreave, Peter M. H. Heegaard

    Abstract:

    The pig acute phase Protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive Protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase Protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin and apolipoProtein (Apo) A-I. The aim was to elucidate the differences in the acute phase behaviour of the individual APPs during a typical bacterial septicaemic infection. Pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with live S. suis serotype 2 and blood was sampled before and on various days post inoculation (p.i.), until the pigs were killed and autopsied on day 14 p.i. Clinical signs (fever and lameness) were observed in four of the five inoculated pigs from day 2 p.i., and these pigs also had arthritic lesions at autopsy. CRP and SAA showed fast increases in serum concentrations, CRP being elevated from days 1 to 12 p.i. and peaking at 10 times the day 0-levels on day 1 p.i. SAA rose quickly to peak levels of 30–40 times the day 0-level on days 1–2 and returned to pre-inoculation level on day 5 p.i. Hp and pig-MAP showed slightly slower responses, both peaking around 5 days p.i. Hp was increased throughout the experiment with maximum levels around 10 times the day 0-levels, and pig-MAP was elevated on days 1–12 p.i. with peak levels of around seven times the day 0-levels. Apo A-I was decreased from days 1 to 8 and showed minimum levels of about 40% of day 0-levels around 1–2 days p.i. No clear pattern of changes in albumin levels could be identified. One pig, showing clinical signs on day 2 only, also showed an APP response, although of a relatively short duration, whereas three pigs presenting clinical signs for several days had a more protracted acute phase response. Remarkably, the one pig showing no clinical signs and no arthritic lesions showed an APP response comparable to that of the other, clinically affected pigs. Thus, both acute clinical and subclinical S. suis infection could be revealed by the measurement of one or more of the APPs CRP, SAA, Hp, pig-MAP and Apo A-I. The combined measurement

Fabrizio Ceciliani – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • acute phase Protein response in alpine ibex with sarcoptic mange
    Veterinary Parasitology, 2010
    Co-Authors: M. M. Rahman, Cristina Lecchi, Cristina Fraquelli, Paola Sartorelli, Fabrizio Ceciliani

    Abstract:

    Abstract The acute phase Proteins (APP) are a group of serum Proteins that change their concentration in animals following external or internal challenges, such as infection, inflammation or stress. The concentrations of four APPs, including serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), α 1 -acid glycoProtein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (Cp) were determined in serum collected from healthy Alpine ibexes ( Capra ibex ) and ibexes with Sarcoptes scabiei mange. Primary structures of all four APPs were determined by cDNA sequencing. The concentrations of all four APPs were higher in serum of animals with clinical signs of sarcoptic mange when compared to healthy animals. Two of the APPs, including SAA and AGP, acted as major APPs, since their serum concentrations were increased more than 10-folds when compared to healthy animals ( P P These findings provide a remarkable potential as diagnostic markers for the early detection of sarcoptic mange in free ranging animals.

  • Acute phase Protein response in Alpine ibex with sarcoptic mange.
    Veterinary parasitology, 2009
    Co-Authors: M. M. Rahman, Cristina Lecchi, Cristina Fraquelli, Paola Sartorelli, Fabrizio Ceciliani

    Abstract:

    The acute phase Proteins (APP) are a group of serum Proteins that change their concentration in animals following external or internal challenges, such as infection, inflammation or stress. The concentrations of four APPs, including serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), alpha(1)-acid glycoProtein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (Cp) were determined in serum collected from healthy Alpine ibexes (Capra ibex) and ibexes with Sarcoptes scabiei mange. Primary structures of all four APPs were determined by cDNA sequencing. The concentrations of all four APPs were higher in serum of animals with clinical signs of sarcoptic mange when compared to healthy animals. Two of the APPs, including SAA and AGP, acted as major APPs, since their serum concentrations were increased more than 10-folds when compared to healthy animals (P

