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Jeremy P Loenneke – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
The Basics of Training for Muscle Size and Strength: A Brief Review on the Theory.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2020Co-Authors: Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, J. Grant Mouser, Zachary W. Bell, Jeremy P LoennekeAbstract:
: The periodization of resistance exercise is often touted as the most effective strategy for optimizing muscle size and strength Adaptations. This narrative persists despite a lack of experimental evidence to demonstrate its superiority. In addition, the general Adaptation Syndrome, which provides the theoretical framework underlying periodization, does not appear to provide a strong physiological rationale that periodization is necessary. Hans Selye conducted a series of rodent studies which used toxic stressors to facilitate the development of the general Adaptation Syndrome. To our knowledge, normal exercise in humans has never been shown to produce a general Adaptation Syndrome. We question whether there is any physiological rationale that a periodized training approach would facilitate greater Adaptations compared to non-periodized approaches employing progressive overload. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review currently debated topics within strength and conditioning and provide some practical insight regarding the implications these re-evaluations of the literature may have for resistance exercise and periodization. In addition, we provide some suggestions for the continued advancement within the field of strength and conditioning.
the general Adaptation Syndrome potential misapplications to resistance exerciseJournal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2017Co-Authors: Samuel L Buckner, Grant J Mouser, Scott J Dankel, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, Jeremy P LoennekeAbstract:
Abstract Within the resistance training literature, one of the most commonly cited tenets with respect to exercise programming is the “General Adaptation Syndrome” (GAS). The GAS is cited as a central theory behind the periodization of resistance exercise. However, after examining the original stress research by Hans Selye, the applications of GAS to resistance exercise may not be appropriate. Objectives To examine the original work of Hans Selye, as well as the original papers through which the GAS was established as a central theory for periodized resistance exercise. Methods We conducted a review of Selye’s work on the GAS, as well as the foundational papers through which this concept was applied to resistance exercise. Results/conclusions The work of Hans Selye focused on the universal physiological stress responses noted upon exposure to toxic levels of a variety of pharmacological agents and stimuli. The extrapolations that have been made to resistance exercise appear loosely based on this concept and may not be an appropriate basis for application of the GAS to resistance exercise.
Lori Ann Vallis – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
can galvanic vestibular stimulation reduce simulator Adaptation SyndromeDriving Assessment 2007: 4th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment Training and Vehicle DesignHonda R & D Americas Inc, 2017Co-Authors: Rebecca J Reedjones, James G Reedjones, Lana M Trick, Lori Ann VallisAbstract:
Electrical stimulation of the vestibular sensory system during virtual environment simulations has been proposed as a method to reduce the incidence of simulator Adaptation Syndrome (SAS). However, there is limited empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. It is especially important to provide vestibular stimulation in driving simulators because an absence of vestibular cues may alter driver behaviour and reduce vehicle control. This study examined the application of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) as a technique to reduce symptoms of SAS and improve vehicular control in a fixed-based driving simulator. Nineteen participants drove two visually distinct virtual environments (high and low visual cues). In addition, each of these worlds was experienced with and without GVS. Post-drive scores on the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) were used to evaluate the effect of GVS on SAS. In addition, three driving variables were measured to examine driving performance: steering variability, lane departures, and average vehicular speed. GVS application while driving resulted in significant decreases in total SSQ and disorientation symptoms. Greater vehicular control was also observed (as shown by reduced steering variability) when GVS was used in combination with visual cues along the simulated edge of the road. These results support that GVS may be used in fixed-base driving simulators to create vestibular motion cues and reduce SAS.
Comparing Techniques to Reduce Simulator Adaptation Syndrome and Improve Naturalistic Behaviour during Simulated DrivingProceedings of the 5th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment Training and Vehicle Design : Driving Assessment 2009, 2017Co-Authors: James G. Reed-jones, Lana M Trick, Rebecca J. Reed-jones, Ryan Toxopeus, Lori Ann VallisAbstract:
Electrical stimulation of the vestibular sensory system during virtual environment simulations reduces the incidence of simulator Adaptation Syndrome (SAS). However, interactions between vestibular stimulation and complex visual scenery can increase oculomotor symptoms. This study examined an alternative technique to reduce symptoms of SAS using the application of galvanic cutaneous stimulation of the neck. The effect of both vestibular and cutaneous stimulation was also evaluated on the naturalistic driving behaviour of curves. Thirty participants drove a rural setting virtual environment with high visual cues. Three groups of ten participants each were used to compare the effect of galvanic vestibular stimulation and galvanic cutaneous stimulation versus a control group on post drive scores of the SSQ (Simulator Sickness Questionnaire) and three driving variables (steering variability, lane position, and vehicular speed). Galvanic cutaneous stimulation while driving resulted in decreased SSQ scores, but did not show an effect on driving behaviour. Conversely, galvanic vestibular stimulation while driving curves resulted in vehicular speeds that were reflective of natural real world driving behaviour and similar SSQ scores to control. These results support the theory that cutaneous stimulation of the neck is a worthy alternative to vestibular stimulation for reducing SAS especially in scenarios requiring complex visual scenes; however, if naturalistic driving behaviour (of curves) is important, vestibular stimulation remains the better choice as it can reduce SAS symptoms (in virtual environments with low visual stimuli) and also promotes naturalistic driving behaviours.
Michael A Mollenhauer – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
simulator Adaptation Syndrome literature review, 2004Co-Authors: Michael A MollenhauerAbstract:
Abstract : The following review of literature was performed in support of a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with the United States Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM). The project is titled “Integrating a Motion Base into TARDEC’S CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment.” The selection of topics for review was based on discussion and results from the Phase I and Phase I Option periods of the project as a CAVE-based ground vehicle driving simulator was developed. In addition, a general search of issues pertaining to simulator sickness, driving simulation, motion cueing, virtual reality, display systems, and general application of virtual environments was performed. Relevant findings are discussed in this document. The following sections include a general discussion of simulator sickness issues and how various driving simulator configuration options might affect the occurrence and severity of symptoms. It is assumed that the reader will have at least an intermediate knowledge of the application of virtual environments and driving simulation. In general, a topic area will be defined or explained, then a discussion of how the information from the literature may be applied to this program.
Simulator Adaptation Syndrome Literature ReviewDesign, 2004Co-Authors: Michael A MollenhauerAbstract:
The following sections include a general discussion of simulator sickness issues and how various driving simulator configuration options might affect the occurrence and severity of symptoms. It is assumed that the reader will have at least an intermediate knowledge of the application of virtual environments and driving simulation. In general, a topic area will be defined or explained, then a discussion of how the information from the literature may be applied to this program.