  • the acute phase Protein alpha1 acid glycoProtein a model for altered glycosylation during diseases
    Current Protein & Peptide Science, 2007
    Co-Authors: Fabrizio Ceciliani, Vanessa Pocacqua

    Abstract:

    Glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications of Proteins, and has been widely acknowledged as one of the most important ways to modulate both Protein function and lifespan. The acute phase Proteins are a major group of serum Proteins whose concentration is altered during various pathophysiological conditions. The aim of this paper is to review the structure and functions of the alpha1-acid glycoProtein (AGP). AGP belongs to the subfamily of immunocalins, a group of binding Proteins that also have immunomodulatory functions. One of the most interesting features of AGP is that its glycosylation microheterogeneity can be modified during diseases. This aspect is particularly remarkable, since both the immunomodulatory and the binding properties of AGP strongly depend on its carbohydrate composition. For these reasons, AGP can be considered an outstanding model for the study of glycan pattern modification during diseases. This review is focused on the most recent studies on the occurrence of different glycoforms in plasma and tissues and how the appearance of different oligosaccharide patterns during systemic inflammation or diseases can influence AGP’s biological functions. The first part of the review will describe the structure of AGP and the several biological functions identified so far for this Protein. The second part will be devoted to the post-translational modifications of the oligosaccharides micro-heterogeneity of AGP caused by pathological states. A critical evaluation of the impact of different AGP glycoforms on both its transport and anti-inflammatory features, and how the modifications of the glycan pattern can be utilized in clinical biochemistry, is also discussed.

Fermin Lampreave – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Pig Major Acute-Phase Protein and apolipoProtein A-I responses correlate with the clinical course of experimentally induced African Swine Fever and Aujeszky’s disease
    Veterinary Research, 2007
    Co-Authors: Rakel Carpintero, Matilde Piñeiro, Covadonga Alonso, María Iturralde, Marta Andrés, Marie-frédérique Le Potier, Francois Madec, María Álava, Andrés Piñeiro, Fermin Lampreave

    Abstract:

    In the present work, we studied the acute phase Protein response after experimental virus infection in pigs. The animals were experimentally infected with African Swine Fever (ASF) or Aujeszky’s disease (AD) viruses. The clinical course of ASF infection correlated with increasingly high levels of pig Major Acute-Phase Protein (pig-MAP) (mean value of 6 mg/mL on day 6 post infection (p.i.), from 6 to 9 times higher than day 0) and sharp apolipoProtein A-I (apo A-I) decrease (mean value of 0.5 mg/mL, from 4 to 10 times lower than day 0 on day 4 p.i.). AD-clinical signs appeared at day 3 p.i., both in vaccinated (moderate clinical signs) and non-vaccinated pigs (severe outcome within 48 h p.i.). Pig-MAP and apo A-I profiles also followed clinical signs (changing from 0.70 mg/mL to around 3 mg/mL and from around 3 mg/mL to 0.96 mg/mL, respectively in non-vaccinated animals), with minor changes in concentration in the vaccinated group. Haptoglobin levels significantly increased in ASF and AD infected animals (mean maximum values of 2.77 and 3.96 mg/mL, respectively). Minor differences for the C-Reactive Protein in the case of ASF were observed, whereas its concentration increased more than 7 times in AD-infection. The albumin level was not modified in either case. The correlation of clinical signs to our data suggests the potential use of pig-MAP and apo A-I in monitoring infections in swine.

  • The porcine acute phase Protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 2006
    Co-Authors: Nanna Skall Sørensen, Conny Tegtmeier, Lars Ole Andresen, Matilde Piñeiro, M J M Toussaint, Fiona Margaret Campbell, Fermin Lampreave, Peter M. H. Heegaard

    Abstract:

    The pig acute phase Protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive Protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase Protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin and apolipoProtein (Apo) A-I. The aim was to elucidate the differences in the acute phase behaviour of the individual APPs during a typical bacterial septicaemic infection. Pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with live S. suis serotype 2 and blood was sampled before and on various days post inoculation (p.i.), until the pigs were killed and autopsied on day 14 p.i. Clinical signs (fever and lameness) were observed in four of the five inoculated pigs from day 2 p.i., and these pigs also had arthritic lesions at autopsy. CRP and SAA showed fast increases in serum concentrations, CRP being elevated from days 1 to 12 p.i. and peaking at 10 times the day 0-levels on day 1 p.i. SAA rose quickly to peak levels of 30–40 times the day 0-level on days 1–2 and returned to pre-inoculation level on day 5 p.i. Hp and pig-MAP showed slightly slower responses, both peaking around 5 days p.i. Hp was increased throughout the experiment with maximum levels around 10 times the day 0-levels, and pig-MAP was elevated on days 1–12 p.i. with peak levels of around seven times the day 0-levels. Apo A-I was decreased from days 1 to 8 and showed minimum levels of about 40% of day 0-levels around 1–2 days p.i. No clear pattern of changes in albumin levels could be identified. One pig, showing clinical signs on day 2 only, also showed an APP response, although of a relatively short duration, whereas three pigs presenting clinical signs for several days had a more protracted acute phase response. Remarkably, the one pig showing no clinical signs and no arthritic lesions showed an APP response comparable to that of the other, clinically affected pigs. Thus, both acute clinical and subclinical S. suis infection could be revealed by the measurement of one or more of the APPs CRP, SAA, Hp, pig-MAP and Apo A-I. The combined measurement

  • The porcine acute phase Protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis.
    Veterinary immunology and immunopathology, 2006
    Co-Authors: Nanna Skall Sørensen, Conny Tegtmeier, Lars Ole Andresen, Matilde Piñeiro, M J M Toussaint, Fiona Margaret Campbell, Fermin Lampreave, Peter M. H. Heegaard

    Abstract:

    The pig acute phase Protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive Protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase Protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin and apolipoProtein (Apo) A-I. The aim was to elucidate the differences in the acute phase behaviour of the individual APPs during a typical bacterial septicaemic infection. Pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with live S. suis serotype 2 and blood was sampled before and on various days post inoculation (p.i.), until the pigs were killed and autopsied on day 14 p.i. Clinical signs (fever and lameness) were observed in four of the five inoculated pigs from day 2 p.i., and these pigs also had arthritic lesions at autopsy. CRP and SAA showed fast increases in serum concentrations, CRP being elevated from days 1 to 12 p.i. and peaking at 10 times the day 0-levels on day 1 p.i. SAA rose quickly to peak levels of 30-40 times the day 0-level on days 1-2 and returned to pre-inoculation level on day 5 p.i. Hp and pig-MAP showed slightly slower responses, both peaking around 5 days p.i. Hp was increased throughout the experiment with maximum levels around 10 times the day 0-levels, and pig-MAP was elevated on days 1-12 p.i. with peak levels of around seven times the day 0-levels. Apo A-I was decreased from days 1 to 8 and showed minimum levels of about 40% of day 0-levels around 1-2 days p.i. No clear pattern of changes in albumin levels could be identified. One pig, showing clinical signs on day 2 only, also showed an APP response, although of a relatively short duration, whereas three pigs presenting clinical signs for several days had a more protracted acute phase response. Remarkably, the one pig showing no clinical signs and no arthritic lesions showed an APP response comparable to that of the other, clinically affected pigs. Thus, both acute clinical and subclinical S. suis infection could be revealed by the measurement of one or more of the APPs CRP, SAA, Hp, pig-MAP and Apo A-I. The combined measurement of two or three APPs, including Proteins with slow and fast kinetics, should be used to achieve the highest sensitivity for the detection of ongoing S. suis infection during a prolonged time period. A diagnostic tool based on such APP-measurements could considerably improve strategic control procedures for this important infection.